Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate a direct method of fabricating an all-silicon, single-mode Bragg cladding rib waveguide using proton beam irradiation and subsequent electrochemical etching. The Bragg waveguide consists of porous silicon layers with a low index core of 1.4 that is bounded by eight bilayers of alternating high and low refractive index of 1.4 and 2.4. Here, the ion irradiation acts to reduce the thickness of porous silicon formed, creating an optical barrier needed for lateral confinement. Single-mode guiding with losses as low as approximately 1 dB/cm were obtained for both TE and TM polarization over a broad range of wavelengths from 1525 nm to 1625 nm. Such an approach offers a method for monolithic integration of Bragg waveguides in silicon, without the need for multiple processes of depositing alternating materials.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Schmidt, J. P. Dongliang Yin, Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 519–527 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. N. Winn, Y. Fink, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Omnidirectional reflection from a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23(20), 1573–1575 (1998).
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  10. M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,” Science 289(5478), 415–419 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, Y. Dumeige, S. Haesaert, and P. Joubert, “Optical loss study of porous silicon and oxidized porous silicon planar waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. Lehmann, F. Hofmann, F. Moller, and U. Gruing, “Resistivity of porous silicon: a surface effect,” Thin Solid Films 255(1-2), 20–22 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides for different wavelength regions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064002 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

D. Mangaiyarkarasi, M. B. H. Breese, and Y. S. Ow, “Fabrication of three dimensional porous silicon distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides for different wavelength regions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, Y. Dumeige, S. Haesaert, and P. Joubert, “Optical loss study of porous silicon and oxidized porous silicon planar waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. F. Marsal, J. Ferré-Borrull, and J. Pallarès, “Porous silicon omnidirectional mirrors and distributed Bragg reflectors for planar waveguide applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, D. Mangaiyarkarasi, F. Champeaux, F. Watt, and D. J. Blackwood, “Multicolour Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon using Focused High-energy Helium Ions,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 51–55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mangaiyarkarasi, M. B. H. Breese, Y. S. Ow, and C. Vijila, “Controlled blueshift of the resonant wavelength in porous silicon microcavities using ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, and D. Blackwood, “Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Schmidt, J. P. Dongliang Yin, Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 519–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional microfabrication in bulk silicon using high-energy protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 3202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yi, S. Akiyama, P. Bermel, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, “On-chip Si-based Bragg cladding waveguide with high index contrast bilayers,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4775–4780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, “All-silicon omnidirectional mirrors based on one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,” Science 289(5478), 415–419 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (4)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282(5387), 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Winn, Y. Fink, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Omnidirectional reflection from a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23(20), 1573–1575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 20(10), 1–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

V. Lehmann, F. Hofmann, F. Moller, and U. Gruing, “Resistivity of porous silicon: a surface effect,” Thin Solid Films 255(1-2), 20–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Akiyama, S.

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Barber,

H. Schmidt, J. P. Dongliang Yin, Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 519–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benoit, G.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bermel, P.

Bettiol, A. A.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides for different wavelength regions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, and D. Blackwood, “Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, D. Mangaiyarkarasi, F. Champeaux, F. Watt, and D. J. Blackwood, “Multicolour Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon using Focused High-energy Helium Ions,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 51–55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional microfabrication in bulk silicon using high-energy protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 3202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blackwood, D.

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, and D. Blackwood, “Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blackwood, D. J.

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, D. Mangaiyarkarasi, F. Champeaux, F. Watt, and D. J. Blackwood, “Multicolour Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon using Focused High-energy Helium Ions,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 51–55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional microfabrication in bulk silicon using high-energy protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 3202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Breese, M. B. H.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides for different wavelength regions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Mangaiyarkarasi, M. B. H. Breese, and Y. S. Ow, “Fabrication of three dimensional porous silicon distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Mangaiyarkarasi, M. B. H. Breese, Y. S. Ow, and C. Vijila, “Controlled blueshift of the resonant wavelength in porous silicon microcavities using ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, D. Mangaiyarkarasi, F. Champeaux, F. Watt, and D. J. Blackwood, “Multicolour Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon using Focused High-energy Helium Ions,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 51–55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, and D. Blackwood, “Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional microfabrication in bulk silicon using high-energy protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 3202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruyant, A.

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, “All-silicon omnidirectional mirrors based on one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, W. R.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Champeaux, F.

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, D. Mangaiyarkarasi, F. Champeaux, F. Watt, and D. J. Blackwood, “Multicolour Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon using Focused High-energy Helium Ions,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 51–55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Champeaux, F. J. T.

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, and D. Blackwood, “Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charrier, J.

P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, Y. Dumeige, S. Haesaert, and P. Joubert, “Optical loss study of porous silicon and oxidized porous silicon planar waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, E.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282(5387), 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dongliang Yin, J. P.

H. Schmidt, J. P. Dongliang Yin, Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 519–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

Dumeige, Y.

P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, Y. Dumeige, S. Haesaert, and P. Joubert, “Optical loss study of porous silicon and oxidized porous silicon planar waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,” Science 289(5478), 415–419 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Winn, Y. Fink, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Omnidirectional reflection from a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23(20), 1573–1575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferré-Borrull, J.

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. F. Marsal, J. Ferré-Borrull, and J. Pallarès, “Porous silicon omnidirectional mirrors and distributed Bragg reflectors for planar waveguide applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,” Science 289(5478), 415–419 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Winn, Y. Fink, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Omnidirectional reflection from a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23(20), 1573–1575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gal, M.

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, “All-silicon omnidirectional mirrors based on one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gruing, U.

V. Lehmann, F. Hofmann, F. Moller, and U. Gruing, “Resistivity of porous silicon: a surface effect,” Thin Solid Films 255(1-2), 20–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haesaert, S.

P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, Y. Dumeige, S. Haesaert, and P. Joubert, “Optical loss study of porous silicon and oxidized porous silicon planar waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hart, S. D.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, A. R.

H. Schmidt, J. P. Dongliang Yin, Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 519–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hietala, V.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282(5387), 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, F.

V. Lehmann, F. Hofmann, F. Moller, and U. Gruing, “Resistivity of porous silicon: a surface effect,” Thin Solid Films 255(1-2), 20–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,” Science 289(5478), 415–419 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,” Science 289(5478), 415–419 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282(5387), 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Winn, Y. Fink, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Omnidirectional reflection from a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23(20), 1573–1575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, P.

P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, Y. Dumeige, S. Haesaert, and P. Joubert, “Optical loss study of porous silicon and oxidized porous silicon planar waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehmann, V.

V. Lehmann, F. Hofmann, F. Moller, and U. Gruing, “Resistivity of porous silicon: a surface effect,” Thin Solid Films 255(1-2), 20–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lerondel, G.

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, “All-silicon omnidirectional mirrors based on one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282(5387), 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, M. H.

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional microfabrication in bulk silicon using high-energy protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 3202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mangaiyarkarasi, D.

D. Mangaiyarkarasi, M. B. H. Breese, and Y. S. Ow, “Fabrication of three dimensional porous silicon distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, D. Mangaiyarkarasi, F. Champeaux, F. Watt, and D. J. Blackwood, “Multicolour Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon using Focused High-energy Helium Ions,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 51–55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mangaiyarkarasi, M. B. H. Breese, Y. S. Ow, and C. Vijila, “Controlled blueshift of the resonant wavelength in porous silicon microcavities using ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

Marsal, L. F.

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. F. Marsal, J. Ferré-Borrull, and J. Pallarès, “Porous silicon omnidirectional mirrors and distributed Bragg reflectors for planar waveguide applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides for different wavelength regions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matavulj, P.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides for different wavelength regions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milosevic, M.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides for different wavelength regions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moller, F.

V. Lehmann, F. Hofmann, F. Moller, and U. Gruing, “Resistivity of porous silicon: a surface effect,” Thin Solid Films 255(1-2), 20–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ow, Y. S.

D. Mangaiyarkarasi, M. B. H. Breese, and Y. S. Ow, “Fabrication of three dimensional porous silicon distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Mangaiyarkarasi, M. B. H. Breese, Y. S. Ow, and C. Vijila, “Controlled blueshift of the resonant wavelength in porous silicon microcavities using ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pallarès, J.

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. F. Marsal, J. Ferré-Borrull, and J. Pallarès, “Porous silicon omnidirectional mirrors and distributed Bragg reflectors for planar waveguide applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 20(10), 1–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pirasteh, P.

P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, Y. Dumeige, S. Haesaert, and P. Joubert, “Optical loss study of porous silicon and oxidized porous silicon planar waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reece, P. J.

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, “All-silicon omnidirectional mirrors based on one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides for different wavelength regions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt, J. P. Dongliang Yin, Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 519–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stankovic, S.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides for different wavelength regions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tavernier, E. P.

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional microfabrication in bulk silicon using high-energy protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 3202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Temelkuran, B.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teo, E. J.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides for different wavelength regions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, and D. Blackwood, “Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, D. Mangaiyarkarasi, F. Champeaux, F. Watt, and D. J. Blackwood, “Multicolour Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon using Focused High-energy Helium Ions,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 51–55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional microfabrication in bulk silicon using high-energy protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 3202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. L.

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,” Science 289(5478), 415–419 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timotijevic, B.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides for different wavelength regions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Kan, J. A.

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Venugopal Rao, S.

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vijila, C.

D. Mangaiyarkarasi, M. B. H. Breese, Y. S. Ow, and C. Vijila, “Controlled blueshift of the resonant wavelength in porous silicon microcavities using ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282(5387), 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watt, F.

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, D. Mangaiyarkarasi, F. Champeaux, F. Watt, and D. J. Blackwood, “Multicolour Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon using Focused High-energy Helium Ions,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 51–55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional microfabrication in bulk silicon using high-energy protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 3202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Winn, Y. Fink, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Omnidirectional reflection from a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23(20), 1573–1575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xifré-Pérez, E.

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. F. Marsal, J. Ferré-Borrull, and J. Pallarès, “Porous silicon omnidirectional mirrors and distributed Bragg reflectors for planar waveguide applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P. Y.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides for different wavelength regions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yeh, P.

Yi, Y.

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, D. Mangaiyarkarasi, F. Champeaux, F. Watt, and D. J. Blackwood, “Multicolour Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon using Focused High-energy Helium Ions,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 51–55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. Mangaiyarkarasi, M. B. H. Breese, Y. S. Ow, and C. Vijila, “Controlled blueshift of the resonant wavelength in porous silicon microcavities using ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional microfabrication in bulk silicon using high-energy protons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 3202 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bruyant, G. Lerondel, P. J. Reece, and M. Gal, “All-silicon omnidirectional mirrors based on one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Mangaiyarkarasi, M. B. H. Breese, and Y. S. Ow, “Fabrication of three dimensional porous silicon distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bettiol, S. Venugopal Rao, E. J. Teo, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, “Fabrication of buried channel waveguides in photosensitive glass using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Schmidt, J. P. Dongliang Yin, Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 519–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. F. Marsal, J. Ferré-Borrull, and J. Pallarès, “Porous silicon omnidirectional mirrors and distributed Bragg reflectors for planar waveguide applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, Y. Dumeige, S. Haesaert, and P. Joubert, “Optical loss study of porous silicon and oxidized porous silicon planar waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nature (1)

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, and D. Blackwood, “Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riv. Nuovo Cim. (1)

L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 20(10), 1–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282(5387), 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282(5394), 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,” Science 289(5478), 415–419 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. Milosevic, P. Matavulj, S. Stankovic, B. Timotijevic, P. Y. Yang, E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides for different wavelength regions,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

V. Lehmann, F. Hofmann, F. Moller, and U. Gruing, “Resistivity of porous silicon: a surface effect,” Thin Solid Films 255(1-2), 20–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

http://www.rsoftdesign.com

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, United States 1988)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the fabrication process

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface plots of the simulated reflectance of the Bragg reflectors as a function of wavelength and angles, in TE and TM polarizations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (b) shows the cross sectional SEM image of Bragg cladding waveguide irradiated with a fluence of 2 × 1015/cm2 and 4 × 1015/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

show the close-up SEM images of the top and bottom claddings of the waveguide sidewalls for a fluence of 2 × 1015/cm2 and 4 × 1015/cm2 respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) and (b) show the simulated structure and their corresponding fundamental TE and TM modes for 2 × 1015 and 4 × 1015/cm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) shows the plot of 1/e electric field width as a function of width in TE and TM polarizations. Figure 6(b) shows the theoretical single-mode boundary as the width and height of the core is varied.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

shows the scattered light intensity as a function of length for (a) 2 × 1015/cm2 and (b) 4 × 1015/cm2 determined from the scattered light images in the inset.

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