Abstract

We report on near infrared semiconductor nanopatch lasers with subwavelength-scale physical dimensions (0.019 cubic wavelengths) and effective mode volumes (0.0017 cubic wavelengths). We observe lasing in the two most fundamental optical modes which resemble oscillating electrical and magnetic dipoles. The ultra-small laser volume is achieved with the presence of nanoscale metal patches which suppress electromagnetic radiation into free-space and convert a leaky cavity into a highly-confined subwavelength optical resonator. Such ultra-small lasers with metallodielectric cavities will enable broad applications in data storage, biological sensing, and on-chip optical communication.

© 2010 OSA

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2009

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Pan and D. B. Bogy, “Data storage: Heat-assisted magnetic recording,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 189–190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Zhu, H. Liu, S. M. Wang, T. Li, J. X. Cao, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. N. Zhu, “Optically pumped nanolaser based on two magnetic plasmon resonance modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering-gallery microcavity,” Nature 457(7228), 455–458 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Song, H. Cao, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Near-IR subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Manolatou and F. Rana, “Subwavelength nanopatch cavities for semiconductor plasmon lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(5), 435–447 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 230–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447(7148), 1098–1101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Optical 3D cavity modes below the diffraction-limit using slow-wave surface-plasmon-polaritons,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2607–2612 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7506–7514 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Wang and Y. R. Shen, “General properties of local plasmons in metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 206806 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Ryu, M. Notomi, E. Kuramoti, and T. Segawa, “Large spontaneous emission factor (> 0.1) in the photonic crystal monopole-mode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1067–1069 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648–4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

T. Baba, “Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114(2), 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. Baba, T. Hamano, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Spontaneous emission factor of a microcavity DBR surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1347–1358 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968

S. B. Cohn, “Microwave bandpass filters containing high-Q dielectric resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 16(4), 218–227 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1946

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681–681 (1946).

Agarwal, R.

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alley, R. L.

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7506–7514 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baba, “Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, T. Hamano, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Spontaneous emission factor of a microcavity DBR surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1347–1358 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beausoleil, R. G.

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 230–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114(2), 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bogy, D. B.

L. Pan and D. B. Bogy, “Data storage: Heat-assisted magnetic recording,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 189–190 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

Q. Song, H. Cao, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Near-IR subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J. X.

Z. H. Zhu, H. Liu, S. M. Wang, T. Li, J. X. Cao, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, and S. N. Zhu, “Optically pumped nanolaser based on two magnetic plasmon resonance modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cohn, S. B.

S. B. Cohn, “Microwave bandpass filters containing high-Q dielectric resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 16(4), 218–227 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. F.

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Fan, Z.

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feigenbaum, E.

Feng, L.

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamano, T.

T. Baba, T. Hamano, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Spontaneous emission factor of a microcavity DBR surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1347–1358 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herz, E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. C.

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

Q. Song, H. Cao, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Near-IR subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iga, K.

T. Baba, T. Hamano, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Spontaneous emission factor of a microcavity DBR surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1347–1358 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, Z. A.

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Javey, A.

J. C. Ho, R. Yerushalmi, Z. A. Jacobson, Z. Fan, R. L. Alley, and A. Javey, “Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 62–67 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Y. G.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure and mode profiles of the nanopatch semiconductor laser. (a) Schematic drawing and (b) scanning electron micrograph of a metallodielectric nanopatch semiconductor laser. The scale bar represents 100 nm. (c, d) Computed mode profiles for the two lowest order modes: the electrical dipole mode (TM111, c) and the second-order magnetic dipole mode (TE011, d). The surface color at the cross-section represents the electrical energy density, and the arrows show the direction of the electric (red) and magnetic (black) field. The nanopatch radius and height are r = 250 nm and h = 230 nm, respectively. The effective modal volumes are 0.54TM/2neff)3 and 2.99TE/2neff)3 , where neff is the effective refractive index of the dielectric layers. In the metal layers, free charges (c) and currents (d) arise to satisfy the boundary condition at the metal-dielectric interfaces.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral properties and near-field radiation patterns of the nanopatch laser. (a) Resonance wavelengths of the metallodielectric nanopatch cavities with different radii at low temperature (78 K). The scattered points represent measurement results, the dashed lines represent numerical modeling, and the solid lines are the theoretical dispersion curves for electrical (TM111, penetration depth ΔTM111 =13 nm, blue) and magnetic (TE011, ΔTE011 =8 nm, red) dipole mode from the perfect conductor model. The colored region shows the gain spectra full width at half maximum. (b) Laser emission spectra for three different nanopatch sizes (r = 203, 223, 255 nm). The inset shows the log-scale plot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized peak power with respect to the linear polarization angle for the electrical (blue, circles) and magnetic (red, squares) dipole modes. The measured near-field radiation patterns with various polarization angles shown in (b) and (c) confirm that the first and second-order modes are linearly and azimuthally polarized, respectively (grayscale images in the upper row). They also agree well with the FDTD simulations (color images in the lower row).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of the emission spectra with increasing peak pump power for nanopatch lasers with radius of (a) 203 and (b) 265 nm. The 203-nm nanopatch cavity lases in electric dipole mode while the 265-nm cavity lases in magnetic dipole mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output intensity characteristics of the nanopatch lasers. Output intensity-versus-pump characteristics of the semiconductor nanopatch lasers with radius of (a, c) 203 and (b, d) 265 nm. Stimulated and spontaneous emission components are separately shown in (c, d), while total output powers are plotted in (a, b). The solid lines in (a, b) are simulations obtained from the laser rate equation with the Purcell factor, F, and spontaneous emission coupling factor, β. Output intensity curves for =0.1 and 10 are also shown for comparison. The insets in (a, b) show the linear-scale plots near the laser threshold. The vertical scales are normalized by the laser output powers at threshold pump levels predicted by the rate equation models. The parameters used for the electric and magnetic dipole modes are F=49.5, β=0.022 and F=11.4, β=0.105, respectively.

Equations (1)

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d N d t = P g S 1 β τ s p N F β τ s p N v s S a V a N d S d t = Γ g S S τ p h + Γ F β τ s p N

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