Abstract

A new super multi-view (SMV) display system that enables the number of views to be increased is proposed. All three-dimensional (3D) images generated by multiple multi-view flat-panel displays are superimposed on a common screen using a multi-projection system. The viewing zones of the flat-panel 3D display are produced in the pupils of the projection lenses and then imaged to the observation space by a screen lens. Sixteen flat-panel 3D displays having 16 views were used to construct a SMV display having 256 views. The 3D resolution was 256 × 192. The screen size was 10.3 inches. The horizontal interval of the viewing zones was 1.3 mm.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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  3. T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, S. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “A display system for natural viewing of 3-D images,” in Three-dimensional television, video and display technologies, B. Javidi, F. Okano ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, 2002) p.461–487.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56–63 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Takaki, “High-Density Directional Display for Generating Natural Three-Dimensional Images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 654–663 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Takaki and T. Dairiki, “72-directional display having VGA resolution for high-appearance image generation,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550X–1-8 (2006).
  9. M. Tsuboi, M. Fujioka, Y. Takaki, and T. Horikoshi, “Real Time Rendering for a Full Parallax 3D Display Using High-Density Directional Images,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Display Workshops (IDW’06), pp. 1379–1380 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Takaki, O. Yokoyama, and G. Hamagishi, “Flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement for 16-view display,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 08–1-8 (2009).
  20. C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, and M. Yoshimura, “A high dynamic range and high-resolution projector with dual modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7241, 72410Q (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Nagoya, T. Kozakai, T. Suzuki, M. Furuya, and K. Iwase, “The D-ILA device for the world’s highest definition (8K4K) projection systems,” in Proceedings of International Display Workshop (IDW’08), pp. 203–206 (2008).

2009 (1)

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, and M. Yoshimura, “A high dynamic range and high-resolution projector with dual modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7241, 72410Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

Y. Takaki, “High-Density Directional Display for Generating Natural Three-Dimensional Images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 654–663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D Displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Honda, D. Nagai, and M. Shimomatsu, “Development of 3-D display system by a fan-like array of projection optics,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 191–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE Crtical Reviews CR 76, 218–249 (2001).

2000 (2)

W. A. Ijsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Dodgson, J. R. Moore, S. R. Lang, G. Martin, and P. Canepa, “A time-sequential multi-projector autostereoscopic 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 8(2), 169–176 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hines, “Autostereoscopic video display with motion parallax,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 208–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Canepa, P.

N. A. Dodgson, J. R. Moore, S. R. Lang, G. Martin, and P. Canepa, “A time-sequential multi-projector autostereoscopic 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 8(2), 169–176 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. W.

Choi, H.

Clarke, J. A.

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Ridder, H.

W. A. Ijsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dodgson, N. A.

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D Displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Dodgson, J. R. Moore, S. R. Lang, G. Martin, and P. Canepa, “A time-sequential multi-projector autostereoscopic 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 8(2), 169–176 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Dodgson, “Analysis of the viewing zone of the Cambridge autostereoscopic display,” Appl. Opt. 35(10), 1705–1710 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endo, T.

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE Crtical Reviews CR 76, 218–249 (2001).

Fujii, T.

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE Crtical Reviews CR 76, 218–249 (2001).

Furuya, M.

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, and M. Yoshimura, “A high dynamic range and high-resolution projector with dual modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7241, 72410Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hamaguchi, T.

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE Crtical Reviews CR 76, 218–249 (2001).

Hatada, T.

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE Crtical Reviews CR 76, 218–249 (2001).

Hines, S. P.

S. P. Hines, “Autostereoscopic video display with motion parallax,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 208–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Honda, T.

T. Honda, D. Nagai, and M. Shimomatsu, “Development of 3-D display system by a fan-like array of projection optics,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 191–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE Crtical Reviews CR 76, 218–249 (2001).

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ijsselsteijn, W. A.

W. A. Ijsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kajiki, Y.

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE Crtical Reviews CR 76, 218–249 (2001).

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kamei, H.

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kanazawa, M.

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, and M. Yoshimura, “A high dynamic range and high-resolution projector with dual modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7241, 72410Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. W.

Kim, J.

Kim, S. K.

Kim, Y.

Kusakabe, Y.

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, and M. Yoshimura, “A high dynamic range and high-resolution projector with dual modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7241, 72410Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, Y. M.

Lang, S. R.

N. A. Dodgson, J. R. Moore, S. R. Lang, G. Martin, and P. Canepa, “A time-sequential multi-projector autostereoscopic 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 8(2), 169–176 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Martin, G.

N. A. Dodgson, J. R. Moore, S. R. Lang, G. Martin, and P. Canepa, “A time-sequential multi-projector autostereoscopic 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 8(2), 169–176 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J. R.

N. A. Dodgson, J. R. Moore, S. R. Lang, G. Martin, and P. Canepa, “A time-sequential multi-projector autostereoscopic 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 8(2), 169–176 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, D.

T. Honda, D. Nagai, and M. Shimomatsu, “Development of 3-D display system by a fan-like array of projection optics,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 191–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakanuma, H.

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nojiri, Y.

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, and M. Yoshimura, “A high dynamic range and high-resolution projector with dual modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7241, 72410Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, G.

Shimomatsu, M.

T. Honda, D. Nagai, and M. Shimomatsu, “Development of 3-D display system by a fan-like array of projection optics,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 191–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. Y.

Susami, K.

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE Crtical Reviews CR 76, 218–249 (2001).

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki, “High-Density Directional Display for Generating Natural Three-Dimensional Images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 654–663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Berkel, C.

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vliegen, J.

W. A. Ijsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, H.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, M.

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, and M. Yoshimura, “A high dynamic range and high-resolution projector with dual modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7241, 72410Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Computer (1)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D Displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

N. A. Dodgson, J. R. Moore, S. R. Lang, G. Martin, and P. Canepa, “A time-sequential multi-projector autostereoscopic 3D display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 8(2), 169–176 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

Y. Takaki, “High-Density Directional Display for Generating Natural Three-Dimensional Images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 654–663 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (8)

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Honda, D. Nagai, and M. Shimomatsu, “Development of 3-D display system by a fan-like array of projection optics,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 191–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, “Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human-engineering evaluation,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 28–35 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hines, “Autostereoscopic video display with motion parallax,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 208–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, and M. Yoshimura, “A high dynamic range and high-resolution projector with dual modulation,” Proc. SPIE 7241, 72410Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Ijsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

SPIE Crtical Reviews CR (1)

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE Crtical Reviews CR 76, 218–249 (2001).

Other (7)

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, S. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “A display system for natural viewing of 3-D images,” in Three-dimensional television, video and display technologies, B. Javidi, F. Okano ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, 2002) p.461–487.

Y. Takaki and T. Dairiki, “72-directional display having VGA resolution for high-appearance image generation,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550X–1-8 (2006).

M. Tsuboi, M. Fujioka, Y. Takaki, and T. Horikoshi, “Real Time Rendering for a Full Parallax 3D Display Using High-Density Directional Images,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Display Workshops (IDW’06), pp. 1379–1380 (2006).

K. Kikuta and Y. Takaki, “Development of SVGA resolution 128-directional display,” Proc. SPIE 6490, 64900U–1 - 8 (2007).

L. Lipton, “Foundations of the Stereoscopic Cinema,” available for download from http://3d.curtin.edu.au/library/foundation.cfm , 1982, pp. 100–102.

T. Nagoya, T. Kozakai, T. Suzuki, M. Furuya, and K. Iwase, “The D-ILA device for the world’s highest definition (8K4K) projection systems,” in Proceedings of International Display Workshop (IDW’08), pp. 203–206 (2008).

Y. Takaki, O. Yokoyama, and G. Hamagishi, “Flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement for 16-view display,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 08–1-8 (2009).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (2614 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1883 KB)     

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SMV display system that combines multiple flat-panel systems by a multi-projection system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Horizontal sectional view of the proposed SMV display system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vertical sectional view of the proposed SMV display system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Arrangement of projection lenses and viewing zones in lens apertures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of the subpixel structure of an LCD panel with a slanted subpixel arrangement.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Arrangement of the projection lenes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Structure of the optical engine for SMV256.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photographs of the constructed optical engine for SMV256: (a) projection lens array, (b) LCD arrays in the upper and lower rows, and (c) LCD array in the middle row.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photograph of SMV256.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Image distortion of the prototype system: (a) image projected by projection lens #7, and (b) that by projection lens #1.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

3D images produced by SMV256: (a) three objects (Media 1), and (b) spaceship (Media 2).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Focusing on three lines at different depth positions produced by SMV256. The camera focuses on three lines at distances of (a) + 250 mm, (b) + 150 mm, (c) 0 mm, (d) −400 mm, and (e) −800 mm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Intensity distributions of viewing zones: (a) 16 viewing zones generated by projection lens #7, and (b) those generated by projection lens #1.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Requirements for flat-panel displays

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specifications of SMV256

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