Abstract

We demonstrate the monolithic integration of germanium (Ge) p-i-n photodetector (PDs) with silicon (Si) variable optical attenuator (VOAs) based on submicrometer Si rib waveguide. A PD is connected to a VOA along the waveguide via a tap coupler. The PDs exhibit low dark current of ~60 nA and large responsivity of ~0.8 A/W at the reverse bias of 1 V at room temperature. These characteristics are uniform over the chip scale. The PDs generate photocurrents precisely with respect to DC optical power attenuated by the VOAs. Two devices work synchronously for modulated optical signals as well. 3-dB cut-off frequency of the VOA is ~100 MHz, while that of the PD is ~1 GHz. The synchronous response speed is limited by the VOA response speed. This is the first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, of monolithic integration of Ge PDs with high-carrier-injection-based optical modulation devices based on Si.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (3)

2008 (5)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11513–11518 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-15-11513 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Zheng, B. T. Smith, and M. Asghari, “Improved efficiency Si-photonic attenuator,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16754–16765 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-21-16754 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, ““Effect of post-growth annealing on morphology of Ge mesa selectively grown on Si,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 91-C, 181 (2008).

2007 (5)

Z. Huang, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Effectiveness of SiGe buffer layers in reducing dark currents of Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(3), 238–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-15-9843 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Moon, K. Choi, S. Mun, and C. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2045–2047 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(2), 740–746 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-24-2-740 .
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, C. W. Cho, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, “In-line channel power monitor based on helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1882–1884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw. 4(11), 737 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JON-4-11-737 .
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, ““Microphotonics devices Based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 87-C, 351 (2004).

1999 (1)

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. Dai, J. Pan, and C. Lin, “All-optical gain control of in-line erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for hybrid analog/digital WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 737–739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. A. de Albuquerque, A. J. N. Houghton, and S. Malmros, “Field trials for fiber access in the EC,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 32(2), 40–48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Tang, G. T. Reed, A. J. Walton, and A. G. Rickman, “Low-loss, single-model optical phase modulator in SIMOX material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(8), 1394–1400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Asghari, M.

Banerjee, A.

Banerjee, S. K.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Effectiveness of SiGe buffer layers in reducing dark currents of Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(3), 238–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Effectiveness of SiGe buffer layers in reducing dark currents of Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(3), 238–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, J.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, W. Y.

Y. Liu, C. W. Cho, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, “In-line channel power monitor based on helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1882–1884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. W.

Y. Liu, C. W. Cho, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, “In-line channel power monitor based on helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1882–1884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.

J. Moon, K. Choi, S. Mun, and C. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2045–2047 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, F.

Crozat, P.

Dai, H.

H. Dai, J. Pan, and C. Lin, “All-optical gain control of in-line erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for hybrid analog/digital WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 737–739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Damlencourt, J. F.

Danielson, D. T.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Albuquerque, A. A.

A. A. de Albuquerque, A. J. N. Houghton, and S. Malmros, “Field trials for fiber access in the EC,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 32(2), 40–48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deneault, S.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

El Melhaoui, L.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Fujiwara, M.

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, ““Microphotonics devices Based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 87-C, 351 (2004).

Gan, F.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giziewicz, W.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grein, M. E.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-Y.

Houghton, A. J. N.

A. A. de Albuquerque, A. J. N. Houghton, and S. Malmros, “Field trials for fiber access in the EC,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 32(2), 40–48 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Effectiveness of SiGe buffer layers in reducing dark currents of Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(3), 238–242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. Ö.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, Y.

S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, Y. Tsusaka, and J. Matsui, “Strain and absorption coefficient of finite Ge structures on Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 064501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, ““Effect of post-growth annealing on morphology of Ge mesa selectively grown on Si,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 91-C, 181 (2008).

Itabashi, S.

S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, ““Effect of post-growth annealing on morphology of Ge mesa selectively grown on Si,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 91-C, 181 (2008).

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, ““Microphotonics devices Based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 87-C, 351 (2004).

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Iwatsuki, K.

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kani, J.

Kärtner, F. X.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

Kimerling, L. C.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1198–1200 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-8-1198 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
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J. Moon, K. Choi, S. Mun, and C. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2045–2047 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
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H. Dai, J. Pan, and C. Lin, “All-optical gain control of in-line erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for hybrid analog/digital WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 737–739 (1997).
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Liu, J.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1198–1200 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-8-1198 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
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Y. Liu, C. W. Cho, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, “In-line channel power monitor based on helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1882–1884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
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Matsui, J.

S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, Y. Tsusaka, and J. Matsui, “Strain and absorption coefficient of finite Ge structures on Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 064501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1198–1200 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-8-1198 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J.

J. Moon, K. Choi, S. Mun, and C. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2045–2047 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, ““Microphotonics devices Based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 87-C, 351 (2004).

Mukherjee, B.

Mun, S.

J. Moon, K. Choi, S. Mun, and C. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2045–2047 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, H.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Nishihara, S.

S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, K.

S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Huang, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, and J. C. Campbell, “Effectiveness of SiGe buffer layers in reducing dark currents of Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(3), 238–242 (2007).
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J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J.

H. Dai, J. Pan, and C. Lin, “All-optical gain control of in-line erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for hybrid analog/digital WDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 737–739 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, Y. Tsusaka, and J. Matsui, “Strain and absorption coefficient of finite Ge structures on Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 064501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, ““Effect of post-growth annealing on morphology of Ge mesa selectively grown on Si,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 91-C, 181 (2008).

Park, Y.

Pascal, D.

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K.

Reed, G. T.

C. K. Tang, G. T. Reed, A. J. Walton, and A. G. Rickman, “Low-loss, single-model optical phase modulator in SIMOX material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(8), 1394–1400 (1994).
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Rickman, A. G.

C. K. Tang, G. T. Reed, A. J. Walton, and A. G. Rickman, “Low-loss, single-model optical phase modulator in SIMOX material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(8), 1394–1400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rouvière, M.

Sandland, J. G.

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shinojima, H.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, ““Microphotonics devices Based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 87-C, 351 (2004).

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Song, H.

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M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Suzuki, H.

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, ““Microphotonics devices Based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 87-C, 351 (2004).

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, ““Microphotonics devices Based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 87-C, 351 (2004).

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, ““Microphotonics devices Based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 87-C, 351 (2004).

Tang, C. K.

C. K. Tang, G. T. Reed, A. J. Walton, and A. G. Rickman, “Low-loss, single-model optical phase modulator in SIMOX material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(8), 1394–1400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

Y. Liu, C. W. Cho, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, “In-line channel power monitor based on helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1882–1884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, ““Effect of post-growth annealing on morphology of Ge mesa selectively grown on Si,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 91-C, 181 (2008).

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, ““Microphotonics devices Based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 87-C, 351 (2004).

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Tsusaka, Y.

S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, Y. Tsusaka, and J. Matsui, “Strain and absorption coefficient of finite Ge structures on Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 064501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, S.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, ““Microphotonics devices Based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 87-C, 351 (2004).

Vivien, L.

Wada, K.

S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, Y. Tsusaka, and J. Matsui, “Strain and absorption coefficient of finite Ge structures on Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(6), 064501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, ““Effect of post-growth annealing on morphology of Ge mesa selectively grown on Si,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 91-C, 181 (2008).

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. Ö. Ilday, F. X. Kärtner, and J. Yasaitis, “High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(10), 103501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walton, A. J.

C. K. Tang, G. T. Reed, A. J. Walton, and A. G. Rickman, “Low-loss, single-model optical phase modulator in SIMOX material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(8), 1394–1400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, ““Effect of post-growth annealing on morphology of Ge mesa selectively grown on Si,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 91-C, 181 (2008).

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, ““Microphotonics devices Based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 87-C, 351 (2004).

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Yamada, K.

S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, ““Effect of post-growth annealing on morphology of Ge mesa selectively grown on Si,” IEICE Trans. Electron,” E 91-C, 181 (2008).

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image after Ge selective epitaxial growth on a Si slab. (b) Schematic cross-sections of Si VOA (top) and Ge photodetector (bottom). (c) Optical microscope image of as-fabricated devices.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) I-V curves of a Ge PD under dark condition varying temperature from 161 to 313 K. (b) Arrhenius plots of dark current at reverse biases of 0.5, 1, and 2 V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) I-V curves of a Ge PD under dark and illuminated conditions. (b) Measured dark currents and responsivities of Ge PDs on eight separate optical channels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) I-V curves of a Ge PD under dark and illumination conditions as forward current (0 - 150 mA) was injected to Si VOA. (b) Photocurrent at the PD and optical power through output fiber at various injection currents.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Block diagram for measurement of the pseudo-random beam stream (PRBS) at the optical output and Ge PD as the Si VOA is modulated by pulsed signal from the pulse pattern generator (PPG). (b) Pulse trains measured at the output fiber and Ge PD with a 29-1 PRBS at 100 MHz. (c) 20-ns single pulse response at the output fiber and Ge PD with varying PPG bias.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Block diagram for measurement of synchronous frequency response between the Si VOA and Ge PD. (b) Separately measured frequency responses of a Si VOA at injection current of 10 and 50 mA and of a Ge PD at −1 and −10 V. (c) Synchronous frequency responses between the Si VOA and Ge PD at injection current of 10 and 50 mA with the Ge PD at −1 (solid) and −10 V (dotted).

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