Abstract

We demonstrate with simulations and experiments that an optical parametric oscillator using two different crystals with orthogonal walk-off planes can generate a symmetric, high-quality beam even if the resonator has a high Fresnel number. In the experiments we used KTA and BBO crystals to convert 5 ns pulses at 1.06 μm to 1.7 μm pulses with more than 10 mJ energy and beam quality M2 ≈2.

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References

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  1. A. V. Smith, D. J. Armstrong, and W. J. Alford, “Increased acceptance bandwidths in optical frequency conversion by use of multiple walk-off-compensating nonlinear crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 122–141 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. V. Smith and M. S. Bowers, “Image-rotating cavity designs for improved beam quality in nanosecond optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 706–713 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. D. Nabors, and G. Frangineas, “Optical parametric oscillator with bi-noncolinear, porro prism cavity,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Trends in Optics and Photonics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, Orlando, FL, 1997), Vol. 10, pp. 90–93.
  4. G. Anstett, G. Goritz, D. Kabs, R. Urschel, R. Wallenstein, and A. Borsutzky, “Reduction of the spectral width and beam divergence of a BBO-OPO by using collinear type-II phase matching and back reflection of the pump beam,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 583–589 (2001).
  5. D. J. Armstrong and A. V. Smith, “All solid-state high-efficiency tunable UV source for airborne or satellite-based ozone DIAL systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 721–731 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Ehrlich, S. Pearl, and S. Fastig, “High brightness tunable tandem optical parametric oscillator at 8-12 µm,” in Advance Solid State Lasers(2004), Vol. 94, 398–402.
  7. G. Arisholm, “General numerical methods for simulating second-order nonlinear interactions in birefringent media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2543–2549 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Arisholm, “Advanced numerical simulation models for second-order nonlinear interactions,” Proc. SPIE 3685, 86–97 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. J. Alford, R. J. Gehr, R. L. Schmitt, A. V. Smith, and G. Arisholm, “Beam tilt and angular dispersion in broad-bandwidth, nanosecond optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1525–1532 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. D. Lowenthal, “CW periodically poled LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator model with strong idler absorption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1356–1366 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Rustad, Ø. Farsund, and G. Arisholm, Manuscript in preparation (2010).
  12. D. N. Nikogosyan, Nonlinear optical crystals: a complete survey (Springer, New York, 2005).
  13. G. Arisholm and K. Stenersen, “Optical parametric oscillator with non-ideal mirrors and single- and multi-mode pump beams,” Opt. Express 4, 183–192 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. J. Armstrong, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, A. V. Smith, and M. S. Bowers, “Parametric amplification and oscillation with walkoff-compensating crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 460–474 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. J. Armstrong and A. V. Smith, “All solid-state high-efficiency tunable UV source for airborne or satellite-based ozone DIAL systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 721–731 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. V. Smith and M. S. Bowers, “Image-rotating cavity designs for improved beam quality in nanosecond optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 706–713 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Anstett, G. Goritz, D. Kabs, R. Urschel, R. Wallenstein, and A. Borsutzky, “Reduction of the spectral width and beam divergence of a BBO-OPO by using collinear type-II phase matching and back reflection of the pump beam,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 583–589 (2001).

1999 (3)

1998 (2)

D. D. Lowenthal, “CW periodically poled LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator model with strong idler absorption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1356–1366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Smith, D. J. Armstrong, and W. J. Alford, “Increased acceptance bandwidths in optical frequency conversion by use of multiple walk-off-compensating nonlinear crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 122–141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Alford, W. J.

Anstett, G.

G. Anstett, G. Goritz, D. Kabs, R. Urschel, R. Wallenstein, and A. Borsutzky, “Reduction of the spectral width and beam divergence of a BBO-OPO by using collinear type-II phase matching and back reflection of the pump beam,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 583–589 (2001).

Arisholm, G.

Armstrong, D. J.

Borsutzky, A.

G. Anstett, G. Goritz, D. Kabs, R. Urschel, R. Wallenstein, and A. Borsutzky, “Reduction of the spectral width and beam divergence of a BBO-OPO by using collinear type-II phase matching and back reflection of the pump beam,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 583–589 (2001).

Bowers, M. S.

Gehr, R. J.

Goritz, G.

G. Anstett, G. Goritz, D. Kabs, R. Urschel, R. Wallenstein, and A. Borsutzky, “Reduction of the spectral width and beam divergence of a BBO-OPO by using collinear type-II phase matching and back reflection of the pump beam,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 583–589 (2001).

Kabs, D.

G. Anstett, G. Goritz, D. Kabs, R. Urschel, R. Wallenstein, and A. Borsutzky, “Reduction of the spectral width and beam divergence of a BBO-OPO by using collinear type-II phase matching and back reflection of the pump beam,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 583–589 (2001).

Lowenthal, D. D.

D. D. Lowenthal, “CW periodically poled LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator model with strong idler absorption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1356–1366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, T. D.

Schmitt, R. L.

Smith, A. V.

Stenersen, K.

Urschel, R.

G. Anstett, G. Goritz, D. Kabs, R. Urschel, R. Wallenstein, and A. Borsutzky, “Reduction of the spectral width and beam divergence of a BBO-OPO by using collinear type-II phase matching and back reflection of the pump beam,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 583–589 (2001).

Wallenstein, R.

G. Anstett, G. Goritz, D. Kabs, R. Urschel, R. Wallenstein, and A. Borsutzky, “Reduction of the spectral width and beam divergence of a BBO-OPO by using collinear type-II phase matching and back reflection of the pump beam,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 583–589 (2001).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Anstett, G. Goritz, D. Kabs, R. Urschel, R. Wallenstein, and A. Borsutzky, “Reduction of the spectral width and beam divergence of a BBO-OPO by using collinear type-II phase matching and back reflection of the pump beam,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 583–589 (2001).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. D. Lowenthal, “CW periodically poled LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator model with strong idler absorption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1356–1366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. J. Armstrong and A. V. Smith, “All solid-state high-efficiency tunable UV source for airborne or satellite-based ozone DIAL systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 721–731 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Arisholm, “Advanced numerical simulation models for second-order nonlinear interactions,” Proc. SPIE 3685, 86–97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. D. Nabors, and G. Frangineas, “Optical parametric oscillator with bi-noncolinear, porro prism cavity,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Trends in Optics and Photonics, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, Orlando, FL, 1997), Vol. 10, pp. 90–93.

Y. Ehrlich, S. Pearl, and S. Fastig, “High brightness tunable tandem optical parametric oscillator at 8-12 µm,” in Advance Solid State Lasers(2004), Vol. 94, 398–402.

G. Rustad, Ø. Farsund, and G. Arisholm, Manuscript in preparation (2010).

D. N. Nikogosyan, Nonlinear optical crystals: a complete survey (Springer, New York, 2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of directions of polarization in the OPO with orthogonal critical planes for collinear type 2 phase matching. The walk-off direction in crystal 1 is perpendicular to the walk-off direction in crystal 2. This leads to increased beam quality for the beams generated in a resonator containing both crystal types compared to a resonator with only one type of crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy (open circles) and beam quality in both directions (diamonds and crosses) for the OPO containing crystal pairs with parallel (red) and orthogonal critical planes (black).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated performance of the OPO with orthogonal critical planes as function of the walk-off distance relative to the beam diameter. The pump energy was 70 mJ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The effect of idler absorption at 70 mJ pump energy (3.5 times threshold) for the two OPO configurations. Near and far fields for parallel critical planes without idler absorption are shown in (a) and (e) respectively, whereas the same case including idler absorption at 150 m−1 are shown in (b) and (f). Near and far fields for orthogonal critical planes without idler absorption are shown in (c) and (g), whereas the orthogonal critical planes configuration including idler absorption at 150 m−1 are shown in (d) and (h).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The experimental setup. The half wave plate and polarizer were used to attenuate the pump energy. The telescope reduced the pump beam diameter to 4 mm. KTA and BBO crystals were 15 mm and 10 mm long, respectively. Wavelength tuning was accomplished by rotating the KTA crystals about an axis normal to the plane of the paper, and the BBO crystals about an axis in the plane of the paper, as indicated above the crystals. Mirror reflectances at pump, signal and idler wavelengths are shown in the table.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured (red) and simulated (black) signal energy as function of pump energy for the OPO-configurations investigated: KTA-KTA’ (a), and KTA-BBO-KTA’-BBO (b). The pump energy is the energy at 1.06 μm impinging the first crystal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images of the signal beam. Measured near (a) and far (e) fields for the KTA-KTA OPO. Corresponding simulated near (c) and far (g) fields. Measured near (b) and far (f) fields for the KTA-BBO-KTA’-BBO OPO. Corresponding simulated near (d) and far (h) fields. The far field measurements are carried out in the focal plane of an f = 1.00 m lens.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 OPO parameters used in the simulations.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Materials for type 2 phase matched OPO for 1.06 μm to 1.7 μm conversion. S/F wo lists whether slow or fast beam has walk-off, U/B lists whether the material is uniaxial or biaxial, L∙Δθ2 is the product of crystal length and acceptance angle for the signal, and WO is the walk-off angle. The crystal data and acronyms for the crystal names are given in [12].

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