Abstract

We report an implementation of decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) over 200 km optical fiber cable through photon polarization encoding. This is achieved by constructing the whole QKD system operating at 320 MHz repetition rate, and developing high-speed transmitter and receiver modules. A novel and economic way of synchronization method is designed and incorporated into the system, which allows to work at a low frequency of 40kHz and removes the use of highly precise clock. A final key rate of 15 Hz is distributed within the experimental time of 3089 seconds, by using super-conducting single photon detectors. This is longest decoy-state QKD yet demonstrated up to date. It helps to make a significant step towards practical secure communication in long-distance scope.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  41. B. Qi, C. H. Fung, H. K. Lo, and X. Ma, "Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems," Quant. Info. Comput. 7, 073-082 (2007).

2009

Raymond Y. Q. Cai and V. Scarani, "Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution," New J. Phys. 11, 045024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301-1350 (2009).

X.-B. Wang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations," New. J. Phys. 11, 075006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. T. Tyagi, K. P. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels," New J. Phys. 11, 045009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Chen, H. Liang, Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, W.-Y. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yin, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography," Opt. Express 17, 6540-6549 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Tanaka, M. Fujiwara, S.W. Nam, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, W. Maeda, K. Yoshino, S. Miki, B. Baek, Z. Wang, A. Tajima, M. Sasaki, and A. Tomita, "Ultra fast quantum key distribution over a 97 km installed telecom fiber with wavelength division multiplexing clock synchronization," Opt. Express 16, 11354-11360 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A.W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate," Opt. Express 16, 18790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, "General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors," Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, W. Chen, G. Xavier, M. Swillo, T. Zhang, S. Sauge, M. Tengner, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and A. Karlsson "Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, "Quantum key distribution with an unknown and untrusted source," Phys. Rev. A 77, 052327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

X.-B. Wang, "Decoy-state quantum key distribution with large random errors of light intensity," Phys. Rev. A 75, 052301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Simple protocol for secure decoy-state quantum key distribution with a loosely controlled source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hayashi, "General theory for decoy-state quantum key distribution with an arbitrary number of intensities," New J. Phys. 9, 284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based on Polarization Encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure one-way quantum key distribution using decoy pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, C. H. Fung, H. K. Lo, and X. Ma, "Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems," Quant. Info. Comput. 7, 073-082 (2007).

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Inamori, N. Lütkenhaus, D. Mayers, "Unconditional security of practical quantum key distribution," Eur. Phys. J. D 41, 599-627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, "Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems," Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, "Experimental Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, "Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-B. Wang, "Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices," Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 325-360 (2004).

2003

W.-Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

N. Lütkenhaus and M. Jahma, "Quantum key distribution with realistic states: photon-number statistics in the photon-number splitting attack," New J. Phys. 4, 44-53 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B.C. Sanders, "Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330-1333 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lütkenhaus, "Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Dušek, O. Haderka, and M. Hendrych, "Generalized beam-splitting attack in quantum cryptography with dim coherent states," Opt. Commun. 169, 103-108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. P. Yuen, "Quantum amplifiers, quantum duplicators and quantum cryptography," Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8, 939-949 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

B. Huttner, N. Imoto, N. Gisin, and T. Mor, "Quantum cryptography with coherent states," Phys. Rev. A 51, 1863-1869 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anisimov, A.

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, "Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems," Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baek, B.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. T. Tyagi, K. P. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels," New J. Phys. 11, 045009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Tanaka, M. Fujiwara, S.W. Nam, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, W. Maeda, K. Yoshino, S. Miki, B. Baek, Z. Wang, A. Tajima, M. Sasaki, and A. Tomita, "Ultra fast quantum key distribution over a 97 km installed telecom fiber with wavelength division multiplexing clock synchronization," Opt. Express 16, 11354-11360 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brassard, G.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B.C. Sanders, "Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330-1333 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, Raymond Y. Q.

Raymond Y. Q. Cai and V. Scarani, "Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution," New J. Phys. 11, 045024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.-Q.

Cerf, N. J.

V. Scarani, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301-1350 (2009).

Chen, K.

Chen, T.-Y.

Chen, W.

Q. Wang, W. Chen, G. Xavier, M. Swillo, T. Zhang, S. Sauge, M. Tengner, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and A. Karlsson "Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.-B.

Dallmann, N.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. T. Tyagi, K. P. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels," New J. Phys. 11, 045009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A. R.

Dušek, M.

V. Scarani, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301-1350 (2009).

M. Dušek, O. Haderka, and M. Hendrych, "Generalized beam-splitting attack in quantum cryptography with dim coherent states," Opt. Commun. 169, 103-108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

Fujiwara, M.

Fung, C. H.

B. Qi, C. H. Fung, H. K. Lo, and X. Ma, "Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems," Quant. Info. Comput. 7, 073-082 (2007).

Fürst, M.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.-B.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based on Polarization Encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Huttner, N. Imoto, N. Gisin, and T. Mor, "Quantum cryptography with coherent states," Phys. Rev. A 51, 1863-1869 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gottesman, D.

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices," Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 325-360 (2004).

Guo, G.-C.

Q. Wang, W. Chen, G. Xavier, M. Swillo, T. Zhang, S. Sauge, M. Tengner, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and A. Karlsson "Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haderka, O.

M. Dušek, O. Haderka, and M. Hendrych, "Generalized beam-splitting attack in quantum cryptography with dim coherent states," Opt. Commun. 169, 103-108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. T. Tyagi, K. P. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels," New J. Phys. 11, 045009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.-F.

Q. Wang, W. Chen, G. Xavier, M. Swillo, T. Zhang, S. Sauge, M. Tengner, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and A. Karlsson "Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrington, J. W.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. T. Tyagi, K. P. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels," New J. Phys. 11, 045009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, M.

M. Hayashi, "General theory for decoy-state quantum key distribution with an arbitrary number of intensities," New J. Phys. 9, 284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hendrych, M.

M. Dušek, O. Haderka, and M. Hendrych, "Generalized beam-splitting attack in quantum cryptography with dim coherent states," Opt. Commun. 169, 103-108 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hiskett, P. A.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honjo, T.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R. J.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. T. Tyagi, K. P. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels," New J. Phys. 11, 045009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huttner, B.

B. Huttner, N. Imoto, N. Gisin, and T. Mor, "Quantum cryptography with coherent states," Phys. Rev. A 51, 1863-1869 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imoto, N.

B. Huttner, N. Imoto, N. Gisin, and T. Mor, "Quantum cryptography with coherent states," Phys. Rev. A 51, 1863-1869 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inamori, H.

H. Inamori, N. Lütkenhaus, D. Mayers, "Unconditional security of practical quantum key distribution," Eur. Phys. J. D 41, 599-627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jahma, M.

N. Lütkenhaus and M. Jahma, "Quantum key distribution with realistic states: photon-number statistics in the photon-number splitting attack," New J. Phys. 4, 44-53 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ju, L.

Karlsson, A.

Q. Wang, W. Chen, G. Xavier, M. Swillo, T. Zhang, S. Sauge, M. Tengner, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and A. Karlsson "Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtsiefer, C.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, H.

Lita, A. E.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.-Y.

Liu, Y.

Lo, H. K.

B. Qi, C. H. Fung, H. K. Lo, and X. Ma, "Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems," Quant. Info. Comput. 7, 073-082 (2007).

Lo, H.-K.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, "Quantum key distribution with an unknown and untrusted source," Phys. Rev. A 77, 052327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, "Experimental Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices," Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 325-360 (2004).

Lütkenhaus, N.

V. Scarani, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301-1350 (2009).

H. Inamori, N. Lütkenhaus, D. Mayers, "Unconditional security of practical quantum key distribution," Eur. Phys. J. D 41, 599-627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices," Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 325-360 (2004).

N. Lütkenhaus and M. Jahma, "Quantum key distribution with realistic states: photon-number statistics in the photon-number splitting attack," New J. Phys. 4, 44-53 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Lütkenhaus, "Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B.C. Sanders, "Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330-1333 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H.-X.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based on Polarization Encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, X.

B. Qi, C. H. Fung, H. K. Lo, and X. Ma, "Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems," Quant. Info. Comput. 7, 073-082 (2007).

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, "Experimental Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, W.

Makarov, V.

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, "Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems," Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mayers, D.

H. Inamori, N. Lütkenhaus, D. Mayers, "Unconditional security of practical quantum key distribution," Eur. Phys. J. D 41, 599-627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McCabe, K. P.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. T. Tyagi, K. P. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels," New J. Phys. 11, 045009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miki, S.

Mor, T.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B.C. Sanders, "Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330-1333 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Huttner, N. Imoto, N. Gisin, and T. Mor, "Quantum cryptography with coherent states," Phys. Rev. A 51, 1863-1869 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, S.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. T. Tyagi, K. P. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels," New J. Phys. 11, 045009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S.W.

Nambu, Y.

Nordholt, J. E.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. T. Tyagi, K. P. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels," New J. Phys. 11, 045009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, J.-W.

X.-B. Wang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations," New. J. Phys. 11, 075006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Chen, H. Liang, Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, W.-Y. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yin, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography," Opt. Express 17, 6540-6549 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-B. Wang, C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, "General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors," Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Simple protocol for secure decoy-state quantum key distribution with a loosely controlled source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based on Polarization Encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peev, M.

V. Scarani, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301-1350 (2009).

Peng, C.-Z.

X.-B. Wang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations," New. J. Phys. 11, 075006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Chen, H. Liang, Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, W.-Y. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yin, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography," Opt. Express 17, 6540-6549 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-B. Wang, C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, "General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors," Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Simple protocol for secure decoy-state quantum key distribution with a loosely controlled source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based on Polarization Encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perdigues, J.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, C. G.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. T. Tyagi, K. P. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels," New J. Phys. 11, 045009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preskill, J.

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices," Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 325-360 (2004).

Qi, B.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, "Quantum key distribution with an unknown and untrusted source," Phys. Rev. A 77, 052327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, C. H. Fung, H. K. Lo, and X. Ma, "Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems," Quant. Info. Comput. 7, 073-082 (2007).

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, "Experimental Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, "Experimental Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rarity, J. G.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rice, P. R.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. T. Tyagi, K. P. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels," New J. Phys. 11, 045009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, D.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. T. Tyagi, K. P. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels," New J. Phys. 11, 045009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanders, B.C.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor, and B.C. Sanders, "Limitations on Practical Quantum Cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330-1333 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, M.

Sauge, S.

Q. Wang, W. Chen, G. Xavier, M. Swillo, T. Zhang, S. Sauge, M. Tengner, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and A. Karlsson "Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scarani, V.

Raymond Y. Q. Cai and V. Scarani, "Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution," New J. Phys. 11, 045024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301-1350 (2009).

Scheidl, T.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, A. W.

Z.-L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure one-way quantum key distribution using decoy pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A.W.

Shields, A. J.

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A.W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate," Opt. Express 16, 18790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z.-L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure one-way quantum key distribution using decoy pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Skaar, J.

V. Makarov, A. Anisimov, and J. Skaar, "Effects of detector efficiency mismatch on security of quantum cryptosystems," Phys. Rev. A 74, 022313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sodnik, Z.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swillo, M.

Q. Wang, W. Chen, G. Xavier, M. Swillo, T. Zhang, S. Sauge, M. Tengner, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and A. Karlsson "Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajima, A.

Takahashi, S.

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, A.

Tengner, M.

Q. Wang, W. Chen, G. Xavier, M. Swillo, T. Zhang, S. Sauge, M. Tengner, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and A. Karlsson "Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiefenbacher, F.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

Tyagi, K. T.

D. Rosenberg, C. G. Peterson, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, N. Dallmann, K. T. Tyagi, K. P. McCabe, S. Nam, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Practical long-distance quantum key distribution system using decoy levels," New J. Phys. 11, 045009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ursin, R.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, W. Chen, G. Xavier, M. Swillo, T. Zhang, S. Sauge, M. Tengner, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and A. Karlsson "Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.-B.

X.-B. Wang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations," New. J. Phys. 11, 075006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, "General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors," Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, "Decoy-state quantum key distribution with large random errors of light intensity," Phys. Rev. A 75, 052301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Simple protocol for secure decoy-state quantum key distribution with a loosely controlled source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based on Polarization Encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-B. Wang, "Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-B. Wang, "Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Weier, H.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinfurter, H.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xavier, G.

Q. Wang, W. Chen, G. Xavier, M. Swillo, T. Zhang, S. Sauge, M. Tengner, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and A. Karlsson "Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based on Polarization Encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

X.-B. Wang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations," New. J. Phys. 11, 075006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, "General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors," Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based on Polarization Encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, H.

T.-Y. Chen, H. Liang, Y. Liu, W.-Q. Cai, L. Ju, W.-Y. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yin, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography," Opt. Express 17, 6540-6549 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based on Polarization Encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

Yuan, Z. L.

Yuan, Z.-L.

Z.-L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure one-way quantum key distribution using decoy pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. P. Yuen, "Quantum amplifiers, quantum duplicators and quantum cryptography," Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8, 939-949 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.-P.

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based on Polarization Encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

X.-B. Wang, C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, "General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors," Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based on Polarization Encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

Q. Wang, W. Chen, G. Xavier, M. Swillo, T. Zhang, S. Sauge, M. Tengner, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and A. Karlsson "Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, "Quantum key distribution with an unknown and untrusted source," Phys. Rev. A 77, 052327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, "Experimental Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X.-B. Wang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Simple protocol for secure decoy-state quantum key distribution with a loosely controlled source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z.-L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure one-way quantum key distribution using decoy pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D

H. Inamori, N. Lütkenhaus, D. Mayers, "Unconditional security of practical quantum key distribution," Eur. Phys. J. D 41, 599-627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 343-348 (2007).
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Raymond Y. Q. Cai and V. Scarani, "Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution," New J. Phys. 11, 045024 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

New. J. Phys.

X.-B. Wang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, "Decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations," New. J. Phys. 11, 075006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

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Phys. Rev. A

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X.-B. Wang, C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, L. Yang, and J.-W. Pan, "General theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography with source errors," Phys. Rev. A 77, 042311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, "Quantum key distribution with an unknown and untrusted source," Phys. Rev. A 77, 052327 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, "Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012322 (2005).
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H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-B. Wang, "Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, "Experimental Quantum Key Distribution with Decoy States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W.-B. Gao, H.-X. Ma, H. Yin, H.-P. Zeng, T. Yang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based on Polarization Encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, "Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).
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T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, W. Chen, G. Xavier, M. Swillo, T. Zhang, S. Sauge, M. Tengner, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and A. Karlsson "Experimental Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with a Sub-Poissionian Heralded Single-Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090501 (2008).
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B. Qi, C. H. Fung, H. K. Lo, and X. Ma, "Time-shift attack in practical quantum cryptosystems," Quant. Info. Comput. 7, 073-082 (2007).

Quantum Inf. Comput.

D. Gottesman, H.-K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, and J. Preskill, "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices," Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 325-360 (2004).

Quantum Semiclass. Opt.

H. P. Yuen, "Quantum amplifiers, quantum duplicators and quantum cryptography," Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 8, 939-949 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
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V. Scarani, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301-1350 (2009).

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J. W. Harrington, J. M Ettinger, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "Enhancing practical security of quantum key distribution with a few decoy states," eprint arXiv: quant-ph/0503002 (2005).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of our set-up. BS: polarization maintaining beam splitter, PBS: polarization maintaining polarization beam splitter, SBS: single mode beam splitter, SPBS: single mode polarization beam splitter, FF: 0.2 nm band-pass filter, Att: attenuator, SOA: Semiconductor Optical Amplifier, PD: photo detector, TDC: Time to Digital Converter. PC: polarization controller.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Experimental parameters (P) and their corresponding value of 200 km (Value) decoy-state QKD. E μ′(μ) is the quantum bit error rate of the signal states (decoy states). The S μ��(μ,0) is the count rate that comes from signal states (decoy states, vacuum states). s1,s 1 are the single-photon count rate which comes from signal states (decoy states). The E μ′(μ) U denotes QBER upper bound while the E 1 μ′(μ) is QBER upper bound for single-photon.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ μ = e μ 0 0 + μ e μ 1 1 + c ρ c ,
ρ μ ' = e μ ' 0 0 + μ ' e μ ' 1 1 + μ ' 2 e μ ' μ 2 e μ c ρ c + d ρ d .
S μ = e μ s 0 + μ e μ s 1 c s c ,
c s c μ 2 e μ μ 2 e μ ( S μ μ e μ s 1 e μ s 0 ) ,
E μ ' ( μ ) U = E μ ' ( μ ) + 10 E μ ' ( μ ) C μ ' ( μ ) L μ ' ( μ ) ,
Δ 1 μ ' = s ' 1 μ ' e μ ' / S μ ' , Δ 1 μ = s 1 μ e μ / S μ
E 1 μ ' ( μ ) = [ E μ ' ( μ ) U ( 1 r 0 ) S 0 e μ ' ( μ ) 2 S μ ' ( μ ) ] / Δ 1 μ ' ( μ ) .
R μ ' = S μ ' [ Δ 1 μ ' H ( E μ ' ) Δ 1 μ ' H ( E 1 μ ' ) ] .
R μ = S μ [ Δ 1 μ H ( E μ ) Δ 1 μ H ( E 1 μ ) ] .
K μ ' ( μ ) = 1 2 ( 1 L μ ' ( μ ) ) R μ ' ( μ ) N μ ' ( μ ) .

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