D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46(4), S288–S292 (2009).

[CrossRef]

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Takeoka and M. Sasaki, “Discrimination of the binary coherent signal: Gaussian-operation limit and simple non-Gaussian near-optimal receivers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 022320 (2008).

[CrossRef]

C. Wittmann, M. Takeoka, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Sasaki, G. Leuchs, and U. L. Andersen, “Demonstration of near-optimal discrimination of optical coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(21), 210501 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010503 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. L. Cook, P. J. Martin, and J. M. Geremia, “Optical coherent state discrimination using a closed-loop quantum measurement,” Nature 446(7137), 774–777 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, S. W. Nam, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, A. E. Lita, and A. J. Miller, “Quantum key distribution at telecom wavelengths with noise-free detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021108–021110 (2006).

[CrossRef]

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki and O. Hirota, “Optimum decision scheme with a unitary control process for binary quantum-state signals,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2728–2736 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. W. Helstrom, “Detection theory and quantum mechanics,” Inf. Control 10(3), 254–291 (1967).

[CrossRef]

C. Wittmann, M. Takeoka, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Sasaki, G. Leuchs, and U. L. Andersen, “Demonstration of near-optimal discrimination of optical coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(21), 210501 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

C. Wittmann, M. Takeoka, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Sasaki, G. Leuchs, and U. L. Andersen, “Demonstration of near-optimal discrimination of optical coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(21), 210501 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. L. Cook, P. J. Martin, and J. M. Geremia, “Optical coherent state discrimination using a closed-loop quantum measurement,” Nature 446(7137), 774–777 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46(4), S288–S292 (2009).

[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46(4), S288–S292 (2009).

[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46(4), S288–S292 (2009).

[CrossRef]

R. L. Cook, P. J. Martin, and J. M. Geremia, “Optical coherent state discrimination using a closed-loop quantum measurement,” Nature 446(7137), 774–777 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010503 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. W. Helstrom, “Detection theory and quantum mechanics,” Inf. Control 10(3), 254–291 (1967).

[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki and O. Hirota, “Optimum decision scheme with a unitary control process for binary quantum-state signals,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2728–2736 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010503 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, S. W. Nam, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, A. E. Lita, and A. J. Miller, “Quantum key distribution at telecom wavelengths with noise-free detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021108–021110 (2006).

[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010503 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, S. W. Nam, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, A. E. Lita, and A. J. Miller, “Quantum key distribution at telecom wavelengths with noise-free detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021108–021110 (2006).

[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46(4), S288–S292 (2009).

[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46(4), S288–S292 (2009).

[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46(4), S288–S292 (2009).

[CrossRef]

C. Wittmann, M. Takeoka, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Sasaki, G. Leuchs, and U. L. Andersen, “Demonstration of near-optimal discrimination of optical coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(21), 210501 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010503 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, S. W. Nam, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, A. E. Lita, and A. J. Miller, “Quantum key distribution at telecom wavelengths with noise-free detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021108–021110 (2006).

[CrossRef]

R. L. Cook, P. J. Martin, and J. M. Geremia, “Optical coherent state discrimination using a closed-loop quantum measurement,” Nature 446(7137), 774–777 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, S. W. Nam, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, A. E. Lita, and A. J. Miller, “Quantum key distribution at telecom wavelengths with noise-free detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021108–021110 (2006).

[CrossRef]

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010503 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, S. W. Nam, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, A. E. Lita, and A. J. Miller, “Quantum key distribution at telecom wavelengths with noise-free detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021108–021110 (2006).

[CrossRef]

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010503 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, S. W. Nam, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, A. E. Lita, and A. J. Miller, “Quantum key distribution at telecom wavelengths with noise-free detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021108–021110 (2006).

[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46(4), S288–S292 (2009).

[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010503 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, S. W. Nam, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, A. E. Lita, and A. J. Miller, “Quantum key distribution at telecom wavelengths with noise-free detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021108–021110 (2006).

[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010503 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010503 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, S. W. Nam, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, A. E. Lita, and A. J. Miller, “Quantum key distribution at telecom wavelengths with noise-free detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021108–021110 (2006).

[CrossRef]

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

C. Wittmann, M. Takeoka, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Sasaki, G. Leuchs, and U. L. Andersen, “Demonstration of near-optimal discrimination of optical coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(21), 210501 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Takeoka and M. Sasaki, “Discrimination of the binary coherent signal: Gaussian-operation limit and simple non-Gaussian near-optimal receivers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 022320 (2008).

[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki and O. Hirota, “Optimum decision scheme with a unitary control process for binary quantum-state signals,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2728–2736 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

C. Wittmann, M. Takeoka, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Sasaki, G. Leuchs, and U. L. Andersen, “Demonstration of near-optimal discrimination of optical coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(21), 210501 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Takeoka and M. Sasaki, “Discrimination of the binary coherent signal: Gaussian-operation limit and simple non-Gaussian near-optimal receivers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 022320 (2008).

[CrossRef]

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46(4), S288–S292 (2009).

[CrossRef]

C. Wittmann, M. Takeoka, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Sasaki, G. Leuchs, and U. L. Andersen, “Demonstration of near-optimal discrimination of optical coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(21), 210501 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46(4), S288–S292 (2009).

[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46(4), S288–S292 (2009).

[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, S. W. Nam, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, A. E. Lita, and A. J. Miller, “Quantum key distribution at telecom wavelengths with noise-free detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(2), 021108–021110 (2006).

[CrossRef]

C. W. Helstrom, “Detection theory and quantum mechanics,” Inf. Control 10(3), 254–291 (1967).

[CrossRef]

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Photon number resolving detection with high speed and high quantum efficiency,” Metrologia 46(4), S288–S292 (2009).

[CrossRef]

R. L. Cook, P. J. Martin, and J. M. Geremia, “Optical coherent state discrimination using a closed-loop quantum measurement,” Nature 446(7137), 774–777 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Di Giuseppe, M. Atatüre, M. D. Shaw, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, M. C. Teich, A. J. Miller, S. W. Nam, and J. Martinis, “Direct observation of photon pairs at a single output port of a beam-splitter interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063817 (2003).

[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki and O. Hirota, “Optimum decision scheme with a unitary control process for binary quantum-state signals,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2728–2736 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Takeoka and M. Sasaki, “Discrimination of the binary coherent signal: Gaussian-operation limit and simple non-Gaussian near-optimal receivers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 022320 (2008).

[CrossRef]

C. Wittmann, M. Takeoka, K. N. Cassemiro, M. Sasaki, G. Leuchs, and U. L. Andersen, “Demonstration of near-optimal discrimination of optical coherent states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(21), 210501 (2008).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, J. W. Harrington, P. R. Rice, P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, R. J. Hughes, A. E. Lita, S. W. Nam, and J. E. Nordholt, “Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution in Optical Fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010503 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. S. Kennedy, “A near-optimal receiver for the binary coherent state quantum channel,” Research Laboratory of Electronics, MIT, Quarterly Progress Report No. 108, 1973 (unpublished), pp. 219–225.

S. Dolinar, “An optimal receiver for the binary coherent state quantum channel”, Research Laboratory of Electronics, MIT, Quarterly Progress Report No. 111, 1973 (unpublised), pp. 115–120.

C. W. Helstrom, Quantum Detection and Estimation Theory (Academic Press, New York, 1976)