Abstract

We report on a passively Q-switched photonic crystal fiber (PCF) laser with Cr4+:YAG as a saturable absorber. Under a pump power of 14.2 W, the maximum pulse energy is up to 630 μJ with a pulse width of 36 ns at a repetition rate of 5.6 kHz. With an intracavity optical parametric oscillator, the passively Q-switched PCF laser is used to generate the signal wave at 1515 nm. The output pulse energy of the signal wave is found to be 140 μJ with a pulse width as short as 1.0 ns at a repetition rate of 3.3 kHz. The very short pulse width leads to the peak power up to 140 kW.

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2009 (2)

2008 (4)

H. T. Huang, J. L. He, X. L. Dong, C. H. Zuo, B. T. Zhang, G. Qiu, and Z. K. Liu, “High-repetition-rate eye-safe intracavity KTA OPO driven by a diode-end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 43–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Chang, H. Wang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, S. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Efficient acousto-optically Q-switched intracavity Nd:YAG/KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 37–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Miao, J. Peng, B. Wang, and H. Tan, “Compact KTA-based intracavity optical parametric oscillator driven by a passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Appl. Opt. 47(23), 4287–4291 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Liang, R. C. Chen, Y. J. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “Compact efficient multi-GHz Kerr-lens mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21149–21154 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, S. Linke, T. Schreiber, K. Rademaker, J. Limpert, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, F. Salin, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy Q-switched short-length fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1551–1553 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, “Nanosecond pulse generation in a passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(6), 764–766 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Sennaroglu, U. Demirbas, S. Ozharar, and F. Yaman, “Accurate determination of saturation parameters for Cr4+-doped solid-state saturable absorbers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(2), 241–249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1055–1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tünnermann, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, A. Liem, S. Höfer, H. Zellmer, S. Nolte, and J. Limpert, “The renaissance and bright future of fibre lasers,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S681–S693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

A. Agnesi and S. Dell’acqua, “High-peak-power diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 76(4), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, R. B. Williams, D. J. Richardson, K. Furusawa, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped largecore fibre laser with 272 W output power,” Electron. Lett. 39(13), 977–978 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, “100-W average-power, high-energy nanosecond fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 477–479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. C. Ranaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, C. J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, “Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 199–206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

P. Glas and M. Naumann, Self pulsing versus self locking in a cw pumped neodymium doped double clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 161(4-6), 345–358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, J. Koningstein, and J. Simpson, “Self-mode locking in a Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 32(3), 286–290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ashinoff and R. G. Geronemus, “Rapid response of traumatic and medical tattoos to treatment with the Q-switched ruby laser,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 91(5), 841–845 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

L. R. Marshall, A. D. Hays, and J. Kasinski, “Highly efficient optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. SPIE 1419, 141–152 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

E. Gregor, D. E. Nieuwsma, and R. D. Stultz, “20 Hz eyesafe laser rangefinder for air defense,” Proc. SPIE 1207, 124–134 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. Dändliker, A. A. Grütter, and H. P. Weber, “Statistical amplitude and phase variations in mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6(11), 687–693 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

A. A. Grütter, H. P. Weber, and R. Dändliker, “Imperfectly mode-locked laser emission and its effects on nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. 185(2), 629–643 (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. Statz and M. Bass, “Locking in multimode solid-state lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(1), 377–383 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

H. Statz, “On the condition for self-locking of modes in lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(12), 4648–4655 (1967).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay, S. L. Shapiro, and P. M. Rentzepis, “Spontaneous appearance of picosecond pulses in ruby and Nd: glass lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(18), 1014–1016 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

O. L. Gaddy and E. M. Schaefer, “Self locking of modes in the argon ion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9(8), 281–282 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

M. H. Crowell, “Characteristics of mode-coupled lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 12–20 (1965).
[CrossRef]

H. Statz and C. L. Tang, “Phase locking of modes in lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(12), 3923–3927 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Agnesi, A.

A. Agnesi and S. Dell’acqua, “High-peak-power diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 76(4), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aït-Ameur, K.

M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, “Nanosecond pulse generation in a passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(6), 764–766 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

C. C. Ranaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, C. J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, “Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 199–206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, H. L. Offerhaus, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, W. A. Clarkson, and D. J. Richardson, “High-energy, high-power ytterbium-doped Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 37–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ashinoff, R.

R. Ashinoff and R. G. Geronemus, “Rapid response of traumatic and medical tattoos to treatment with the Q-switched ruby laser,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 91(5), 841–845 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barr, D. N.

Bass, M.

H. Statz and M. Bass, “Locking in multimode solid-state lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(1), 377–383 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

Chang, J.

Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Chang, H. Wang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, S. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Efficient acousto-optically Q-switched intracavity Nd:YAG/KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 37–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. C.

Chen, Y. F.

Chen, Z. J.

Chrostowski, J.

Clarkson, W. A.

C. C. Ranaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, C. J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, “Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 199–206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, H. L. Offerhaus, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, W. A. Clarkson, and D. J. Richardson, “High-energy, high-power ytterbium-doped Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 37–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crowell, M. H.

M. H. Crowell, “Characteristics of mode-coupled lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 12–20 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Dändliker, R.

R. Dändliker, A. A. Grütter, and H. P. Weber, “Statistical amplitude and phase variations in mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6(11), 687–693 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Grütter, H. P. Weber, and R. Dändliker, “Imperfectly mode-locked laser emission and its effects on nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. 185(2), 629–643 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Deguil-Robin, N.

Dell’acqua, S.

A. Agnesi and S. Dell’acqua, “High-peak-power diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 76(4), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Demirbas, U.

Dill, C.

Dong, X. L.

H. T. Huang, J. L. He, X. L. Dong, C. H. Zuo, B. T. Zhang, G. Qiu, and Z. K. Liu, “High-repetition-rate eye-safe intracavity KTA OPO driven by a diode-end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 43–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Y.

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, S. L. Shapiro, and P. M. Rentzepis, “Spontaneous appearance of picosecond pulses in ruby and Nd: glass lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(18), 1014–1016 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ermeneux, S.

Fan, S.

Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Chang, H. Wang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, S. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Efficient acousto-optically Q-switched intracavity Nd:YAG/KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 37–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. X.

Fedosejevs, R.

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, R. B. Williams, D. J. Richardson, K. Furusawa, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped largecore fibre laser with 272 W output power,” Electron. Lett. 39(13), 977–978 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gaddy, O. L.

O. L. Gaddy and E. M. Schaefer, “Self locking of modes in the argon ion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9(8), 281–282 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Geronemus, R. G.

R. Ashinoff and R. G. Geronemus, “Rapid response of traumatic and medical tattoos to treatment with the Q-switched ruby laser,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 91(5), 841–845 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilles, H.

M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, “Nanosecond pulse generation in a passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(6), 764–766 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, “Nanosecond pulse generation in a passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(6), 764–766 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glas, P.

P. Glas and M. Naumann, Self pulsing versus self locking in a cw pumped neodymium doped double clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 161(4-6), 345–358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gregor, E.

E. Gregor, D. E. Nieuwsma, and R. D. Stultz, “20 Hz eyesafe laser rangefinder for air defense,” Proc. SPIE 1207, 124–134 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, A. B.

C. C. Ranaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, C. J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, “Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 199–206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Chen, A. B. Grudinin, J. Porta, and J. D. Minelly, “Enhanced Q switching in double-clad fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23(6), 454–456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grütter, A. A.

R. Dändliker, A. A. Grütter, and H. P. Weber, “Statistical amplitude and phase variations in mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6(11), 687–693 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Grütter, H. P. Weber, and R. Dändliker, “Imperfectly mode-locked laser emission and its effects on nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. 185(2), 629–643 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hays, A. D.

L. R. Marshall, A. D. Hays, and J. Kasinski, “Highly efficient optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. SPIE 1419, 141–152 (1991).
[CrossRef]

He, J. L.

H. T. Huang, J. L. He, X. L. Dong, C. H. Zuo, B. T. Zhang, G. Qiu, and Z. K. Liu, “High-repetition-rate eye-safe intracavity KTA OPO driven by a diode-end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 43–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, “100-W average-power, high-energy nanosecond fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 477–479 (2002).
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Hu, S. L.

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H. T. Huang, J. L. He, X. L. Dong, C. H. Zuo, B. T. Zhang, G. Qiu, and Z. K. Liu, “High-repetition-rate eye-safe intracavity KTA OPO driven by a diode-end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 43–45 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, R. B. Williams, D. J. Richardson, K. Furusawa, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped largecore fibre laser with 272 W output power,” Electron. Lett. 39(13), 977–978 (2003).
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J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, “100-W average-power, high-energy nanosecond fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 477–479 (2002).
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M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, “Nanosecond pulse generation in a passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(6), 764–766 (2006).
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Liang, H. C.

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A. Tünnermann, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, A. Liem, S. Höfer, H. Zellmer, S. Nolte, and J. Limpert, “The renaissance and bright future of fibre lasers,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S681–S693 (2005).
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J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1055–1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, “100-W average-power, high-energy nanosecond fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 477–479 (2002).
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O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, S. Linke, T. Schreiber, K. Rademaker, J. Limpert, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, F. Salin, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy Q-switched short-length fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1551–1553 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tünnermann, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, A. Liem, S. Höfer, H. Zellmer, S. Nolte, and J. Limpert, “The renaissance and bright future of fibre lasers,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S681–S693 (2005).
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J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1055–1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, “100-W average-power, high-energy nanosecond fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 477–479 (2002).
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Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Chang, H. Wang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, S. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Efficient acousto-optically Q-switched intracavity Nd:YAG/KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 37–41 (2008).
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Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Chang, H. Wang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, S. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Efficient acousto-optically Q-switched intracavity Nd:YAG/KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 37–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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H. T. Huang, J. L. He, X. L. Dong, C. H. Zuo, B. T. Zhang, G. Qiu, and Z. K. Liu, “High-repetition-rate eye-safe intracavity KTA OPO driven by a diode-end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 43–45 (2008).
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Lu, K. C.

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L. R. Marshall, A. D. Hays, and J. Kasinski, “Highly efficient optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. SPIE 1419, 141–152 (1991).
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C. C. Ranaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, C. J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, “Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 199–206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Nolte, S.

A. Tünnermann, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, A. Liem, S. Höfer, H. Zellmer, S. Nolte, and J. Limpert, “The renaissance and bright future of fibre lasers,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S681–S693 (2005).
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J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1055–1058 (2005).
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C. C. Ranaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, C. J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, “Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 199–206 (2001).
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J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, H. L. Offerhaus, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, W. A. Clarkson, and D. J. Richardson, “High-energy, high-power ytterbium-doped Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 37–39 (2000).
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Pan, L.

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
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M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, “Nanosecond pulse generation in a passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(6), 764–766 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Peng, J.

Petersson, A.

Porta, J.

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H. T. Huang, J. L. He, X. L. Dong, C. H. Zuo, B. T. Zhang, G. Qiu, and Z. K. Liu, “High-repetition-rate eye-safe intracavity KTA OPO driven by a diode-end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 43–45 (2008).
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Ranaud, C. C.

C. C. Ranaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, C. J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, “Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 199–206 (2001).
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M. A. Duguay, S. L. Shapiro, and P. M. Rentzepis, “Spontaneous appearance of picosecond pulses in ruby and Nd: glass lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(18), 1014–1016 (1967).
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Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, R. B. Williams, D. J. Richardson, K. Furusawa, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped largecore fibre laser with 272 W output power,” Electron. Lett. 39(13), 977–978 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Ranaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, C. J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, “Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 199–206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, H. L. Offerhaus, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, W. A. Clarkson, and D. J. Richardson, “High-energy, high-power ytterbium-doped Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 37–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Rothhardt, J.

Sahu, J. K.

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6088–6092 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, R. B. Williams, D. J. Richardson, K. Furusawa, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped largecore fibre laser with 272 W output power,” Electron. Lett. 39(13), 977–978 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Sun, L.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Chang, H. Wang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, S. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Efficient acousto-optically Q-switched intracavity Nd:YAG/KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 37–41 (2008).
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Tang, C. L.

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Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Chang, H. Wang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, S. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Efficient acousto-optically Q-switched intracavity Nd:YAG/KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 37–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, S. Linke, T. Schreiber, K. Rademaker, J. Limpert, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, F. Salin, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy Q-switched short-length fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1551–1553 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tünnermann, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, A. Liem, S. Höfer, H. Zellmer, S. Nolte, and J. Limpert, “The renaissance and bright future of fibre lasers,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S681–S693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1055–1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, “100-W average-power, high-energy nanosecond fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 477–479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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C. C. Ranaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, C. J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, “Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 199–206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, H. L. Offerhaus, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, W. A. Clarkson, and D. J. Richardson, “High-energy, high-power ytterbium-doped Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 37–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Utkin, I.

L. Pan, I. Utkin, and R. Fedosejevs, “Passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 1979–1981 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, “100-W average-power, high-energy nanosecond fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 477–479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Wang, H.

Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Chang, H. Wang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, S. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Efficient acousto-optically Q-switched intracavity Nd:YAG/KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 37–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Wang, H. T.

Wang, Q.

Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Chang, H. Wang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, S. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Efficient acousto-optically Q-switched intracavity Nd:YAG/KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 37–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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R. Dändliker, A. A. Grütter, and H. P. Weber, “Statistical amplitude and phase variations in mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6(11), 687–693 (1970).
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Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, R. B. Williams, D. J. Richardson, K. Furusawa, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped largecore fibre laser with 272 W output power,” Electron. Lett. 39(13), 977–978 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yaman, F.

Yvernault, P.

Zayhowski, J. J.

Zellmer, H.

A. Tünnermann, T. Schreiber, F. Röser, A. Liem, S. Höfer, H. Zellmer, S. Nolte, and J. Limpert, “The renaissance and bright future of fibre lasers,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(9), S681–S693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1055–1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, “100-W average-power, high-energy nanosecond fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 477–479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B. T.

H. T. Huang, J. L. He, X. L. Dong, C. H. Zuo, B. T. Zhang, G. Qiu, and Z. K. Liu, “High-repetition-rate eye-safe intracavity KTA OPO driven by a diode-end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 43–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Chang, H. Wang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, S. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Efficient acousto-optically Q-switched intracavity Nd:YAG/KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 37–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Chang, H. Wang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, S. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Efficient acousto-optically Q-switched intracavity Nd:YAG/KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 37–41 (2008).
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X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Chang, H. Wang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, S. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Efficient acousto-optically Q-switched intracavity Nd:YAG/KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 37–41 (2008).
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X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S.

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, W. Z.

Zuo, C. H.

H. T. Huang, J. L. He, X. L. Dong, C. H. Zuo, B. T. Zhang, G. Qiu, and Z. K. Liu, “High-repetition-rate eye-safe intracavity KTA OPO driven by a diode-end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 43–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

H. T. Huang, J. L. He, X. L. Dong, C. H. Zuo, B. T. Zhang, G. Qiu, and Z. K. Liu, “High-repetition-rate eye-safe intracavity KTA OPO driven by a diode-end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 43–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, J. Chang, H. Wang, S. Fan, W. Sun, G. Jin, X. Tao, S. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Efficient acousto-optically Q-switched intracavity Nd:YAG/KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 37–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, S. Höfer, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, S. Knoke, and H. Voelckel, “100-W average-power, high-energy nanosecond fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 477–479 (2002).
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A. Agnesi and S. Dell’acqua, “High-peak-power diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 76(4), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

O. L. Gaddy and E. M. Schaefer, “Self locking of modes in the argon ion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9(8), 281–282 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, R. B. Williams, D. J. Richardson, K. Furusawa, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped largecore fibre laser with 272 W output power,” Electron. Lett. 39(13), 977–978 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

C. C. Ranaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, C. J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, “Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 199–206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr4+-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2286–2294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Crowell, “Characteristics of mode-coupled lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 12–20 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. Dändliker, A. A. Grütter, and H. P. Weber, “Statistical amplitude and phase variations in mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6(11), 687–693 (1970).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Setup for the passively Q-switched PCF laser; (b) image of the cross section of PCF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Average output power with respect to launched pump power in CW and passive Q-switching operations, the inset: typical lasing spectrum. (b) Pulse repetition rate and pulse energy versus launched pump power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical oscilloscope traces for (a) single Q-switched pulse and (b) Q-switched pulse train.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Setup for the intracavity OPO pumped by the passively Q-switched PCF laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Average output power of signal wave at 1515 nm with respect to launched pump power. (b) OPO pulse repetition rate and pulse energy versus launched pump power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

General oscilloscope traces for the fundamental (top) and OPO signal (bottom) output pulses.

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