Abstract

Laser emission over a broad range of frequencies from 2.8 to 4.1 THz is reported for a two-quantum well, photon-phonon cascade structure. Maximum operating temperatures of 125 K are reported, with optical peak powers in eccess of 30 mW from a double-metal ridge waveguide. The broadband nature of the gain curve is identified as due to coherent coupling of the injector and upper lasing states. Internal quantum efficiencies reaching 43 % are evaluated at 10 K. The laser operates in both polarities, showing laser action in reverse bias up to a temperature of 90 K. Simulations based on a full treatment of the structure with density matrix formalism are also presented and discussed.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. S. Williams, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Nature Photonics 1, 517-525 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. Julien, S. Sauvage, S. Cabaret, J. Lourtioz, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (≈ 15.5μm) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3619-3621 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Scalari, M. Amanti, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Two-well quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.7 to 4.1 THz," Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells, Montreal, Canada, September 2009, http://www.itqw2009.com/index.php.
  7. S. Kumar, C. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Two-well terahertz quantum-cascade laser with direct intrawell-phonon depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, "Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, unpublished (2009).
  11. M. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," New Journ. Phys. 11, 125022 (2009).
  12. G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Population inversion by resonant tunneling in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 032103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, "Sequential resonant tunneling in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 4 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Unuma, M. Yoshita, T. Noda, H. Sakaki, and H. Akiyama, "Intersubband absorption linewidth in GaAs quantum wells due to scattering by interface roughness, phonons, alloy disorder, and impurities," J. Appl. Phys. 93(3), 1586-1597 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Tsujino, A. Borak, E. Müller, M. Scheinert, C. Falub, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Interface-roughness-induced broadening of intersubband electroluminescence in p-SiGe and n-GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(06), 062113 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, and A. Cho, "A multiwavelength semiconductor laser," Nature 396, 350-353 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Freeman, O. Marshall, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable emission in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 16(24), 19,830-19,835 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Lever, N. Hinchcliffe, S. P. Khanna, P. Dean, Z. Ikonic, C. A. Evans, A. Davies, P. Harrison, E. Linfield, and R. W. Kelsall, "Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 17(22), 19,926-19,932 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Kumar and Q. Hu, "Coherence of resonant-tunneling transport in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. B 80, 245316 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Cho, "Bidirectional semiconductor laser," Science 286, 749-752 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, C. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Two-well terahertz quantum-cascade laser with direct intrawell-phonon depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," New Journ. Phys. 11, 125022 (2009).

L. Lever, N. Hinchcliffe, S. P. Khanna, P. Dean, Z. Ikonic, C. A. Evans, A. Davies, P. Harrison, E. Linfield, and R. W. Kelsall, "Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 17(22), 19,926-19,932 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar and Q. Hu, "Coherence of resonant-tunneling transport in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. B 80, 245316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, "Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Freeman, O. Marshall, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable emission in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 16(24), 19,830-19,835 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, "Sequential resonant tunneling in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Population inversion by resonant tunneling in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 032103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Nature Photonics 1, 517-525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsujino, A. Borak, E. Müller, M. Scheinert, C. Falub, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Interface-roughness-induced broadening of intersubband electroluminescence in p-SiGe and n-GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(06), 062113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Unuma, M. Yoshita, T. Noda, H. Sakaki, and H. Akiyama, "Intersubband absorption linewidth in GaAs quantum wells due to scattering by interface roughness, phonons, alloy disorder, and impurities," J. Appl. Phys. 93(3), 1586-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Cho, "Bidirectional semiconductor laser," Science 286, 749-752 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, and A. Cho, "A multiwavelength semiconductor laser," Nature 396, 350-353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. Julien, S. Sauvage, S. Cabaret, J. Lourtioz, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (≈ 15.5μm) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, H.

T. Unuma, M. Yoshita, T. Noda, H. Sakaki, and H. Akiyama, "Intersubband absorption linewidth in GaAs quantum wells due to scattering by interface roughness, phonons, alloy disorder, and impurities," J. Appl. Phys. 93(3), 1586-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amanti, M.

M. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," New Journ. Phys. 11, 125022 (2009).

Beck, M.

M. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," New Journ. Phys. 11, 125022 (2009).

Beere, H.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Freeman, O. Marshall, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable emission in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 16(24), 19,830-19,835 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkin, M.

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, "Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borak, A.

S. Tsujino, A. Borak, E. Müller, M. Scheinert, C. Falub, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Interface-roughness-induced broadening of intersubband electroluminescence in p-SiGe and n-GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(06), 062113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. Julien, S. Sauvage, S. Cabaret, J. Lourtioz, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (≈ 15.5μm) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cabaret, S.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. Julien, S. Sauvage, S. Cabaret, J. Lourtioz, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (≈ 15.5μm) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, "Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Cho, "Bidirectional semiconductor laser," Science 286, 749-752 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, and A. Cho, "A multiwavelength semiconductor laser," Nature 396, 350-353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C.

S. Kumar, C. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Two-well terahertz quantum-cascade laser with direct intrawell-phonon depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A.

C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Cho, "Bidirectional semiconductor laser," Science 286, 749-752 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, and A. Cho, "A multiwavelength semiconductor laser," Nature 396, 350-353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A.

L. Lever, N. Hinchcliffe, S. P. Khanna, P. Dean, Z. Ikonic, C. A. Evans, A. Davies, P. Harrison, E. Linfield, and R. W. Kelsall, "Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 17(22), 19,926-19,932 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, "Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dean, P.

L. Lever, N. Hinchcliffe, S. P. Khanna, P. Dean, Z. Ikonic, C. A. Evans, A. Davies, P. Harrison, E. Linfield, and R. W. Kelsall, "Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 17(22), 19,926-19,932 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. A.

L. Lever, N. Hinchcliffe, S. P. Khanna, P. Dean, Z. Ikonic, C. A. Evans, A. Davies, P. Harrison, E. Linfield, and R. W. Kelsall, "Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 17(22), 19,926-19,932 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

M. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," New Journ. Phys. 11, 125022 (2009).

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, "Sequential resonant tunneling in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Population inversion by resonant tunneling in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 032103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsujino, A. Borak, E. Müller, M. Scheinert, C. Falub, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Interface-roughness-induced broadening of intersubband electroluminescence in p-SiGe and n-GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(06), 062113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Falub, C.

S. Tsujino, A. Borak, E. Müller, M. Scheinert, C. Falub, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Interface-roughness-induced broadening of intersubband electroluminescence in p-SiGe and n-GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(06), 062113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, "Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

M. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," New Journ. Phys. 11, 125022 (2009).

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, J.

J. Freeman, O. Marshall, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable emission in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 16(24), 19,830-19,835 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gallo, P.

M. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," New Journ. Phys. 11, 125022 (2009).

Gauthier-Lafaye, O.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. Julien, S. Sauvage, S. Cabaret, J. Lourtioz, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (≈ 15.5μm) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Population inversion by resonant tunneling in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 032103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsujino, A. Borak, E. Müller, M. Scheinert, C. Falub, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Interface-roughness-induced broadening of intersubband electroluminescence in p-SiGe and n-GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(06), 062113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Cho, "Bidirectional semiconductor laser," Science 286, 749-752 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, and A. Cho, "A multiwavelength semiconductor laser," Nature 396, 350-353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gresch, T.

R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, "Sequential resonant tunneling in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grützmacher, D.

S. Tsujino, A. Borak, E. Müller, M. Scheinert, C. Falub, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Interface-roughness-induced broadening of intersubband electroluminescence in p-SiGe and n-GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(06), 062113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, P.

L. Lever, N. Hinchcliffe, S. P. Khanna, P. Dean, Z. Ikonic, C. A. Evans, A. Davies, P. Harrison, E. Linfield, and R. W. Kelsall, "Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 17(22), 19,926-19,932 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hinchcliffe, N.

L. Lever, N. Hinchcliffe, S. P. Khanna, P. Dean, Z. Ikonic, C. A. Evans, A. Davies, P. Harrison, E. Linfield, and R. W. Kelsall, "Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 17(22), 19,926-19,932 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoyler, N.

G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Population inversion by resonant tunneling in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 032103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

S. Kumar and Q. Hu, "Coherence of resonant-tunneling transport in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. B 80, 245316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, C. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Two-well terahertz quantum-cascade laser with direct intrawell-phonon depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A.

C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Cho, "Bidirectional semiconductor laser," Science 286, 749-752 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, and A. Cho, "A multiwavelength semiconductor laser," Nature 396, 350-353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ikonic, Z.

L. Lever, N. Hinchcliffe, S. P. Khanna, P. Dean, Z. Ikonic, C. A. Evans, A. Davies, P. Harrison, E. Linfield, and R. W. Kelsall, "Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 17(22), 19,926-19,932 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julien, F.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. Julien, S. Sauvage, S. Cabaret, J. Lourtioz, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (≈ 15.5μm) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

M. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," New Journ. Phys. 11, 125022 (2009).

Kelsall, R. W.

L. Lever, N. Hinchcliffe, S. P. Khanna, P. Dean, Z. Ikonic, C. A. Evans, A. Davies, P. Harrison, E. Linfield, and R. W. Kelsall, "Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 17(22), 19,926-19,932 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S.

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, "Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. P.

L. Lever, N. Hinchcliffe, S. P. Khanna, P. Dean, Z. Ikonic, C. A. Evans, A. Davies, P. Harrison, E. Linfield, and R. W. Kelsall, "Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 17(22), 19,926-19,932 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, C. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Two-well terahertz quantum-cascade laser with direct intrawell-phonon depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar and Q. Hu, "Coherence of resonant-tunneling transport in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. B 80, 245316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lachab, M.

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, "Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lever, L.

L. Lever, N. Hinchcliffe, S. P. Khanna, P. Dean, Z. Ikonic, C. A. Evans, A. Davies, P. Harrison, E. Linfield, and R. W. Kelsall, "Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 17(22), 19,926-19,932 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E.

L. Lever, N. Hinchcliffe, S. P. Khanna, P. Dean, Z. Ikonic, C. A. Evans, A. Davies, P. Harrison, E. Linfield, and R. W. Kelsall, "Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 17(22), 19,926-19,932 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, "Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lourtioz, J.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. Julien, S. Sauvage, S. Cabaret, J. Lourtioz, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (≈ 15.5μm) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, O.

J. Freeman, O. Marshall, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable emission in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 16(24), 19,830-19,835 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Müller, E.

S. Tsujino, A. Borak, E. Müller, M. Scheinert, C. Falub, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Interface-roughness-induced broadening of intersubband electroluminescence in p-SiGe and n-GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(06), 062113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noda, T.

T. Unuma, M. Yoshita, T. Noda, H. Sakaki, and H. Akiyama, "Intersubband absorption linewidth in GaAs quantum wells due to scattering by interface roughness, phonons, alloy disorder, and impurities," J. Appl. Phys. 93(3), 1586-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Planel, R.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. Julien, S. Sauvage, S. Cabaret, J. Lourtioz, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (≈ 15.5μm) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J.

S. Kumar, C. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Two-well terahertz quantum-cascade laser with direct intrawell-phonon depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Freeman, O. Marshall, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable emission in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 16(24), 19,830-19,835 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudra, A.

M. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," New Journ. Phys. 11, 125022 (2009).

Sakaki, H.

T. Unuma, M. Yoshita, T. Noda, H. Sakaki, and H. Akiyama, "Intersubband absorption linewidth in GaAs quantum wells due to scattering by interface roughness, phonons, alloy disorder, and impurities," J. Appl. Phys. 93(3), 1586-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, S.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. Julien, S. Sauvage, S. Cabaret, J. Lourtioz, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (≈ 15.5μm) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," New Journ. Phys. 11, 125022 (2009).

G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Population inversion by resonant tunneling in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 032103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scheinert, M.

S. Tsujino, A. Borak, E. Müller, M. Scheinert, C. Falub, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Interface-roughness-induced broadening of intersubband electroluminescence in p-SiGe and n-GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(06), 062113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sigg, H.

S. Tsujino, A. Borak, E. Müller, M. Scheinert, C. Falub, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Interface-roughness-induced broadening of intersubband electroluminescence in p-SiGe and n-GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(06), 062113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D.

C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Cho, "Bidirectional semiconductor laser," Science 286, 749-752 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, and A. Cho, "A multiwavelength semiconductor laser," Nature 396, 350-353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Terazzi, R.

M. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," New Journ. Phys. 11, 125022 (2009).

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, "Sequential resonant tunneling in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Population inversion by resonant tunneling in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 032103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Cho, "Bidirectional semiconductor laser," Science 286, 749-752 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, and A. Cho, "A multiwavelength semiconductor laser," Nature 396, 350-353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsujino, S.

S. Tsujino, A. Borak, E. Müller, M. Scheinert, C. Falub, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Interface-roughness-induced broadening of intersubband electroluminescence in p-SiGe and n-GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(06), 062113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Unuma, T.

T. Unuma, M. Yoshita, T. Noda, H. Sakaki, and H. Akiyama, "Intersubband absorption linewidth in GaAs quantum wells due to scattering by interface roughness, phonons, alloy disorder, and impurities," J. Appl. Phys. 93(3), 1586-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vitiello, M.

M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walther, C.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B.

B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Nature Photonics 1, 517-525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, A.

R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, "Sequential resonant tunneling in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshita, M.

T. Unuma, M. Yoshita, T. Noda, H. Sakaki, and H. Akiyama, "Intersubband absorption linewidth in GaAs quantum wells due to scattering by interface roughness, phonons, alloy disorder, and impurities," J. Appl. Phys. 93(3), 1586-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, P. Boucaud, F. Julien, S. Sauvage, S. Cabaret, J. Lourtioz, and R. Planel, "Long-wavelength (≈ 15.5μm) unipolar semiconductor laser in GaAs quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(25), 3619-3621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, C. Chan, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Two-well terahertz quantum-cascade laser with direct intrawell-phonon depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. Davies, and E. Linfield, "Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Population inversion by resonant tunneling in quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 032103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsujino, A. Borak, E. Müller, M. Scheinert, C. Falub, H. Sigg, D. Grützmacher, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Interface-roughness-induced broadening of intersubband electroluminescence in p-SiGe and n-GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(06), 062113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Measurement of subband electronic temperatures and population inversion in THz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Unuma, M. Yoshita, T. Noda, H. Sakaki, and H. Akiyama, "Intersubband absorption linewidth in GaAs quantum wells due to scattering by interface roughness, phonons, alloy disorder, and impurities," J. Appl. Phys. 93(3), 1586-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, "THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers," Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 45-66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, and A. Cho, "A multiwavelength semiconductor laser," Nature 396, 350-353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photonics (1)

B. S. Williams, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Nature Photonics 1, 517-525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New Journ. Phys. (1)

M. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, "Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage," New Journ. Phys. 11, 125022 (2009).

Opt. Express (3)

J. Freeman, O. Marshall, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable emission in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 16(24), 19,830-19,835 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Lever, N. Hinchcliffe, S. P. Khanna, P. Dean, Z. Ikonic, C. A. Evans, A. Davies, P. Harrison, E. Linfield, and R. W. Kelsall, "Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 17(22), 19,926-19,932 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Kumar and Q. Hu, "Coherence of resonant-tunneling transport in terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. B 80, 245316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Terazzi, T. Gresch, A. Wittmann, and J. Faist, "Sequential resonant tunneling in quantum cascade lasers," Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, D. Sivco, A. Hutchinson, F. Capasso, and A. Cho, "Bidirectional semiconductor laser," Science 286, 749-752 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, unpublished (2009).

G. Scalari, M. Amanti, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Two-well quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.7 to 4.1 THz," Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells, Montreal, Canada, September 2009, http://www.itqw2009.com/index.php.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Calculated bandstructure for two periods of sample EV1183 for an applied electric field of 14 kV/cm. The layer sequence is (nm, starting with the injection barrier): 4.5/8.3/3.8/17.9. The figures in bold face represent the Al0.15Ga0.85As barriers. The central part of the 17.9 nm GaAs well is doped in order to obtain a sheet carrier density of 1.5 × 1010 cm -2, measured with C-V technique. The location of the doping in the well is chosen to minimize the overlap of the state ∣2〉 wavefunction with the doped region.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Pulsed L-I-V measurements (150 ns wide double-pulses square-wave modulated at 400 Hz) for a 1.7 mm long, 100 μm wide ridge processed as a standard double metal resonator (see scheme in the inset). The detector used is a calibrated He-cooled Si-bolometer. (b): Threhsold current density, maximum current density and dynamic range as a function of the heatsink temperature.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Spectral emission as a function of increasing injected current density in pulsed operation for a 1.7 mm long, 100 μm wide double metal cavity. (b): Spectral emission as a function of the injected current density in CW operation for a 1.5 mm long, 110 μm wide double metal cavity

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pulsed measurements in direct bias as a function of heatsink temperature for a 1.36 mm long, 180 μm wide double metal laser ridge with the top partially covered with metal, as schematized in the inset. The ridge width is taken as the width of the metal. The power has been measured with a broad area, calibrated THz power meter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a): Continuous wave measurements and differential analysis for a laser ridge (red) and a non-lasing device (blue ) at T=10 K. The arrows highlight the electric field values corresponding to the resonance features. The region between the dashed lines is the fraction of radiative current due stimulated emission. (b): Simulation of the gain curve for a lasing device for an electric field of 12.5 kV/cm for a lattice temperature T=50 K. (c): Simulated transport curves in delocalized basis (black curve), tight-binding basis (blue curve) for a lasing device and in tight binding basis for a non-lasing device (light-blue, dashed curve), all for a lattice temperature T=50 K. The red curve is an experimental, CW curve for a lasing device. The green curve is a simulation of the emitted laser signal.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a): Pulsed measurements in reverse bias for a standard double metal laser ridge of 1.7 mm length and 160 μm wide. The detector used is an He-cooled Si-bolometer. (b): Complete spectral emission in pulsed mode at T=10K for both direct (red curves) and reverse (black curves) bias as a function of the injected current density.

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