Abstract

Two hundred eighty three uniaxial ellipsoids with sizes from 4 mm to 11 mm were measured with a coordinate measuring matching (CMM) and also scanned using a medical computed tomography (CT) machine. Their volumes were determined by counting voxels over a threshold, as well as using equivalent volumes from the length given by the RECIST 1.1 criterion (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors). The volumetric measurements yield an order of magnitude reduction in residuals compared to the CMM measurements than the residuals of the RECIST measurements also compared to the CMM measurements.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (3)

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Xu, H. J. van der Zaag-Loonen, M. Oudkerk, Y. Wang, R. Vliegenthart, E. T. Scholten, J. Verschakelen, M. Prokop, H. J. de Koning, and R. J. van Klaveren, “Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up,” Radiology 250(1), 264–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. I. Henschke and D. F. Yankelevitz, “CT screening for lung cancer: update 2007,” Oncologist 13(1), 65–78 (2008).<jrn[REMOVED IF= FIELD]></jrn>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Henschke and D. F. Yankelevitz, “Erratum for ‘CT screening for lung cancer: Update 2007,’,” Oncologist 13(5), 619 (2008) (</jrn>).<jrn[REMOVED IF= FIELD]>
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. W. Clark, D. S. Gierada, S. M. Moore, D. R. Maffitt, P. Koppel, S. R. Phillips, and F. W. Prior, “Creation of a CT Image Library for the Lung Screening Study of the National Lung Screening Trial,” J. Digit. Imaging 20(1), 23–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. P. Reeves, A. B. Chan, D. F. Yankelevitz, C. I. Henschke, B. Kressler, and W. J. Kostis, “On measuring the change in size of pulmonary nodules,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(4), 435–450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. MacMahon, J. H. M. Austin, G. Gamsu, C. J. Herold, J. R. Jett, D. P. Naidich, E. F. Patz, and S. J. Swensen, “Guidelines for management of small pulmonary nodules detected on CT scans: a statement from the Fleischner Society,” Radiology 237(2), 395–400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

G. N. Hounsfield, “Nobel Award address: Computed medical imaging,” Med. Phys. 7(4), 283–290 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altorki, N. K.

C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbuck, S.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Austin, J. H. M.

H. MacMahon, J. H. M. Austin, G. Gamsu, C. J. Herold, J. R. Jett, D. P. Naidich, E. F. Patz, and S. J. Swensen, “Guidelines for management of small pulmonary nodules detected on CT scans: a statement from the Fleischner Society,” Radiology 237(2), 395–400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, J.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, A. B.

A. P. Reeves, A. B. Chan, D. F. Yankelevitz, C. I. Henschke, B. Kressler, and W. J. Kostis, “On measuring the change in size of pulmonary nodules,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(4), 435–450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, K. W.

K. W. Clark, D. S. Gierada, S. M. Moore, D. R. Maffitt, P. Koppel, S. R. Phillips, and F. W. Prior, “Creation of a CT Image Library for the Lung Screening Study of the National Lung Screening Trial,” J. Digit. Imaging 20(1), 23–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dancey, J.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Koning, H. J.

D. M. Xu, H. J. van der Zaag-Loonen, M. Oudkerk, Y. Wang, R. Vliegenthart, E. T. Scholten, J. Verschakelen, M. Prokop, H. J. de Koning, and R. J. van Klaveren, “Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up,” Radiology 250(1), 264–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dodd, L.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eisenhauer, E. A.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ford, R.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gamsu, G.

H. MacMahon, J. H. M. Austin, G. Gamsu, C. J. Herold, J. R. Jett, D. P. Naidich, E. F. Patz, and S. J. Swensen, “Guidelines for management of small pulmonary nodules detected on CT scans: a statement from the Fleischner Society,” Radiology 237(2), 395–400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gavrielides, M. A.

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gierada, D. S.

K. W. Clark, D. S. Gierada, S. M. Moore, D. R. Maffitt, P. Koppel, S. R. Phillips, and F. W. Prior, “Creation of a CT Image Library for the Lung Screening Study of the National Lung Screening Trial,” J. Digit. Imaging 20(1), 23–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gwyther, S.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Henschke, C. I.

C. I. Henschke and D. F. Yankelevitz, “CT screening for lung cancer: update 2007,” Oncologist 13(1), 65–78 (2008).<jrn[REMOVED IF= FIELD]></jrn>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Henschke and D. F. Yankelevitz, “Erratum for ‘CT screening for lung cancer: Update 2007,’,” Oncologist 13(5), 619 (2008) (</jrn>).<jrn[REMOVED IF= FIELD]>
[CrossRef]

A. P. Reeves, A. B. Chan, D. F. Yankelevitz, C. I. Henschke, B. Kressler, and W. J. Kostis, “On measuring the change in size of pulmonary nodules,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(4), 435–450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herold, C. J.

H. MacMahon, J. H. M. Austin, G. Gamsu, C. J. Herold, J. R. Jett, D. P. Naidich, E. F. Patz, and S. J. Swensen, “Guidelines for management of small pulmonary nodules detected on CT scans: a statement from the Fleischner Society,” Radiology 237(2), 395–400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hounsfield, G. N.

G. N. Hounsfield, “Nobel Award address: Computed medical imaging,” Med. Phys. 7(4), 283–290 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jett, J. R.

H. MacMahon, J. H. M. Austin, G. Gamsu, C. J. Herold, J. R. Jett, D. P. Naidich, E. F. Patz, and S. J. Swensen, “Guidelines for management of small pulmonary nodules detected on CT scans: a statement from the Fleischner Society,” Radiology 237(2), 395–400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, R.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kinnard, L. M.

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koizumi, J.

C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koppel, P.

K. W. Clark, D. S. Gierada, S. M. Moore, D. R. Maffitt, P. Koppel, S. R. Phillips, and F. W. Prior, “Creation of a CT Image Library for the Lung Screening Study of the National Lung Screening Trial,” J. Digit. Imaging 20(1), 23–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kostis, W. J.

A. P. Reeves, A. B. Chan, D. F. Yankelevitz, C. I. Henschke, B. Kressler, and W. J. Kostis, “On measuring the change in size of pulmonary nodules,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(4), 435–450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kressler, B.

A. P. Reeves, A. B. Chan, D. F. Yankelevitz, C. I. Henschke, B. Kressler, and W. J. Kostis, “On measuring the change in size of pulmonary nodules,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(4), 435–450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacombe, D.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Libby, D. M.

C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacMahon, H.

H. MacMahon, J. H. M. Austin, G. Gamsu, C. J. Herold, J. R. Jett, D. P. Naidich, E. F. Patz, and S. J. Swensen, “Guidelines for management of small pulmonary nodules detected on CT scans: a statement from the Fleischner Society,” Radiology 237(2), 395–400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maffitt, D. R.

K. W. Clark, D. S. Gierada, S. M. Moore, D. R. Maffitt, P. Koppel, S. R. Phillips, and F. W. Prior, “Creation of a CT Image Library for the Lung Screening Study of the National Lung Screening Trial,” J. Digit. Imaging 20(1), 23–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McCauley, D. I.

C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGuinness, G.

C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miettinen, O. S.

C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mooney, M.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moore, S. M.

K. W. Clark, D. S. Gierada, S. M. Moore, D. R. Maffitt, P. Koppel, S. R. Phillips, and F. W. Prior, “Creation of a CT Image Library for the Lung Screening Study of the National Lung Screening Trial,” J. Digit. Imaging 20(1), 23–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Myers, K. J.

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naidich, D. P.

H. MacMahon, J. H. M. Austin, G. Gamsu, C. J. Herold, J. R. Jett, D. P. Naidich, E. F. Patz, and S. J. Swensen, “Guidelines for management of small pulmonary nodules detected on CT scans: a statement from the Fleischner Society,” Radiology 237(2), 395–400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oudkerk, M.

D. M. Xu, H. J. van der Zaag-Loonen, M. Oudkerk, Y. Wang, R. Vliegenthart, E. T. Scholten, J. Verschakelen, M. Prokop, H. J. de Koning, and R. J. van Klaveren, “Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up,” Radiology 250(1), 264–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pasmantier, M. W.

C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patz, E. F.

H. MacMahon, J. H. M. Austin, G. Gamsu, C. J. Herold, J. R. Jett, D. P. Naidich, E. F. Patz, and S. J. Swensen, “Guidelines for management of small pulmonary nodules detected on CT scans: a statement from the Fleischner Society,” Radiology 237(2), 395–400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrick, N.

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, S. R.

K. W. Clark, D. S. Gierada, S. M. Moore, D. R. Maffitt, P. Koppel, S. R. Phillips, and F. W. Prior, “Creation of a CT Image Library for the Lung Screening Study of the National Lung Screening Trial,” J. Digit. Imaging 20(1), 23–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prior, F. W.

K. W. Clark, D. S. Gierada, S. M. Moore, D. R. Maffitt, P. Koppel, S. R. Phillips, and F. W. Prior, “Creation of a CT Image Library for the Lung Screening Study of the National Lung Screening Trial,” J. Digit. Imaging 20(1), 23–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prokop, M.

D. M. Xu, H. J. van der Zaag-Loonen, M. Oudkerk, Y. Wang, R. Vliegenthart, E. T. Scholten, J. Verschakelen, M. Prokop, H. J. de Koning, and R. J. van Klaveren, “Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up,” Radiology 250(1), 264–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, A. P.

A. P. Reeves, A. B. Chan, D. F. Yankelevitz, C. I. Henschke, B. Kressler, and W. J. Kostis, “On measuring the change in size of pulmonary nodules,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(4), 435–450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinstein, L.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, D.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scholten, E. T.

D. M. Xu, H. J. van der Zaag-Loonen, M. Oudkerk, Y. Wang, R. Vliegenthart, E. T. Scholten, J. Verschakelen, M. Prokop, H. J. de Koning, and R. J. van Klaveren, “Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up,” Radiology 250(1), 264–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, L. H.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shankar, L.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. P.

C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swensen, S. J.

H. MacMahon, J. H. M. Austin, G. Gamsu, C. J. Herold, J. R. Jett, D. P. Naidich, E. F. Patz, and S. J. Swensen, “Guidelines for management of small pulmonary nodules detected on CT scans: a statement from the Fleischner Society,” Radiology 237(2), 395–400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Therasse, P.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van der Zaag-Loonen, H. J.

D. M. Xu, H. J. van der Zaag-Loonen, M. Oudkerk, Y. Wang, R. Vliegenthart, E. T. Scholten, J. Verschakelen, M. Prokop, H. J. de Koning, and R. J. van Klaveren, “Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up,” Radiology 250(1), 264–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Klaveren, R. J.

D. M. Xu, H. J. van der Zaag-Loonen, M. Oudkerk, Y. Wang, R. Vliegenthart, E. T. Scholten, J. Verschakelen, M. Prokop, H. J. de Koning, and R. J. van Klaveren, “Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up,” Radiology 250(1), 264–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verschakelen, J.

D. M. Xu, H. J. van der Zaag-Loonen, M. Oudkerk, Y. Wang, R. Vliegenthart, E. T. Scholten, J. Verschakelen, M. Prokop, H. J. de Koning, and R. J. van Klaveren, “Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up,” Radiology 250(1), 264–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verweij, J.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vliegenthart, R.

D. M. Xu, H. J. van der Zaag-Loonen, M. Oudkerk, Y. Wang, R. Vliegenthart, E. T. Scholten, J. Verschakelen, M. Prokop, H. J. de Koning, and R. J. van Klaveren, “Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up,” Radiology 250(1), 264–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

D. M. Xu, H. J. van der Zaag-Loonen, M. Oudkerk, Y. Wang, R. Vliegenthart, E. T. Scholten, J. Verschakelen, M. Prokop, H. J. de Koning, and R. J. van Klaveren, “Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up,” Radiology 250(1), 264–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. M.

D. M. Xu, H. J. van der Zaag-Loonen, M. Oudkerk, Y. Wang, R. Vliegenthart, E. T. Scholten, J. Verschakelen, M. Prokop, H. J. de Koning, and R. J. van Klaveren, “Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up,” Radiology 250(1), 264–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yankelevitz, D. F.

C. I. Henschke and D. F. Yankelevitz, “Erratum for ‘CT screening for lung cancer: Update 2007,’,” Oncologist 13(5), 619 (2008) (</jrn>).<jrn[REMOVED IF= FIELD]>
[CrossRef]

C. I. Henschke and D. F. Yankelevitz, “CT screening for lung cancer: update 2007,” Oncologist 13(1), 65–78 (2008).<jrn[REMOVED IF= FIELD]></jrn>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Reeves, A. B. Chan, D. F. Yankelevitz, C. I. Henschke, B. Kressler, and W. J. Kostis, “On measuring the change in size of pulmonary nodules,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(4), 435–450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Cancer (1)

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, J. Verweij, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

A. P. Reeves, A. B. Chan, D. F. Yankelevitz, C. I. Henschke, B. Kressler, and W. J. Kostis, “On measuring the change in size of pulmonary nodules,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 25(4), 435–450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Digit. Imaging (1)

K. W. Clark, D. S. Gierada, S. M. Moore, D. R. Maffitt, P. Koppel, S. R. Phillips, and F. W. Prior, “Creation of a CT Image Library for the Lung Screening Study of the National Lung Screening Trial,” J. Digit. Imaging 20(1), 23–31 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lancet (1)

C. I. Henschke, D. I. McCauley, D. F. Yankelevitz, D. P. Naidich, G. McGuinness, O. S. Miettinen, D. M. Libby, M. W. Pasmantier, J. Koizumi, N. K. Altorki, and J. P. Smith, “Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening,” Lancet 354(9173), 99–105 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

G. N. Hounsfield, “Nobel Award address: Computed medical imaging,” Med. Phys. 7(4), 283–290 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oncologist (2)

C. I. Henschke and D. F. Yankelevitz, “CT screening for lung cancer: update 2007,” Oncologist 13(1), 65–78 (2008).<jrn[REMOVED IF= FIELD]></jrn>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Henschke and D. F. Yankelevitz, “Erratum for ‘CT screening for lung cancer: Update 2007,’,” Oncologist 13(5), 619 (2008) (</jrn>).<jrn[REMOVED IF= FIELD]>
[CrossRef]

Radiology (3)

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Xu, H. J. van der Zaag-Loonen, M. Oudkerk, Y. Wang, R. Vliegenthart, E. T. Scholten, J. Verschakelen, M. Prokop, H. J. de Koning, and R. J. van Klaveren, “Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up,” Radiology 250(1), 264–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. MacMahon, J. H. M. Austin, G. Gamsu, C. J. Herold, J. R. Jett, D. P. Naidich, E. F. Patz, and S. J. Swensen, “Guidelines for management of small pulmonary nodules detected on CT scans: a statement from the Fleischner Society,” Radiology 237(2), 395–400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

N. D. Prionas, S. Ray, and J. M. Boone, “Volume Assessment Accuracy in Computed Tomography: A Phantom Study,” unpublished.

Supplementary Material (11)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Size of ellipsoids a medical CT using the RECIST criterion vs. volume measured with a coordinate-measuring machine for the “base case” with parameters given in the text. A linear fit to the logarithm is shown, along with lines with the same slope with 2.5% of the residuals above the upper line and another 2.5% of the residuals below the lower line. A power law is found with an exponent of 0.31. The upper line is above the central fit by a factor of 1.252 and the lower line is below the central fit by a factor of 0.786.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Volume measured in a medical CT vs. volume measured with a coordinate-measuring machine for the “base case” with parameters given in the text. A linear fit is shown, along with lines with the same slope with 2.5% of the residuals above the upper line and another 2.5% of the residuals below the lower line. Slope and standard deviation are reported in Table 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Elliptic ratio measured in a medical CT vs. elliptic ratio measured with a coordinate-measuring machine for the “base case” with parameters given in the text. Confidence intervals as in Fig. 1. A linear fit is shown, along with lines with the same slope with 2.5% of the residuals above the upper line and another 2.5% of the residuals below the lower line. Slope and standard deviation are reported in Table 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Volume measured in a medical CT vs. volume measured with a coordinate-measuring machine for the case of 1.5 mm slice thickness with parameters given in the text. A linear fit is shown, along with lines with the same slope with 2.5% of the residuals above the upper line and another 2.5% of the residuals below the lower line. Slope and standard deviation are reported in Table 2

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Elliptic ratio measured in a medical CT vs. elliptic ratio measured with a coordinate-measuring machine for the case of 1.5 mm slice thickness with parameters given in the text. Confidence intervals as in Fig. 1. A linear fit is shown, along with lines with the same slope with 2.5% of the residuals above the upper line and another 2.5% of the residuals below the lower line. Slope and standard deviation are reported in Table 2.

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Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Volumes V of spheres as a function of diameter d, according to V = (π/6)d3 .

Tables Icon

Table 2 Slope of volume measured in a medical CT vs. volume measured with a coordinate-measuring machine (CMM), slope of elliptic ratio in a medical CT vs. elliptic ratio measured with a CMM, and the standard deviation of the residuals for both results. Rotation 1 and rotation 2 are two distinct 90° rotations relative to the base case and relative to each other. Volume measurements are used except as noted. View 1 is an annotated screenshot of the ellipsoid sample. Links to the original scans are presented as View 2 through View 11. Media 2 through Media 11 contain an ellipsoid ID in column A and the centroids of the ellipsoids (x, y, z, in mm) in columns B, C, and D.

Metrics