Abstract

Using three-dimensional classical ensembles, we have investigated the internuclear distance dependence of nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of H 2 molecules by an 800 nm, 1×1014 W/cm2 laser pulse. For the internuclear distance R ranging from 2 to 12 a.u., the NSDI of H 2 provides rich correlation patterns in the two-electron momentum distributions. These correlation patterns essentially reveal different microscopic dynamics in NSDI process. Moreover, our calculations show that R ≈ 4 a.u. is the critical distance for double ionization yield of H 2. These results are qualitatively explained based on the classical barrier expression model and back analysis.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69,2642-2645 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,1994-1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, "Intense-Field Double Ionization of Helium: identifying the Mechanism," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707-4710 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,163002 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Saugout and C. Cornaggia, "Temporal separation of H2 double-ionization channels using intense ultrashort 10-fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A. 73,041406(R) (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, Z. Yang, and X. Wang, "Double ionization of HeH+ molecules in intense laser fields," Opt. Express 16,17070-17075 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, "Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers," Phys. Rev. A. 52, R2511-R2514 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Saugout, "H2 double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A. 77, 023404 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-field dissociation and ionization of H+ 2 using ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Trump, H. Rottke, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, W. Sandner, M. Lein, and V. Engel, "Pulse-width and isotope effects in femtosecond-pulse strong-field dissociation of H+ 2 and D+2, " Phys. Rev. A. 62, 063402 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Yu, T. Zuo, and A. D. Bandrauk, "Molecules in intense laser fields: enhanced ionization in a one-dimensional model of H2," Phys. Rev. A. 54, 3290-3298 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Saenz, "Enhanced ionization of molecular hydrogen in very strong fields," Phys. Rev. A. 61, 051402 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, "Probing molecular dynamics at attosecond resolution with femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233203 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Codling, L. J. Frasinski, and P. A. Hatherly, "On the field ionisation of diatomic molecules by intense laser fields," J.Phys.B 22, L321-L327 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Recollision dynamics and time delay in strong-field double ionization," Opt. Express 15, 767-778 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. L. Haan, J. S. Van Dyke, and Z. S. Smith, "Recollision excitation, electron correlation, and the production of high-momentum electrons in double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113001 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. L. Haan, Z.S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, "Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms," J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Q. Liao and P. Lu, "Manipulating nonsequential double ionization via alignment of asymmetric molecules," Opt. Express 17,15550-15557 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, "Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold, " Phys. Rev. A. 80, 023412 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T.-T. Nguyen-Dang, F. Chateauneuf, and S. Manoli, "Tunnel ionization of H2 in a low-frequency laser field: a wave-packet approach," Phys. Rev. A. 56, 2142-2167 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Panfili and J. H. Eberly, "Comparing classical and quantum dynamics of strong-field double ionization," Opt. Express 8,431-435 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Chen and C. H. Nam, "Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A. 66, 053415 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schoffler, S. Schossler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dorner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dorner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

S. L. Haan, Z.S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, "Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms," J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liao and P. Lu, "Manipulating nonsequential double ionization via alignment of asymmetric molecules," Opt. Express 17,15550-15557 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, "Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold, " Phys. Rev. A. 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. L. Haan, J. S. Van Dyke, and Z. S. Smith, "Recollision excitation, electron correlation, and the production of high-momentum electrons in double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, Z. Yang, and X. Wang, "Double ionization of HeH+ molecules in intense laser fields," Opt. Express 16,17070-17075 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Saugout, "H2 double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A. 77, 023404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Recollision dynamics and time delay in strong-field double ionization," Opt. Express 15, 767-778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schoffler, S. Schossler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dorner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, "Probing molecular dynamics at attosecond resolution with femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233203 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Chen and C. H. Nam, "Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A. 66, 053415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Panfili and J. H. Eberly, "Comparing classical and quantum dynamics of strong-field double ionization," Opt. Express 8,431-435 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dorner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, "Intense-Field Double Ionization of Helium: identifying the Mechanism," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707-4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saenz, "Enhanced ionization of molecular hydrogen in very strong fields," Phys. Rev. A. 61, 051402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Trump, H. Rottke, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, W. Sandner, M. Lein, and V. Engel, "Pulse-width and isotope effects in femtosecond-pulse strong-field dissociation of H+ 2 and D+2, " Phys. Rev. A. 62, 063402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-field dissociation and ionization of H+ 2 using ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T.-T. Nguyen-Dang, F. Chateauneuf, and S. Manoli, "Tunnel ionization of H2 in a low-frequency laser field: a wave-packet approach," Phys. Rev. A. 56, 2142-2167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, "Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers," Phys. Rev. A. 52, R2511-R2514 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, T. Zuo, and A. D. Bandrauk, "Molecules in intense laser fields: enhanced ionization in a one-dimensional model of H2," Phys. Rev. A. 54, 3290-3298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69,2642-2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

K. Codling, L. J. Frasinski, and P. A. Hatherly, "On the field ionisation of diatomic molecules by intense laser fields," J.Phys.B 22, L321-L327 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alnaser, A. S.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, "Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers," Phys. Rev. A. 52, R2511-R2514 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, T. Zuo, and A. D. Bandrauk, "Molecules in intense laser fields: enhanced ionization in a one-dimensional model of H2," Phys. Rev. A. 54, 3290-3298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benis, E. P.

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolton, P. R.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69,2642-2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breen, L.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Recollision dynamics and time delay in strong-field double ionization," Opt. Express 15, 767-778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch, F.

T.-T. Nguyen-Dang, F. Chateauneuf, and S. Manoli, "Tunnel ionization of H2 in a low-frequency laser field: a wave-packet approach," Phys. Rev. A. 56, 2142-2167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, B.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69,2642-2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen and C. H. Nam, "Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A. 66, 053415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cocke, C. L.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Codling, K.

K. Codling, L. J. Frasinski, and P. A. Hatherly, "On the field ionisation of diatomic molecules by intense laser fields," J.Phys.B 22, L321-L327 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D¨, R.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dorner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorn, A.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

Engel, V.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, "Intense-Field Double Ionization of Helium: identifying the Mechanism," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707-4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuerstein, B.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, D.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69,2642-2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frasinski, L. J.

K. Codling, L. J. Frasinski, and P. A. Hatherly, "On the field ionisation of diatomic molecules by intense laser fields," J.Phys.B 22, L321-L327 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G. N.

G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-field dissociation and ionization of H+ 2 using ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dorner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, E. K. U.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, "Intense-Field Double Ionization of Helium: identifying the Mechanism," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707-4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, C.

G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-field dissociation and ionization of H+ 2 using ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haan, S. L.

S. L. Haan, Z.S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, "Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms," J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan, J. S. Van Dyke, and Z. S. Smith, "Recollision excitation, electron correlation, and the production of high-momentum electrons in double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Recollision dynamics and time delay in strong-field double ionization," Opt. Express 15, 767-778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatherly, P. A.

K. Codling, L. J. Frasinski, and P. A. Hatherly, "On the field ionisation of diatomic molecules by intense laser fields," J.Phys.B 22, L321-L327 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jagutzki, O.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dorner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karim, A.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Recollision dynamics and time delay in strong-field double ionization," Opt. Express 15, 767-778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

C. Trump, H. Rottke, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, W. Sandner, M. Lein, and V. Engel, "Pulse-width and isotope effects in femtosecond-pulse strong-field dissociation of H+ 2 and D+2, " Phys. Rev. A. 62, 063402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K. C.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69,2642-2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lein, M.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, "Intense-Field Double Ionization of Helium: identifying the Mechanism," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707-4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Trump, H. Rottke, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, W. Sandner, M. Lein, and V. Engel, "Pulse-width and isotope effects in femtosecond-pulse strong-field dissociation of H+ 2 and D+2, " Phys. Rev. A. 62, 063402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-field dissociation and ionization of H+ 2 using ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Q.

Lin, C. D.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, "Probing molecular dynamics at attosecond resolution with femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233203 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

Maharjan, C. M.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mergel, V.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dorner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moshammer, R.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, C. H.

J. Chen and C. H. Nam, "Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A. 66, 053415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neira, J.

G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-field dissociation and ionization of H+ 2 using ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen-Dang, T.-T.

T.-T. Nguyen-Dang, F. Chateauneuf, and S. Manoli, "Tunnel ionization of H2 in a low-frequency laser field: a wave-packet approach," Phys. Rev. A. 56, 2142-2167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Osipov, T.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panfili, R.

Plantinga, P. W.

S. L. Haan, Z.S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, "Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms," J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ranitovic, P.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rottke, H.

C. Trump, H. Rottke, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, W. Sandner, M. Lein, and V. Engel, "Pulse-width and isotope effects in femtosecond-pulse strong-field dissociation of H+ 2 and D+2, " Phys. Rev. A. 62, 063402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, C.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schoffler, S. Schossler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dorner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saenz, A.

A. Saenz, "Enhanced ionization of molecular hydrogen in very strong fields," Phys. Rev. A. 61, 051402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

C. Trump, H. Rottke, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, W. Sandner, M. Lein, and V. Engel, "Pulse-width and isotope effects in femtosecond-pulse strong-field dissociation of H+ 2 and D+2, " Phys. Rev. A. 62, 063402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saugout, S.

S. Saugout, "H2 double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A. 77, 023404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shan, B.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shomsky, K. N.

S. L. Haan, Z.S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, "Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms," J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, Z. S.

S. L. Haan, J. S. Van Dyke, and Z. S. Smith, "Recollision excitation, electron correlation, and the production of high-momentum electrons in double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, Z.S.

S. L. Haan, Z.S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, "Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms," J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spielberger, L.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dorner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schoffler, S. Schossler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dorner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dorner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, "Probing molecular dynamics at attosecond resolution with femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233203 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trump, C.

C. Trump, H. Rottke, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, W. Sandner, M. Lein, and V. Engel, "Pulse-width and isotope effects in femtosecond-pulse strong-field dissociation of H+ 2 and D+2, " Phys. Rev. A. 62, 063402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, B.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbasch, G.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dorner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dyke, J. S.

S. L. Haan, J. S. Van Dyke, and Z. S. Smith, "Recollision excitation, electron correlation, and the production of high-momentum electrons in double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, M.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dorner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, S.

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Weber, Th.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dorner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wech, A.

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weckenbrock, M.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dorner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittmann, M.

C. Trump, H. Rottke, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, W. Sandner, M. Lein, and V. Engel, "Pulse-width and isotope effects in femtosecond-pulse strong-field dissociation of H+ 2 and D+2, " Phys. Rev. A. 62, 063402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, T. Zuo, and A. D. Bandrauk, "Molecules in intense laser fields: enhanced ionization in a one-dimensional model of H2," Phys. Rev. A. 54, 3290-3298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, Z. X.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, "Probing molecular dynamics at attosecond resolution with femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233203 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, "Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold, " Phys. Rev. A. 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, T.

H. Yu, T. Zuo, and A. D. Bandrauk, "Molecules in intense laser fields: enhanced ionization in a one-dimensional model of H2," Phys. Rev. A. 54, 3290-3298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, "Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers," Phys. Rev. A. 52, R2511-R2514 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

S. L. Haan, Z.S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, "Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms," J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.Phys.B (1)

K. Codling, L. J. Frasinski, and P. A. Hatherly, "On the field ionisation of diatomic molecules by intense laser fields," J.Phys.B 22, L321-L327 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dorner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. A. (8)

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, "Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers," Phys. Rev. A. 52, R2511-R2514 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Saugout, "H2 double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A. 77, 023404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Trump, H. Rottke, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, W. Sandner, M. Lein, and V. Engel, "Pulse-width and isotope effects in femtosecond-pulse strong-field dissociation of H+ 2 and D+2, " Phys. Rev. A. 62, 063402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, T. Zuo, and A. D. Bandrauk, "Molecules in intense laser fields: enhanced ionization in a one-dimensional model of H2," Phys. Rev. A. 54, 3290-3298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saenz, "Enhanced ionization of molecular hydrogen in very strong fields," Phys. Rev. A. 61, 051402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, "Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold, " Phys. Rev. A. 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-T. Nguyen-Dang, F. Chateauneuf, and S. Manoli, "Tunnel ionization of H2 in a low-frequency laser field: a wave-packet approach," Phys. Rev. A. 56, 2142-2167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen and C. H. Nam, "Ion momentum distributions for He single and double ionization in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A. 66, 053415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (11)

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schoffler, S. Schossler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dorner, "Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, "Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, "Probing molecular dynamics at attosecond resolution with femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233203 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, X. M. Tong, T. Osipov, S. Voss, C. M. Maharjan, P. Ranitovic, B. Ulrich, B. Shan, Z. Chang, C. D. Lin, and C. L. Cocke, "Routes to control of H2 coulomb explosion in few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan, J. S. Van Dyke, and Z. S. Smith, "Recollision excitation, electron correlation, and the production of high-momentum electrons in double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, "Strong-field dissociation and ionization of H+ 2 using ultrashort laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69,2642-2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, "Intense-Field Double Ionization of Helium: identifying the Mechanism," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707-4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Alnaser, T. Osipov, E. P. Benis, A. Wech, B. Shan, C. L. Cocke, X. M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, "Rescattering double ionization of D2 and H2 by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91,163002 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Saugout and C. Cornaggia, "Temporal separation of H2 double-ionization channels using intense ultrashort 10-fs laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A. 73,041406(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(color online). The density distribution of trajectories of the initial ensemble for R=6 a.u. in position (a) x, and (b) z space, respectively. The ensemble size is 1.0×105 trajectories.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(color online). Electron correlation for the double ionization of H 2 at laser intensity 1×1014 W/cm 2 and wavelength 800 nm for eight different internuclear distances. Horizontal axis: momentum of electron 1 parallel to the laser polarization direction. Vertical axis: momentum of electron 2 parallel to the laser polarization direction. An ensemble size of 1.0×105 is used.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ionization rates as a function of R at =800nm and 1×1014 W/cm 2. (a) R-dependent double ionization probability, (b) R-dependent nonsequential double ionization probability, (c) R-dependent single ionization rate, (d) the ratio of nonsequential double ionization yield to double ionization yield as a function of R.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) R-dependent ionization potential of the second electron, (b) R-dependent rescattering probability of the first ionized electron.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Double-well potential for three different internuclear distances. (a) R=2 a.u., (b) R=4 a.u., (c) R=9 a.u.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

R-dependent double ionization probability with ϕ = π/4 (a) and π/2 (b). ϕ is the angle between the molecular axis and the laser polarization direction.

Metrics