Abstract

We experimentally and theoretically study the alignment structures of the rotational wavepacket created by linear molecules and two strong femtosecond laser pulses. In the experiment, we observe that the alignment structures depend on the time delay between the two laser pulses. In the theory, we find that the alignment structures are composed of the self-coupling term and the cross-coupling term. The contributions of these two terms are separately calculated. Their coherent superposition reproduces the alignment structures observed in the experiment.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023406 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Pavicić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2.,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Yoshii, G. Miyaji, and K. Miyazaki, “Measurement of molecular rotational temperature in a supersonic gas jet with high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1651–1653 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Xu, C. Wu, J. Huang, Z. Wu, Q. Liang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-free alignment of molecules at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(12), 4992–4997 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-4992 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. S. Averbukh and R. Arvieu, “Angular focusing, squeezing, and rainbow formation in a strongly driven quantum rotor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(16), 163601 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, “Enhanced molecular alignment by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(1), 013402 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Péronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Observation of enhanced field-free molecular alignment by two laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173004 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Z. Bisgaard, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Alignment enhancement of a symmetric top molecule by two short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053410 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Horn, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, T. Baumert, R. de Nalda, and L. Banares, “Adaptive control of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 031401 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Hertz, A. Rouzee, S. Guerin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Optimization of field-free molecular alignment by phase-shaped laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031403 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Rouzée, E. Hertz, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Towards the adaptive optimization of field-free molecular alignment,” J. Phys. B 41(7), 074002 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Two-pulse alignment of molecules,” J. Phys. B 37(3), L43–L48 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. F. Lee, E. A. Shapiro, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Coherent creation and annihilation of rotational wave packets in incoherent ensembles,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 033403 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Li, P. Liu, S. Zhao, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Active control of the molecular rotational wave packet using two laser pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(4-6), 183–187 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Fleischer, I. Sh. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Selective alignment of molecular spin isomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 093002 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Gao, C. Wu, N. Xu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Manipulating molecular rotational wave packets with strong femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043404 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Zeng, C. Wu, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Rotational wave packet of N2O created by two strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(16), 165508 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Wu, G. Zeng, Y. Gao, N. Xu, L. Y. Peng, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Controlling molecular rotational population by wave-packet interference,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(23), 231102 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. C. Wu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Molecular rotational excitation by strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(40), 10610–10618 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. S. Meijer, Y. Zhang, D. H. Parker, W. J. van der Zande, A. Gijsbertsen, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Controlling rotational state distributions using two-pulse stimulated Raman excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023411 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yoshii, G. Miyaji, and K. Miyazaki, “Measurement of molecular rotational temperature in a supersonic gas jet with high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1651–1653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, P. Liu, S. Zhao, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Active control of the molecular rotational wave packet using two laser pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(4-6), 183–187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zeng, C. Wu, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Rotational wave packet of N2O created by two strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(16), 165508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, G. Zeng, Y. Gao, N. Xu, L. Y. Peng, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Controlling molecular rotational population by wave-packet interference,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Molecular rotational excitation by strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(40), 10610–10618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. Gao, C. Wu, N. Xu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Manipulating molecular rotational wave packets with strong femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Rouzée, E. Hertz, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Towards the adaptive optimization of field-free molecular alignment,” J. Phys. B 41(7), 074002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2.,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. Pavicić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Meijer, Y. Zhang, D. H. Parker, W. J. van der Zande, A. Gijsbertsen, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Controlling rotational state distributions using two-pulse stimulated Raman excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Fleischer, I. Sh. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Selective alignment of molecular spin isomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 093002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hertz, A. Rouzee, S. Guerin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Optimization of field-free molecular alignment by phase-shaped laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. F. Lee, E. A. Shapiro, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Coherent creation and annihilation of rotational wave packets in incoherent ensembles,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 033403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Bisgaard, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Alignment enhancement of a symmetric top molecule by two short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Horn, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, T. Baumert, R. de Nalda, and L. Banares, “Adaptive control of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 031401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Xu, C. Wu, J. Huang, Z. Wu, Q. Liang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-free alignment of molecules at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(12), 4992–4997 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-4992 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, “Enhanced molecular alignment by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(1), 013402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Péronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Observation of enhanced field-free molecular alignment by two laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Two-pulse alignment of molecules,” J. Phys. B 37(3), L43–L48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

I. S. Averbukh and R. Arvieu, “Angular focusing, squeezing, and rainbow formation in a strongly driven quantum rotor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(16), 163601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arvieu, R.

I. S. Averbukh and R. Arvieu, “Angular focusing, squeezing, and rainbow formation in a strongly driven quantum rotor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(16), 163601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averbukh, I. S.

M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, “Enhanced molecular alignment by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(1), 013402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Averbukh and R. Arvieu, “Angular focusing, squeezing, and rainbow formation in a strongly driven quantum rotor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(16), 163601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averbukh, I. Sh.

S. Fleischer, I. Sh. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Selective alignment of molecular spin isomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 093002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banares, L.

C. Horn, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, T. Baumert, R. de Nalda, and L. Banares, “Adaptive control of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 031401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bandulet, H. C.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumert, T.

C. Horn, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, T. Baumert, R. de Nalda, and L. Banares, “Adaptive control of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 031401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bisgaard, C. Z.

C. Z. Bisgaard, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Alignment enhancement of a symmetric top molecule by two short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Péronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Observation of enhanced field-free molecular alignment by two laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2.,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comtois, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pavicić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Lee, E. A. Shapiro, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Coherent creation and annihilation of rotational wave packets in incoherent ensembles,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 033403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Two-pulse alignment of molecules,” J. Phys. B 37(3), L43–L48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Nalda, R.

C. Horn, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, T. Baumert, R. de Nalda, and L. Banares, “Adaptive control of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 031401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dooley, P. W.

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Two-pulse alignment of molecules,” J. Phys. B 37(3), L43–L48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dörner, R.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudovich, N.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, J. P.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2.,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faucher, O.

A. Rouzée, E. Hertz, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Towards the adaptive optimization of field-free molecular alignment,” J. Phys. B 41(7), 074002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Hertz, A. Rouzee, S. Guerin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Optimization of field-free molecular alignment by phase-shaped laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischer, S.

S. Fleischer, I. Sh. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Selective alignment of molecular spin isomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 093002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

G. Zeng, C. Wu, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Rotational wave packet of N2O created by two strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(16), 165508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, G. Zeng, Y. Gao, N. Xu, L. Y. Peng, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Controlling molecular rotational population by wave-packet interference,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Molecular rotational excitation by strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(40), 10610–10618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, C. Wu, N. Xu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Manipulating molecular rotational wave packets with strong femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gijsbertsen, A.

A. S. Meijer, Y. Zhang, D. H. Parker, W. J. van der Zande, A. Gijsbertsen, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Controlling rotational state distributions using two-pulse stimulated Raman excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

C. Wu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Molecular rotational excitation by strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(40), 10610–10618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, G. Zeng, Y. Gao, N. Xu, L. Y. Peng, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Controlling molecular rotational population by wave-packet interference,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zeng, C. Wu, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Rotational wave packet of N2O created by two strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(16), 165508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, C. Wu, N. Xu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Manipulating molecular rotational wave packets with strong femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Xu, C. Wu, J. Huang, Z. Wu, Q. Liang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-free alignment of molecules at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(12), 4992–4997 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-4992 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerin, S.

E. Hertz, A. Rouzee, S. Guerin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Optimization of field-free molecular alignment by phase-shaped laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guérin, S.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gühr, M.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2.,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertz, E.

A. Rouzée, E. Hertz, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Towards the adaptive optimization of field-free molecular alignment,” J. Phys. B 41(7), 074002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Hertz, A. Rouzee, S. Guerin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Optimization of field-free molecular alignment by phase-shaped laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horn, C.

C. Horn, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, T. Baumert, R. de Nalda, and L. Banares, “Adaptive control of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 031401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jauslin, H. R.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

G. Zeng, C. Wu, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Rotational wave packet of N2O created by two strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(16), 165508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, G. Zeng, Y. Gao, N. Xu, L. Y. Peng, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Controlling molecular rotational population by wave-packet interference,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Molecular rotational excitation by strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(40), 10610–10618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, C. Wu, N. Xu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Manipulating molecular rotational wave packets with strong femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krug, M.

C. Horn, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, T. Baumert, R. de Nalda, and L. Banares, “Adaptive control of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 031401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lavorel, B.

A. Rouzée, E. Hertz, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Towards the adaptive optimization of field-free molecular alignment,” J. Phys. B 41(7), 074002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Hertz, A. Rouzee, S. Guerin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Optimization of field-free molecular alignment by phase-shaped laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. F.

D. Pavicić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Lee, E. A. Shapiro, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Coherent creation and annihilation of rotational wave packets in incoherent ensembles,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 033403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Two-pulse alignment of molecules,” J. Phys. B 37(3), L43–L48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leibscher, M.

M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, “Enhanced molecular alignment by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(1), 013402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R.

Y. Li, P. Liu, S. Zhao, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Active control of the molecular rotational wave packet using two laser pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(4-6), 183–187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, P. Liu, S. Zhao, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Active control of the molecular rotational wave packet using two laser pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(4-6), 183–187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Q.

Litvinyuk, I. V.

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Two-pulse alignment of molecules,” J. Phys. B 37(3), L43–L48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P.

Y. Li, P. Liu, S. Zhao, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Active control of the molecular rotational wave packet using two laser pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(4-6), 183–187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McFarland, B. K.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2.,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meckel, M.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meijer, A. S.

A. S. Meijer, Y. Zhang, D. H. Parker, W. J. van der Zande, A. Gijsbertsen, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Controlling rotational state distributions using two-pulse stimulated Raman excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyaji, G.

Miyazaki, K.

Niikura, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, D. H.

A. S. Meijer, Y. Zhang, D. H. Parker, W. J. van der Zande, A. Gijsbertsen, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Controlling rotational state distributions using two-pulse stimulated Raman excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pashayan, Y. T.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patchkovskii, S.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavicic, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pavicić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, L. Y.

C. Wu, G. Zeng, Y. Gao, N. Xu, L. Y. Peng, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Controlling molecular rotational population by wave-packet interference,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Péronne, E.

C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Péronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Observation of enhanced field-free molecular alignment by two laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulsen, M. D.

C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Péronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Observation of enhanced field-free molecular alignment by two laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prior, Y.

S. Fleischer, I. Sh. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Selective alignment of molecular spin isomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 093002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabitz, H.

M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, “Enhanced molecular alignment by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(1), 013402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

D. Pavicić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Renard, M.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renard, V.

V. Renard, M. Renard, S. Guérin, Y. T. Pashayan, B. Lavorel, O. Faucher, and H. R. Jauslin, “Postpulse molecular alignment measured by a weak field polarization technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 153601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouzee, A.

E. Hertz, A. Rouzee, S. Guerin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Optimization of field-free molecular alignment by phase-shaped laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rouzée, A.

A. Rouzée, E. Hertz, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Towards the adaptive optimization of field-free molecular alignment,” J. Phys. B 41(7), 074002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seideman, T.

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, E. A.

K. F. Lee, E. A. Shapiro, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Coherent creation and annihilation of rotational wave packets in incoherent ensembles,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 033403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smirnova, O.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spanner, M.

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Two-pulse alignment of molecules,” J. Phys. B 37(3), L43–L48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stapelfeldt, H.

C. Z. Bisgaard, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Alignment enhancement of a symmetric top molecule by two short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Péronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Observation of enhanced field-free molecular alignment by two laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Staudte, A.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Zande, W. J.

A. S. Meijer, Y. Zhang, D. H. Parker, W. J. van der Zande, A. Gijsbertsen, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Controlling rotational state distributions using two-pulse stimulated Raman excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Viftrup, S. S.

C. Z. Bisgaard, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Alignment enhancement of a symmetric top molecule by two short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Péronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Observation of enhanced field-free molecular alignment by two laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pavicić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Lee, E. A. Shapiro, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Coherent creation and annihilation of rotational wave packets in incoherent ensembles,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 033403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Two-pulse alignment of molecules,” J. Phys. B 37(3), L43–L48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

A. S. Meijer, Y. Zhang, D. H. Parker, W. J. van der Zande, A. Gijsbertsen, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Controlling rotational state distributions using two-pulse stimulated Raman excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wollenhaupt, M.

C. Horn, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, T. Baumert, R. de Nalda, and L. Banares, “Adaptive control of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 031401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Molecular rotational excitation by strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(40), 10610–10618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zeng, C. Wu, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Rotational wave packet of N2O created by two strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(16), 165508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, G. Zeng, Y. Gao, N. Xu, L. Y. Peng, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Controlling molecular rotational population by wave-packet interference,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, C. Wu, N. Xu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Manipulating molecular rotational wave packets with strong femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Xu, C. Wu, J. Huang, Z. Wu, Q. Liang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-free alignment of molecules at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(12), 4992–4997 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-4992 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

Xu, N.

G. Zeng, C. Wu, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Rotational wave packet of N2O created by two strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(16), 165508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Molecular rotational excitation by strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(40), 10610–10618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, G. Zeng, Y. Gao, N. Xu, L. Y. Peng, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Controlling molecular rotational population by wave-packet interference,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, C. Wu, N. Xu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Manipulating molecular rotational wave packets with strong femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Xu, C. Wu, J. Huang, Z. Wu, Q. Liang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-free alignment of molecules at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(12), 4992–4997 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-4992 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

Y. Li, P. Liu, S. Zhao, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Active control of the molecular rotational wave packet using two laser pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(4-6), 183–187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Y. Gao, C. Wu, N. Xu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Manipulating molecular rotational wave packets with strong femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Xu, C. Wu, J. Huang, Z. Wu, Q. Liang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Field-free alignment of molecules at room temperature,” Opt. Express 14(12), 4992–4997 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-4992 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshii, K.

Zeidler, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320(5882), 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, G.

C. Wu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Molecular rotational excitation by strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(40), 10610–10618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, G. Zeng, Y. Gao, N. Xu, L. Y. Peng, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Controlling molecular rotational population by wave-packet interference,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zeng, C. Wu, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Rotational wave packet of N2O created by two strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(16), 165508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, C. Wu, N. Xu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Manipulating molecular rotational wave packets with strong femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Z.

Y. Li, P. Liu, S. Zhao, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Active control of the molecular rotational wave packet using two laser pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(4-6), 183–187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

A. S. Meijer, Y. Zhang, D. H. Parker, W. J. van der Zande, A. Gijsbertsen, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Controlling rotational state distributions using two-pulse stimulated Raman excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023411 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S.

Y. Li, P. Liu, S. Zhao, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Active control of the molecular rotational wave packet using two laser pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(4-6), 183–187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

Y. Li, P. Liu, S. Zhao, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Active control of the molecular rotational wave packet using two laser pulses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(4-6), 183–187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

C. Wu, G. Zeng, Y. Gao, N. Xu, L. Y. Peng, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, “Controlling molecular rotational population by wave-packet interference,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. B

G. Zeng, C. Wu, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Rotational wave packet of N2O created by two strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42(16), 165508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Rouzée, E. Hertz, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Towards the adaptive optimization of field-free molecular alignment,” J. Phys. B 41(7), 074002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Two-pulse alignment of molecules,” J. Phys. B 37(3), L43–L48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

C. Wu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, Y. Gao, N. Xu, and Q. Gong, “Molecular rotational excitation by strong femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(40), 10610–10618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Xu, C. Wu, Y. Gao, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Measurement of the field-free alignment of diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(4), 612–617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
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O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature 460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, “Enhanced molecular alignment by short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 69(1), 013402 (2004).
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C. Z. Bisgaard, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Alignment enhancement of a symmetric top molecule by two short laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 73(5), 053410 (2006).
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C. Horn, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, T. Baumert, R. de Nalda, and L. Banares, “Adaptive control of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 031401 (2006).
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E. Hertz, A. Rouzee, S. Guerin, B. Lavorel, and O. Faucher, “Optimization of field-free molecular alignment by phase-shaped laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 031403 (2007).
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P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 68(2), 023406 (2003).
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A. S. Meijer, Y. Zhang, D. H. Parker, W. J. van der Zande, A. Gijsbertsen, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Controlling rotational state distributions using two-pulse stimulated Raman excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 76(2), 023411 (2007).
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Y. Gao, C. Wu, N. Xu, G. Zeng, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Manipulating molecular rotational wave packets with strong femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043404 (2008).
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K. F. Lee, E. A. Shapiro, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Coherent creation and annihilation of rotational wave packets in incoherent ensembles,” Phys. Rev. A 73(3), 033403 (2006).
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Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Fleischer, I. Sh. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Selective alignment of molecular spin isomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 093002 (2007).
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D. Pavicić, K. F. Lee, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Direct measurement of the angular dependence of ionization for N2, O2, and CO2 in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243001 (2007).
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C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Péronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, “Observation of enhanced field-free molecular alignment by two laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(17), 173004 (2004).
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Rev. Mod. Phys.

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 543–557 (2003).
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Science

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2.,” Science 322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Rotational wavepacket created by linear molecules and two strong femtosecond laser pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally measured alignment signal of N2O created by (a) a single laser pulse and (b)-(e) double laser pulses with different time delays. The arrow marks the time the second laser pulse is applied.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Evolution of rotational wavepacket of N2O created by two laser pulse with ∆t = 8.21 ps. Black line represents the measured alignment signal, red line represents the theoretical superposition of the self-coupling term and the cross-coupling term, (b) basal alignment structures described by the self-coupling term and (c) modulation structures described by the cross-coupling term.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The same as Fig. 3 but ∆t = 9.99 ps.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The same as Fig. 3 but ∆t = 19.93 ps.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The same as Fig. 3 but ∆t = 39.82 ps.

Equations (4)

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Ψ 1 ( t ) = J i P J 0 , J i exp ( i E J i t ) | J i  ,
Φ J i ( t ) = P J 0 , J i exp ( i E J i Δ t ) J P J i , J exp [ i E J ( t Δ t ) ] | J   ,
Ψ 2 ( t ) = J i Φ J i ( t ) = J i P J 0 , J i exp ( i E J i Δ t ) J P J i , J exp [ i E J ( t Δ t ) ] | J   .
cos 2 θ ( t ) = J 0 , M 0 g J 0 , M 0 < cos 2 θ > ( t ) J 0 , M 0 = J 0 , M 0 g J 0 , M 0 Ψ 2 ( t ) | cos 2 θ | Ψ 2 ( t )             = J 0 , M 0 g J 0 , M 0 J i Φ J i ( t ) | cos 2 θ | Φ J i ( t ) + J 0 , M 0 g J 0 , M 0 J i J i ' J i Φ J i ( t ) | cos 2 θ | Φ J i ' ( t )  ,

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