Abstract

A novel spectral analysis technique of OCT images is demonstrated in this paper for classification and scatterer size estimation. It is based on SOCT autoregressive spectral estimation techniques and statistical analysis. Two different statistical analysis methods were applied to OCT images acquired from tissue phantoms, the first method required prior information on the sample for variance analysis of the spectral content. The second method used k-means clustering without prior information for the sample. The results are very encouraging and indicate that the spectral content of OCT signals can be used to estimate scatterer size and to classify dissimilar areas in phantoms and tissues with sensitivity and specificity of more than 90%.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

C. Pitris, A. Kartakoullis, and E. Bousi, “AM-FM techniques in the analysis of optical coherence tomography signals,” J. Biophoton. 2(6–7), 364–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. A. Lingley-Papadopoulos, M. H. Loew, M. J. Manyak, and J. M. Zara, “Computer recognition of cancer in the urinary bladder using optical coherence tomography and texture analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bazant-Hegemark, and N. Stone, “Near real-time classification of optical coherence tomography data using principal components fed linear discriminant analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

A. M. Zysk, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, P. S. Carney, W. Tan, and S. A. Boppart, “Light-scattering spectroscopic optical coherence tomography for differentiating cells in 3D cell culture,” Proc. SPIE 6088(608804), 1–10 (2006).

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared Absorption Property of Biological Soft Tissue Constituents,” J. Med. Bio. Eng. 21(1), 7–14 (2001).

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. Boone, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 7(6), 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119(3), 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kärtner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 111–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Müller, “The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(3), 369–382 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dunn, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Three-dimensional computation of light scattering from cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 898–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaturvedi, and M. F. Insana, “Autoregressive spectral estimation in ultrasonic scatterer size imaging,” Ultrason. Imaging 18(1), 10–24 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

K. Wear, R. Wagner, and B. Garra, “A comparison of autoregressive spectral estimation algorithms and order determination methods in ultrasonic tissue characterization,” Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on 42(4), 709–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aalders, M. C. G.

Adler, D.

Allan, V. J.

D. J. Stephens, and V. J. Allan, “Light microscopy techniques for live cell imaging,” Science 300(5616), 82–86 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arendt, J. T.

M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. Boone, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 7(6), 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119(3), 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. Boone, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 7(6), 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119(3), 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bazant-Hegemark, F.

F. Bazant-Hegemark, and N. Stone, “Near real-time classification of optical coherence tomography data using principal components fed linear discriminant analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beuthan, J.

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Müller, “The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(3), 369–382 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

Boone, C.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. Boone, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 7(6), 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S.

Boppart, S. A.

C. Xu, P. S. Carney, W. Tan, and S. A. Boppart, “Light-scattering spectroscopic optical coherence tomography for differentiating cells in 3D cell culture,” Proc. SPIE 6088(608804), 1–10 (2006).

A. M. Zysk, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, F. Kamalabadi, and S. A. Boppart, “Comparative performance analysis of time-frequency distributions for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 44(10), 1813–1822 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, J. Ye, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Near-infrared dyes as contrast-enhancing agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1647–1649 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bousi, E.

C. Pitris, A. Kartakoullis, and E. Bousi, “AM-FM techniques in the analysis of optical coherence tomography signals,” J. Biophoton. 2(6–7), 364–369 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carney, P.

Carney, P. S.

C. Xu, P. S. Carney, W. Tan, and S. A. Boppart, “Light-scattering spectroscopic optical coherence tomography for differentiating cells in 3D cell culture,” Proc. SPIE 6088(608804), 1–10 (2006).

Chaturvedi, P.

P. Chaturvedi, and M. F. Insana, “Autoregressive spectral estimation in ultrasonic scatterer size imaging,” Ultrason. Imaging 18(1), 10–24 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. C.

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared Absorption Property of Biological Soft Tissue Constituents,” J. Med. Bio. Eng. 21(1), 7–14 (2001).

Crawford, J.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J. M.

M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119(3), 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. Boone, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 7(6), 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119(3), 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolin, L. S.

I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Dunn, A.

A. Dunn, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Three-dimensional computation of light scattering from cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 898–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Faber, D. J.

Feld, M.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. Boone, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 7(6), 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
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M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
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M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119(3), 677–682 (2000).
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V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. Boone, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 7(6), 887–893 (2001).
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Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. Boone, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 7(6), 887–893 (2001).
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M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
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M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
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M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119(3), 677–682 (2000).
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L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
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Kabani, S.

M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
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A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
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V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. Boone, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 7(6), 887–893 (2001).
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Kamensky, V. A.

I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
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M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
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M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
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Minet, O.

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Müller, “The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(3), 369–382 (1996).
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Mueller, M.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. Boone, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 7(6), 887–893 (2001).
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J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Müller, “The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(3), 369–382 (1996).
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M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
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L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
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C. Pitris, A. Kartakoullis, and E. Bousi, “AM-FM techniques in the analysis of optical coherence tomography signals,” J. Biophoton. 2(6–7), 364–369 (2009).
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X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
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M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
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M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119(3), 677–682 (2000).
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L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
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I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
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I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
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M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
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L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
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M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119(3), 677–682 (2000).
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X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
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I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
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M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
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M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
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M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119(3), 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Wagner, R.

K. Wear, R. Wagner, and B. Garra, “A comparison of autoregressive spectral estimation algorithms and order determination methods in ultrasonic tissue characterization,” Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on 42(4), 709–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M. B.

M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119(3), 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. J.

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared Absorption Property of Biological Soft Tissue Constituents,” J. Med. Bio. Eng. 21(1), 7–14 (2001).

Wax, A.

Wear, K.

K. Wear, R. Wagner, and B. Garra, “A comparison of autoregressive spectral estimation algorithms and order determination methods in ultrasonic tissue characterization,” Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on 42(4), 709–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Willis, J. E.

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Yang, C.

Ye, J.

Zara, J. M.

C. A. Lingley-Papadopoulos, M. H. Loew, M. J. Manyak, and J. M. Zara, “Computer recognition of cancer in the urinary bladder using optical coherence tomography and texture analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zysk, A. M.

A. M. Zysk, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Gastroenterology (1)

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy,” Gastroenterology 119(3), 677–682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Dunn, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Three-dimensional computation of light scattering from cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 898–905 (1996).
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IEEE Sel. Top Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. Boone, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 7(6), 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

A. M. Zysk, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational methods for analysis of human breast tumor tissue in optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bazant-Hegemark, and N. Stone, “Near real-time classification of optical coherence tomography data using principal components fed linear discriminant analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034002 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Qi, M. V. Sivak, G. Isenberg, J. E. Willis, and A. M. Rollins, “Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Lingley-Papadopoulos, M. H. Loew, M. J. Manyak, and J. M. Zara, “Computer recognition of cancer in the urinary bladder using optical coherence tomography and texture analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Pitris, A. Kartakoullis, and E. Bousi, “AM-FM techniques in the analysis of optical coherence tomography signals,” J. Biophoton. 2(6–7), 364–369 (2009).
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J. Med. Bio. Eng. (1)

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared Absorption Property of Biological Soft Tissue Constituents,” J. Med. Bio. Eng. 21(1), 7–14 (2001).

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Nature (1)

M. S. Feld, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, and J. Van Dam, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

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L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
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C. Xu, P. S. Carney, W. Tan, and S. A. Boppart, “Light-scattering spectroscopic optical coherence tomography for differentiating cells in 3D cell culture,” Proc. SPIE 6088(608804), 1–10 (2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Back-scattered Mie spectra for (a) 1 μm, (b) 2 μm, and (c) 4 μm scatterer corresponding to the wavelength range of the source used in the experimental section.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Back-scattered normalized average autocorrelation obtained with FFT. (b) Back-scattered normalized average power spectra obtained with Burg’s method

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Classification results from linear discriminant analysis and k-means clustering of OCT images of polystyrene microspheres embedded in an acrylamide gel. (a) OCT intensity image of three regions with different size spheres. (b) The results of classification of (a) using Burg’s algorithm and linear discriminant analysis. (c) The results of classification of (a) using Burg’s algorithm and k-means clustering. (d) OCT intensity image of three regions with different size spheres. (e) The results of classification of (d) using FFT and linear discriminant analysis. (f) The results of classification of (d) using FFT and k-means clustering. Image size: 1 × 3 mm

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Ex-vivo demodulated amplitude OCT image from k-means clustering of OCT images of neuronal tissue containing a blood vessel (v), a nerve (n) and fatty tissue (f). (b) Pseudo color image of the clustering results of the spectral data of the OCT image. Large and small fascicles in the neuron are indicated by arrows. Image size: 1.5 × 1.95 mm

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Scattering Cross-Sections of the Phantoms and Cellular Structures at 1.255 μm wavelength.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Diameter estimation results for Burg’s Method and for FFT/Autocorrelation

Tables Icon

Table 3. Results for Burg’s Method and FFT classification and k-means clustering.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ xx ( τ ) = E { x * ( t ) x ( t + τ ) }
r xx = 1 N n = 0 N m 1 x * ( n ) x ( n + m ) 0 m N 1
= 1 N n = m N 1 x * ( n ) x ( n + m ) m = 1 , 2 , , 1 N
P xx ( ω ) = m = ( N 1 ) N 1 r xx ( m ) exp ( jωm )
P xx ( ω ) = 1 N n = 0 N 1 x ( n ) exp ( jωm ) 2 = 1 N | X ( ω ) 2
x ( n ) + k = 1 p α k x ( n k ) = w ( n )
P xx AR ( ω ) = | b 0 2 | A ( ω ) 2
P xx AR ( ω ) = σ p 2 | A ( ω ) 2
α ̂ p , k = { α ̂ p 1 , k + k ̂ p α ̂ p 1 , p i , * i = 1 , , p 1 k ̂ p , i = p
P ̂ xx Bu ( ω ) = σ ̂ P 2 | 1 + k = 1 p α ̂ p ( k ) exp ( jωk ) | 2
FV = ( PC 1 PC 2 PC n )
P ̂ xx PCA sa = P xx sa FV
P ̂ xx PCA tr = P xx tr FV
A ̂ = P ̂ xx PCA tr 1 d tr
d sample = P ̂ sa PCA A ̂
V = j = 1 k i = 1 n x i ( j ) c j 2

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