Abstract

A red phosphor CaZnOS:Eu2+ was synthesized by solid state reaction and has been evaluated as a candidate for white LEDs. For this material, the XRD, PL, PL excitation (PLE) and diffuse reflection spectra have also been investigated. CaZnOS:Eu2+ reveals a broad absorption band and good color purity. By utilizing a mixture of red-emitting CaZnOS:Eu2+, green-emitting (Ba,Sr)2SiO4:Eu2+ and yellow-emitting Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ as light converters, an intense white InGaN-based blue-LED (~460 nm) was fabricated to exhibit a high color-rendering index Ra of 85 at a correlated color temperature of 4870 K. Based on the results, we are currently evaluating the potential application of CaZnOS:Eu2+ as a red-emitting blue-chip convertible phosphor.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. S. Nakamura, and G. Fasol, The blue Laser Diode: GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers, (Springer: Berlin, 1997).
  2. S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Dorenbos, “Energy of the first 4f7→4f65d transition of Eu2+ in inorganic compounds,” J. Lumin. 104(4), 239–260 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. W. Kuo, W. R. Liu, and T. M. Chen, “Emission color variation of (Ba,Sr)3BP3O12:Eu2+ phosphors for white light LEDs,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1888–1897 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Chartier, C. Barthou, P. Benalloul, and J. M. Frigerio, “Bandgap Energy of SrGa2S4:Eu2+ and SrS:Eu2+,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(2), G53–G55 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. N. Georgobiani, A. N. Gruzintsev, T. V. Nikiforova, X. Xurong, and Y. Wang, “Deep Traps in CaS:Eu and CaS:Ce Phosphors,” Inorg. Mater. 36(11), 1290–1295 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. N. Kim, J. M. Kim, K. J. Choi, J. K. Park, and C. H. Kim, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Luminescent Properties of CaS:Eu Phosphor,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(11), 3413–3416 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. A. Petrova, V. P. Marevich, R. G. Zakharov, E. N. Selivanov, V. M. Chumarev, and L. Yu. Udoeva, “Crystal Structure of Zinc Calcium Oxysulfide,” Dokl. Chem. 393(1-3), 255–258 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Sambrook, C. F. Smura, S. J. Clarke, K. M. Ok, and P. S. Halasyamani, “Structure and physical properties of the polar oxysulfide CaZnOS,” Inorg. Chem. 46(7), 2571–2574 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. J. Duan, A. C. A. Delsing, and H. T. Hintzen, “Photoluminescence Properties of Novel Red-Emitting Mn2+-Activated MZnOS (M = Ca, Ba) Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 21(6), 1010–1016 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Xia, F. Huang, W. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Yuan, M. Liu, and J. Shi, “A novel red-emitting Mn-activated BaZnOS phosphor,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 311–314 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Blasse, “Energy transfer in oxidic phosphors,” Philips Res. Rep. 24, 131 (1969).
  13. L. G. Van Uitert, “Characterization of Energy Transfer Interactions between Rare Earth Ions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 114(10), 1048–1053 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. L. Dexter, “A Theory of Sensitized Luminescence in Solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21(5), 836–850 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Blasse, “Energy transfer between inequivalent Eu2+ ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 62(2), 207–211 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Gu, and N. Narendran, “A non-contact method for determining junction temperature of phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Third International Conference on Solid State Lighting, Proceeding of SPIE 5187, 107–114 (2004).
  17. K. H. Bulter, Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors, The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA (1980).

2010

2009

C. J. Duan, A. C. A. Delsing, and H. T. Hintzen, “Photoluminescence Properties of Novel Red-Emitting Mn2+-Activated MZnOS (M = Ca, Ba) Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 21(6), 1010–1016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Xia, F. Huang, W. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Yuan, M. Liu, and J. Shi, “A novel red-emitting Mn-activated BaZnOS phosphor,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Sambrook, C. F. Smura, S. J. Clarke, K. M. Ok, and P. S. Halasyamani, “Structure and physical properties of the polar oxysulfide CaZnOS,” Inorg. Chem. 46(7), 2571–2574 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

C. Chartier, C. Barthou, P. Benalloul, and J. M. Frigerio, “Bandgap Energy of SrGa2S4:Eu2+ and SrS:Eu2+,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(2), G53–G55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Kim, J. M. Kim, K. J. Choi, J. K. Park, and C. H. Kim, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Luminescent Properties of CaS:Eu Phosphor,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(11), 3413–3416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. A. Petrova, V. P. Marevich, R. G. Zakharov, E. N. Selivanov, V. M. Chumarev, and L. Yu. Udoeva, “Crystal Structure of Zinc Calcium Oxysulfide,” Dokl. Chem. 393(1-3), 255–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Dorenbos, “Energy of the first 4f7→4f65d transition of Eu2+ in inorganic compounds,” J. Lumin. 104(4), 239–260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. N. Georgobiani, A. N. Gruzintsev, T. V. Nikiforova, X. Xurong, and Y. Wang, “Deep Traps in CaS:Eu and CaS:Ce Phosphors,” Inorg. Mater. 36(11), 1290–1295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1986

G. Blasse, “Energy transfer between inequivalent Eu2+ ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 62(2), 207–211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1969

G. Blasse, “Energy transfer in oxidic phosphors,” Philips Res. Rep. 24, 131 (1969).

1967

L. G. Van Uitert, “Characterization of Energy Transfer Interactions between Rare Earth Ions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 114(10), 1048–1053 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1953

D. L. Dexter, “A Theory of Sensitized Luminescence in Solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21(5), 836–850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Barthou, C.

C. Chartier, C. Barthou, P. Benalloul, and J. M. Frigerio, “Bandgap Energy of SrGa2S4:Eu2+ and SrS:Eu2+,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(2), G53–G55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benalloul, P.

C. Chartier, C. Barthou, P. Benalloul, and J. M. Frigerio, “Bandgap Energy of SrGa2S4:Eu2+ and SrS:Eu2+,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(2), G53–G55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blasse, G.

G. Blasse, “Energy transfer between inequivalent Eu2+ ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 62(2), 207–211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. Blasse, “Energy transfer in oxidic phosphors,” Philips Res. Rep. 24, 131 (1969).

Chartier, C.

C. Chartier, C. Barthou, P. Benalloul, and J. M. Frigerio, “Bandgap Energy of SrGa2S4:Eu2+ and SrS:Eu2+,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(2), G53–G55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. M.

Choi, K. J.

K. N. Kim, J. M. Kim, K. J. Choi, J. K. Park, and C. H. Kim, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Luminescent Properties of CaS:Eu Phosphor,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(11), 3413–3416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chumarev, V. M.

S. A. Petrova, V. P. Marevich, R. G. Zakharov, E. N. Selivanov, V. M. Chumarev, and L. Yu. Udoeva, “Crystal Structure of Zinc Calcium Oxysulfide,” Dokl. Chem. 393(1-3), 255–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, S. J.

T. Sambrook, C. F. Smura, S. J. Clarke, K. M. Ok, and P. S. Halasyamani, “Structure and physical properties of the polar oxysulfide CaZnOS,” Inorg. Chem. 46(7), 2571–2574 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delsing, A. C. A.

C. J. Duan, A. C. A. Delsing, and H. T. Hintzen, “Photoluminescence Properties of Novel Red-Emitting Mn2+-Activated MZnOS (M = Ca, Ba) Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 21(6), 1010–1016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, “A Theory of Sensitized Luminescence in Solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21(5), 836–850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, P.

P. Dorenbos, “Energy of the first 4f7→4f65d transition of Eu2+ in inorganic compounds,” J. Lumin. 104(4), 239–260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duan, C. J.

C. J. Duan, A. C. A. Delsing, and H. T. Hintzen, “Photoluminescence Properties of Novel Red-Emitting Mn2+-Activated MZnOS (M = Ca, Ba) Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 21(6), 1010–1016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frigerio, J. M.

C. Chartier, C. Barthou, P. Benalloul, and J. M. Frigerio, “Bandgap Energy of SrGa2S4:Eu2+ and SrS:Eu2+,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(2), G53–G55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Georgobiani, A. N.

A. N. Georgobiani, A. N. Gruzintsev, T. V. Nikiforova, X. Xurong, and Y. Wang, “Deep Traps in CaS:Eu and CaS:Ce Phosphors,” Inorg. Mater. 36(11), 1290–1295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gruzintsev, A. N.

A. N. Georgobiani, A. N. Gruzintsev, T. V. Nikiforova, X. Xurong, and Y. Wang, “Deep Traps in CaS:Eu and CaS:Ce Phosphors,” Inorg. Mater. 36(11), 1290–1295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Halasyamani, P. S.

T. Sambrook, C. F. Smura, S. J. Clarke, K. M. Ok, and P. S. Halasyamani, “Structure and physical properties of the polar oxysulfide CaZnOS,” Inorg. Chem. 46(7), 2571–2574 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hintzen, H. T.

C. J. Duan, A. C. A. Delsing, and H. T. Hintzen, “Photoluminescence Properties of Novel Red-Emitting Mn2+-Activated MZnOS (M = Ca, Ba) Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 21(6), 1010–1016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

Y. Xia, F. Huang, W. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Yuan, M. Liu, and J. Shi, “A novel red-emitting Mn-activated BaZnOS phosphor,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. H.

K. N. Kim, J. M. Kim, K. J. Choi, J. K. Park, and C. H. Kim, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Luminescent Properties of CaS:Eu Phosphor,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(11), 3413–3416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. M.

K. N. Kim, J. M. Kim, K. J. Choi, J. K. Park, and C. H. Kim, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Luminescent Properties of CaS:Eu Phosphor,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(11), 3413–3416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. N.

K. N. Kim, J. M. Kim, K. J. Choi, J. K. Park, and C. H. Kim, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Luminescent Properties of CaS:Eu Phosphor,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(11), 3413–3416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, T. W.

Liu, M.

Y. Xia, F. Huang, W. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Yuan, M. Liu, and J. Shi, “A novel red-emitting Mn-activated BaZnOS phosphor,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. R.

Marevich, V. P.

S. A. Petrova, V. P. Marevich, R. G. Zakharov, E. N. Selivanov, V. M. Chumarev, and L. Yu. Udoeva, “Crystal Structure of Zinc Calcium Oxysulfide,” Dokl. Chem. 393(1-3), 255–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nikiforova, T. V.

A. N. Georgobiani, A. N. Gruzintsev, T. V. Nikiforova, X. Xurong, and Y. Wang, “Deep Traps in CaS:Eu and CaS:Ce Phosphors,” Inorg. Mater. 36(11), 1290–1295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ok, K. M.

T. Sambrook, C. F. Smura, S. J. Clarke, K. M. Ok, and P. S. Halasyamani, “Structure and physical properties of the polar oxysulfide CaZnOS,” Inorg. Chem. 46(7), 2571–2574 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. K.

K. N. Kim, J. M. Kim, K. J. Choi, J. K. Park, and C. H. Kim, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Luminescent Properties of CaS:Eu Phosphor,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(11), 3413–3416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petrova, S. A.

S. A. Petrova, V. P. Marevich, R. G. Zakharov, E. N. Selivanov, V. M. Chumarev, and L. Yu. Udoeva, “Crystal Structure of Zinc Calcium Oxysulfide,” Dokl. Chem. 393(1-3), 255–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sambrook, T.

T. Sambrook, C. F. Smura, S. J. Clarke, K. M. Ok, and P. S. Halasyamani, “Structure and physical properties of the polar oxysulfide CaZnOS,” Inorg. Chem. 46(7), 2571–2574 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selivanov, E. N.

S. A. Petrova, V. P. Marevich, R. G. Zakharov, E. N. Selivanov, V. M. Chumarev, and L. Yu. Udoeva, “Crystal Structure of Zinc Calcium Oxysulfide,” Dokl. Chem. 393(1-3), 255–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

Y. Xia, F. Huang, W. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Yuan, M. Liu, and J. Shi, “A novel red-emitting Mn-activated BaZnOS phosphor,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smura, C. F.

T. Sambrook, C. F. Smura, S. J. Clarke, K. M. Ok, and P. S. Halasyamani, “Structure and physical properties of the polar oxysulfide CaZnOS,” Inorg. Chem. 46(7), 2571–2574 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udoeva, L. Yu.

S. A. Petrova, V. P. Marevich, R. G. Zakharov, E. N. Selivanov, V. M. Chumarev, and L. Yu. Udoeva, “Crystal Structure of Zinc Calcium Oxysulfide,” Dokl. Chem. 393(1-3), 255–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Uitert, L. G.

L. G. Van Uitert, “Characterization of Energy Transfer Interactions between Rare Earth Ions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 114(10), 1048–1053 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

Y. Xia, F. Huang, W. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Yuan, M. Liu, and J. Shi, “A novel red-emitting Mn-activated BaZnOS phosphor,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Xia, F. Huang, W. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Yuan, M. Liu, and J. Shi, “A novel red-emitting Mn-activated BaZnOS phosphor,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Georgobiani, A. N. Gruzintsev, T. V. Nikiforova, X. Xurong, and Y. Wang, “Deep Traps in CaS:Eu and CaS:Ce Phosphors,” Inorg. Mater. 36(11), 1290–1295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia, F. Huang, W. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Yuan, M. Liu, and J. Shi, “A novel red-emitting Mn-activated BaZnOS phosphor,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xurong, X.

A. N. Georgobiani, A. N. Gruzintsev, T. V. Nikiforova, X. Xurong, and Y. Wang, “Deep Traps in CaS:Eu and CaS:Ce Phosphors,” Inorg. Mater. 36(11), 1290–1295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, K.

Y. Xia, F. Huang, W. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Yuan, M. Liu, and J. Shi, “A novel red-emitting Mn-activated BaZnOS phosphor,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zakharov, R. G.

S. A. Petrova, V. P. Marevich, R. G. Zakharov, E. N. Selivanov, V. M. Chumarev, and L. Yu. Udoeva, “Crystal Structure of Zinc Calcium Oxysulfide,” Dokl. Chem. 393(1-3), 255–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

C. J. Duan, A. C. A. Delsing, and H. T. Hintzen, “Photoluminescence Properties of Novel Red-Emitting Mn2+-Activated MZnOS (M = Ca, Ba) Phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 21(6), 1010–1016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dokl. Chem.

S. A. Petrova, V. P. Marevich, R. G. Zakharov, E. N. Selivanov, V. M. Chumarev, and L. Yu. Udoeva, “Crystal Structure of Zinc Calcium Oxysulfide,” Dokl. Chem. 393(1-3), 255–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.

C. Chartier, C. Barthou, P. Benalloul, and J. M. Frigerio, “Bandgap Energy of SrGa2S4:Eu2+ and SrS:Eu2+,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9(2), G53–G55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem.

T. Sambrook, C. F. Smura, S. J. Clarke, K. M. Ok, and P. S. Halasyamani, “Structure and physical properties of the polar oxysulfide CaZnOS,” Inorg. Chem. 46(7), 2571–2574 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inorg. Mater.

A. N. Georgobiani, A. N. Gruzintsev, T. V. Nikiforova, X. Xurong, and Y. Wang, “Deep Traps in CaS:Eu and CaS:Ce Phosphors,” Inorg. Mater. 36(11), 1290–1295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

K. N. Kim, J. M. Kim, K. J. Choi, J. K. Park, and C. H. Kim, “Synthesis, Characterization, and Luminescent Properties of CaS:Eu Phosphor,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(11), 3413–3416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

D. L. Dexter, “A Theory of Sensitized Luminescence in Solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21(5), 836–850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

L. G. Van Uitert, “Characterization of Energy Transfer Interactions between Rare Earth Ions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 114(10), 1048–1053 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

P. Dorenbos, “Energy of the first 4f7→4f65d transition of Eu2+ in inorganic compounds,” J. Lumin. 104(4), 239–260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem.

G. Blasse, “Energy transfer between inequivalent Eu2+ ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 62(2), 207–211 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Mater.

Y. Xia, F. Huang, W. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Yuan, M. Liu, and J. Shi, “A novel red-emitting Mn-activated BaZnOS phosphor,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Philips Res. Rep.

G. Blasse, “Energy transfer in oxidic phosphors,” Philips Res. Rep. 24, 131 (1969).

Other

Y. Gu, and N. Narendran, “A non-contact method for determining junction temperature of phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Third International Conference on Solid State Lighting, Proceeding of SPIE 5187, 107–114 (2004).

K. H. Bulter, Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors, The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA (1980).

S. Nakamura, and G. Fasol, The blue Laser Diode: GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers, (Springer: Berlin, 1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD pattern of (Ca0.96Eu0.04)ZnOS powder sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffuse reflection spectra of CaZnOS and (Ca0.96Eu0.04)ZnOS powder samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PLE and PL spectra of (Ca0.96Eu0.04)ZnOS phosphor. (λex. = 460 nm, λem. = 650 nm). Inset: PL intensity of (Ca1-xEux)ZnOS as a function of Eu2+ content.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature-dependent PL spectra of (Ca0.96Eu0.04)ZnOS phosphor excited at 460 nm. Inset: normalized PL intensity as a function of temperature. For comparison, thermal quenching data of SrS:Eu2+ excited at 460 nm were also measured as a reference.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

EL spectra of (a) red pc-LED fabricated with (Ca0.96Eu0.04)ZnOS and (b) white pc-LED fabricated with YAG, BOS and (Ca0.96Eu0.04)ZnOS. The inset shows the red pc-LED and white pc-LED, both driven by a 400 mA current.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The comparison of commodity phosphor and (Ca0.96Eu0.04)ZnOS.

Tables Icon

Table 2 The comparison of commercial pc-LED and those were prepared by combining (a) (Ca0.96Eu0.04)ZnOS and (b) (Ca0.96Eu0.04)ZnOS + YAG + BOS with blue LED.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R c 2 ( 3 V 4 π x c N ) 1 / 3
A = L 0 ( λ ) L i ( λ ) L 0 ( λ )
Φ = E i ( λ ) ( 1 A ) E 0 ( λ ) L e ( λ ) A
ln I I 0 = ln A E a k T

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