Abstract

We demonstrate a low-crosstalk 2 × 2 thermo-optic switch with silicon wire waveguides. The device is based on a 2 × 2 array of Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) switches. Lowest crosstalk levels of –50 dB and –30 dB are obtained for ‘bar’ and ‘cross’ switching states, respectively. An intersection in the switch is important for low-crosstalk operation. The power consumption of one MZI element switch is 40 mW and the total power consumption of the device is at most 160 mW.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. T. Goh, A. Himeno, M. Okuno, H. Takahashi, and K. Hattori, “High-extinction ratio and low-loss silica-based 8 × 8 strictly nonblocking thermooptic matrix switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(7), 1192–1199 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Goh, M. Yasu, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, M. Okuno, and Y. Ohmori, “Low-loss and high-extinction ratio strictly nonblocking 16 × 16 thermooptic matrix switch on 6-in wafer using silica based planar lightwave circuit technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(3), 371–379 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Shibata, M. Okuno, T. Goh, T. Watanabe, M. Yasu, M. Itoh, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, “Silica-based waveguide-type 16 × 16 optical switch module incorporating driving circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1300–1302 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Sohma, T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, and H. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC type 32 × 32 optical matrix switch,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (2006), paper OThV4.
  5. R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood., “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, “Sub-μs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2039–2041 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2514–2516 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Compact 1 x N thermo-optic switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10109–10114 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Kasahara, K. Watanabe, M. Itoh, Y. Inoue, and A. Kaneko, “Extremely low power consumption thermooptic switch (0.6 mW) with suspended ridge and silicon-silica hybrid waveguide structures,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (2008), 5, pp.55–56.
  11. T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Chen and A. W. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss, low-cross-talk crossing for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2801–2803 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Shoji, K. Kintaka, S. Suda, H. Kawashima, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Simple spot-size converter with narrow waveguide for silicon wire circuits,” in Microoptics Conference (2009), paper J90.
  16. F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, “Sub-μs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2039–2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

T. Shibata, M. Okuno, T. Goh, T. Watanabe, M. Yasu, M. Itoh, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, “Silica-based waveguide-type 16 × 16 optical switch module incorporating driving circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1300–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood., “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

Aalto, T.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, “Sub-μs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2039–2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

Baba, T.

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bogaerts, W.

Brimont, A.

Canciamilla, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Cuesta, F.

Dumon, P.

Espinola, R. L.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood., “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, C.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukazawa, T.

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galán, J. V.

Geis, M. W.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goh, T.

Griol, A.

Håkansson, A.

Harjanne, M.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, “Sub-μs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2039–2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, K.

Heimala, P.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, “Sub-μs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2039–2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

T. Shibata, M. Okuno, T. Goh, T. Watanabe, M. Yasu, M. Itoh, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, “Silica-based waveguide-type 16 × 16 optical switch module incorporating driving circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1300–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Himeno, A.

Hirano, T.

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, S.

Ishii, M.

T. Shibata, M. Okuno, T. Goh, T. Watanabe, M. Yasu, M. Itoh, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, “Silica-based waveguide-type 16 × 16 optical switch module incorporating driving circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1300–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

T. Shibata, M. Okuno, T. Goh, T. Watanabe, M. Yasu, M. Itoh, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, “Silica-based waveguide-type 16 × 16 optical switch module incorporating driving circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1300–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kapulainen, M.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, “Sub-μs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2039–2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martí, J.

Martinelli, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melloni, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morichetti, F.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohmori, Y.

Ohno, F.

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, M.

Osgood, R. M.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood., “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

Shibata, T.

T. Shibata, M. Okuno, T. Goh, T. Watanabe, M. Yasu, M. Itoh, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, “Silica-based waveguide-type 16 × 16 optical switch module incorporating driving circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1300–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, A.

T. Shibata, M. Okuno, T. Goh, T. Watanabe, M. Yasu, M. Itoh, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, “Silica-based waveguide-type 16 × 16 optical switch module incorporating driving circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1300–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Thourhout, D. V.

Torregiani, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M.-C.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood., “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villalba, P.

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Shibata, M. Okuno, T. Goh, T. Watanabe, M. Yasu, M. Itoh, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, “Silica-based waveguide-type 16 × 16 optical switch module incorporating driving circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1300–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. C.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood., “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yasu, M.

T. Shibata, M. Okuno, T. Goh, T. Watanabe, M. Yasu, M. Itoh, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, “Silica-based waveguide-type 16 × 16 optical switch module incorporating driving circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1300–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Goh, M. Yasu, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, M. Okuno, and Y. Ohmori, “Low-loss and high-extinction ratio strictly nonblocking 16 × 16 thermooptic matrix switch on 6-in wafer using silica based planar lightwave circuit technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(3), 371–379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

T. Shibata, M. Okuno, T. Goh, T. Watanabe, M. Yasu, M. Itoh, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, A. Sugita, and A. Himeno, “Silica-based waveguide-type 16 × 16 optical switch module incorporating driving circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1300–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood., “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, “Sub-μs switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2039–2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fukazawa, T. Hirano, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, “Roughness induced backscattering in optical silicon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(3), 033902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

R. Kasahara, K. Watanabe, M. Itoh, Y. Inoue, and A. Kaneko, “Extremely low power consumption thermooptic switch (0.6 mW) with suspended ridge and silicon-silica hybrid waveguide structures,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (2008), 5, pp.55–56.

Y. Shoji, K. Kintaka, S. Suda, H. Kawashima, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Simple spot-size converter with narrow waveguide for silicon wire circuits,” in Microoptics Conference (2009), paper J90.

S. Sohma, T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, and H. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC type 32 × 32 optical matrix switch,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (2006), paper OThV4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic configurations of low-crosstalk 2 × 2 optical switch with MZI array as (a) ‘bar’ and (b) ‘cross’ states. Solid arrows show the ideal path of optical signals and dashed arrows show incident crosstalk in each component with a level of –x 1 (dB), –x 2 (dB), or –x 3 (dB) below the power on the main path. (c) Element switch of MZI with thermo-optic phase shifter. (d) Intersection of vertically aligned directional coupler (DC).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Microscopic image of fabricated 2 × 2 optical switch. (b) Schematic image of cross section of Si-wire waveguide with thin-metal heater.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured results of (a) element switch of single MZI, (b) intersection, and (c) 2 × 2 optical switch with MZI array. Input and output ports are defined in Fig. 1. Solid and dashed lines show transmittances to diagonal and straightforward ports, respectively. The color of lines corresponds to the signal paths in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Crosstalk performance calculated from the measured results for (a) ‘bar’ state, (b) ‘cross’ state, and intersection. The gray lines show polynomial curves that fit the data.

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