Abstract

A new type of microstructured fiber for mid-infrared light is introduced. The chalcogenide glass-based microporous fiber allows extensive dispersion engineering that enables design of flattened waveguide dispersion windows and multiple zero-dispersion points – either blue-shifted or red-shifted from the bulk material zero-dispersion point – including the spectral region of CO2 laser lines ∼10.6 μm. Supercontinuum simulations for a specific chalcogenide microporous fiber are performed that demonstrate the potential of the proposed microstructured fiber design to generate a broad continuum in the middle-infrared region using pulsed CO2 laser as a pump. In addition, an analytical description of the Raman response function of chalcogenide As2Se3 is provided, and a Raman time constant of 5.4 fs at the 1.54 μm pump is computed. What distinguishes the microporous fiber from the microwire, nanowire and other small solid-core designs is the prospect of extensive chromatic dispersion engineering combined with the low loss guidance created by the porosity, thus offering long interaction lengths in nonlinear media.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. B. Shaw, P. A. Thielen, F. H. Kung, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “IR supercontinuum generation in As-Se photonic crystal fiber,” presented at the Conf. Adv. Solid State Lasers (ASSL), Seattle, WA, 2005, Paper TuC5.
  4. J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).
  5. A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Low loss porous terahertz fibers containing multiple subwavelength holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Porous fibers: a novel approach to low loss THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8845–8854 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Dupuis, J.-F. Allard, D. Morris, K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Fabrication and THz loss measurements of porous subwavelength fibers using a directional coupler method,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8012–8028 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14053–14063 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. CorActive High-Tech Infrared Fibers, “Mid-Infrared Transmission Optical Fiber,” (CorActive High-Tech Inc., 2009). http://www.coractive.com/an/pdf/irtgeneral.pdf
  11. B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Amorphous Materials, “AMTIR-2: Arsenic Selenide Glass As–Se,” (Amorphous Materials Inc., 2009). http://www.amorphousmaterials.com/amtir2.htm
  13. A. W. Snyder, and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory,” Chapman Hall, New York, (1983).
  14. S. Afshar V and T. M. Monro, “A full vectorial model for pulse propagation in emerging waveguides with subwavelength structures part I: Kerr nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2298–2318 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Moenster, G. Steinmeyer, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, and K. Petermann, “Analytical relation between effective mode field area and waveguide dispersion in microstructure fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(22), 3249–3251 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2880–2887 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1146–1155 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y.-H. Chen, S. Varma, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of transient nonlinear refractive index in gases using xenon supercontinuum single-shot spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7458–7467 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th Ed.,” Academic Press, New York, (2006).
  20. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultralow-power four-wave mixing with Rb in a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043602 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Raman response function and supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide fiber,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, 2008, Paper CMDD2.
  23. A. K. Atieh, P. Myslinski, J. Chrostowski, and P. Galko, “Measuring the Raman Time Constant (TR) for Soliton Pulses in Standard Single-Mode Fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(2), 216–221 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. H. Stolen, “Nonlinearity in fiber transmission,” Proc. IEEE 68(10), 1232–1236 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Falk, M. H. Frosz, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths tapered to normal dispersion at all wavelengths,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7535–7540 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. Pushkarsky, M. Weida, T. Day, D. Arnone, R. Pritchett, D. Caffey, and S. Crivello, “High-power tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser in the 5-11 micron regime,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711X (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

2008 (5)

2007 (2)

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Chen, S. Varma, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of transient nonlinear refractive index in gases using xenon supercontinuum single-shot spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7458–7467 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

M. Moenster, G. Steinmeyer, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, and K. Petermann, “Analytical relation between effective mode field area and waveguide dispersion in microstructure fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(22), 3249–3251 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (2)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1980 (1)

R. H. Stolen, “Nonlinearity in fiber transmission,” Proc. IEEE 68(10), 1232–1236 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

Afshar V, S.

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1146–1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alexeev, I.

Allard, J.-F.

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, D.

M. Pushkarsky, M. Weida, T. Day, D. Arnone, R. Pritchett, D. Caffey, and S. Crivello, “High-power tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser in the 5-11 micron regime,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atakaramians, S.

Atieh, A. K.

Bang, O.

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benoit, G.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhagwat, A. R.

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultralow-power four-wave mixing with Rb in a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, G.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caffey, D.

M. Pushkarsky, M. Weida, T. Day, D. Arnone, R. Pritchett, D. Caffey, and S. Crivello, “High-power tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser in the 5-11 micron regime,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-H.

Chrostowski, J.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Crivello, S.

M. Pushkarsky, M. Weida, T. Day, D. Arnone, R. Pritchett, D. Caffey, and S. Crivello, “High-power tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser in the 5-11 micron regime,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Day, T.

M. Pushkarsky, M. Weida, T. Day, D. Arnone, R. Pritchett, D. Caffey, and S. Crivello, “High-power tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser in the 5-11 micron regime,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

Dubois, C.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, A.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14053–14063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Falk, P.

Feng, X.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, V.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B. M.

Flanagan, J. C.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Florea, C. M.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Foster, M. A.

Frosz, M. H.

Gaeta, A. L.

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultralow-power four-wave mixing with Rb in a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2880–2887 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galko, P.

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

George, A. K.

Hart, S. D.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hassani, A.

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Low loss porous terahertz fibers containing multiple subwavelength holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hodelin, J.

Horak, P.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iliew, R.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

Kung, F.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Lederer, F.

Lenz, G.

Leong, J. Y. Y.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Londero, P.

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultralow-power four-wave mixing with Rb in a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milchberg, H. M.

Moenster, M.

Moll, K. D.

Monro, T. M.

Morris, D.

Myslinski, P.

Nagel, M.

Nguyen, V. Q.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Omenetto, F. G.

Petermann, K.

Petropoulos, P.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poletti, F.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Price, J. H. V.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pritchett, R.

M. Pushkarsky, M. Weida, T. Day, D. Arnone, R. Pritchett, D. Caffey, and S. Crivello, “High-power tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser in the 5-11 micron regime,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pureza, P.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Pushkarsky, M.

M. Pushkarsky, M. Weida, T. Day, D. Arnone, R. Pritchett, D. Caffey, and S. Crivello, “High-power tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser in the 5-11 micron regime,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanghera, J.

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1146–1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Slepkov, A. D.

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultralow-power four-wave mixing with Rb in a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

Steinmeyer, G.

Stoeffler, K.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, “Nonlinearity in fiber transmission,” Proc. IEEE 68(10), 1232–1236 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Temelkuran, B.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varma, S.

Venkataraman, V.

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultralow-power four-wave mixing with Rb in a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

Weida, M.

M. Pushkarsky, M. Weida, T. Day, D. Arnone, R. Pritchett, D. Caffey, and S. Crivello, “High-power tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser in the 5-11 micron regime,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolchover, N. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Low loss porous terahertz fibers containing multiple subwavelength holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation From Nonsilica Microstructured Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (1)

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

Nature (1)

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

S. Afshar V and T. M. Monro, “A full vectorial model for pulse propagation in emerging waveguides with subwavelength structures part I: Kerr nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2298–2318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Chen, S. Varma, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of transient nonlinear refractive index in gases using xenon supercontinuum single-shot spectral interferometry,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7458–7467 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2880–2887 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hassani, A. Dupuis, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Porous polymer fibers for low-loss Terahertz guiding,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6340–6351 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Porous fibers: a novel approach to low loss THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8845–8854 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dupuis, J.-F. Allard, D. Morris, K. Stoeffler, C. Dubois, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Fabrication and THz loss measurements of porous subwavelength fibers using a directional coupler method,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8012–8028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14053–14063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Falk, M. H. Frosz, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths tapered to normal dispersion at all wavelengths,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7535–7540 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Londero, V. Venkataraman, A. R. Bhagwat, A. D. Slepkov, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultralow-power four-wave mixing with Rb in a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. H. Stolen, “Nonlinearity in fiber transmission,” Proc. IEEE 68(10), 1232–1236 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Pushkarsky, M. Weida, T. Day, D. Arnone, R. Pritchett, D. Caffey, and S. Crivello, “High-power tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser in the 5-11 micron regime,” Proc. SPIE 6871, 68711X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th Ed.,” Academic Press, New York, (2006).

Amorphous Materials, “AMTIR-2: Arsenic Selenide Glass As–Se,” (Amorphous Materials Inc., 2009). http://www.amorphousmaterials.com/amtir2.htm

A. W. Snyder, and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory,” Chapman Hall, New York, (1983).

CorActive High-Tech Infrared Fibers, “Mid-Infrared Transmission Optical Fiber,” (CorActive High-Tech Inc., 2009). http://www.coractive.com/an/pdf/irtgeneral.pdf

L. B. Shaw, P. A. Thielen, F. H. Kung, V. Q. Nguyen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “IR supercontinuum generation in As-Se photonic crystal fiber,” presented at the Conf. Adv. Solid State Lasers (ASSL), Seattle, WA, 2005, Paper TuC5.

J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Raman response function and supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide fiber,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, 2008, Paper CMDD2.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Refractive index distribution in 4-layers As2Se3 (Λ = 0.5μm, d = 0.42μm) microporous fiber, and (b) fundamental mode power (a.u.) distribution at the specific wavelength 10.5 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength dependence of bulk As2Se3 refractive index (solid line), and absorption coefficient (dotted line) [12].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Areal density fm [Eq. (2)] of solid material in N = 4 layers microporous fiber and (b) fraction of modal absorption fα [Eq. (3)] over bulk As2Se3 absorption at λ = 10.5 μm as a function of geometrical parameters (Λ, d). The dotted line identifies the regions of fα = 0.5.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Real effective refractive index and (b) effective area of fundamental mode in N = 4 layers As2Se3 microporous fiber at λ = 10.5 μm as a function of parameters (Λ, d)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Dispersion parameter (ps/km∙nm) and (b) dispersion slope (ps/km∙nm2) in N = 4 layers As2Se3 microporous fiber at λ = 10.5 μm as a function of geometrical parameters (Λ, d)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dispersion curves (ps/km∙nm) showing near-zero and flattened dispersion at λ = 10.5 μm for parameters (a) (Λ = 0.5, d = 0.38)μm, and (b) (Λ = 0.7, d = 0.62)μm. Blue curve is bulk As2Se3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Nonlinear parameter value (W−1m−1) in (a) As2Se3 glass, and in (b) Argon gas-filled holes at λ = 10.5 μm as a function of (Λ, d) for a N = 4 layers microporous fiber.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Raman response function h(t) of As2Se3 glass, and (b) corresponding Raman gain gR spectrum for pump wavelength λ = 1.54 μm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Raman gain gR spectrum of As2Se3 glass at λ = 1.54 μm pump (circles) inside the 0 – 7 THz range, with linear slope approximations shown for calculating TR values.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Supercontinuum spectra with fiber parameters (Λ = 0.40, d = 0.24) μm, L = 10 cm and for (a) 0.9 nJ fixed seed pulse with varying durations (0.1, 1, 10) ps, and (b) fixed pulse duration 1 ps and varying seed energies (0.2, 2.0, 5.0) nJ. The peak power (P 1) of the first ejected fundamental soliton created by fission of the Nsol -order soliton is shown alongside its corresponding curve.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( λ ) = 1 + λ 2 ( A 0 2 λ 2 A 1 2 + A 2 2 λ 2 19 2 + A 3 2 λ 2 4 A 1 2 )
p = N h A h A f = N h π ( d / 2 ) 2 π ( d f / 2 ) 2 = [ 3 ( N 2 + N ) + 1 ] [ 4 ( N 2 + N ) + 1 ] ( d Λ ) 2
f α = α mode α mat = Re ( n mat ) mat | E | 2 d A total S z d A
A e f f = | total S z d A | 2 total | S z | 2 d A
γ i = 2 π λ total n 2 i | S z | 2 d A | total S z d A | 2                  , i = ( mat , gas )
A z + α 2 A i m 2 i m β m m ! m A t m = i γ [ | A | 2 A + i ω 0 t ( | A | 2 A ) T R A | A | 2 t ]
h R ( t ) = τ 1 2 + τ 2 2 τ 1 τ 2 2 exp ( t τ 2 ) sin ( t τ 1 )
T R 0 t R ( t ) d t f R 0 t h R ( t ) d t
T R f R d ( Im [ h ˜ R ( Δ ω ) ] ) d ( Δ ω ) | Δ ω = 0

Metrics