Abstract

A novel method is proposed to fabricate micro Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE) using micro cutting tools shaped with focused ion beam (FIB) milling. Micro tools with nanometric cutting edges and complicated shapes are fabricated by controlling the tool facet’s orientation relative to the FIB. The tool edge radius of less than 30 nm is achieved for the nano removal of the work materials. Semi-circular micro tools and DOE-shaped micro tools are developed to fabricate micro-DOE and sinusoidal modulation templates. Experiments show that the proposed method can be a high efficient way in fabricating micro-DOE with nanoscale surface finishes.

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References

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2010 (1)

2009 (1)

X. Ding, D. L. Butler, G. C. Lim, C. K. Cheng, K. C. Shaw, K. Liu, W. S. Fong, and H. Y. Zheng, “Machining with Micro-size Single Crystalline Diamond Tools Fabricated by a Focused Ion Beam,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(2), 025005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

H. Ohmori, K. Katahira, T. Naruse, Y. Uehara, A. Nakao, and M. Mizutani, “Microscopic Grinding Effects on Fabrication of Ultra-fine Micro Tools,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 56(1), 569–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

C. J. Morgan, R. R. Vallance, and E. R. Marsh, “Micro Machining Glass with Polycrystalline Diamond Tools Shaped by Micro Electro Discharge Machining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(12), 1687–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. N. Picard, D. P. Adams, and M. J. Vasile, “Focused Ion Beam-shaped Microtools for Ultra-precision Machining of Cylindrical Components,” Precis. Eng. 27(1), 59–69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. J. Riedl, “Diamond-turned Diffractive Optical Elements for the Infrared,” Proc. SPIE 2540, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D. P.

Y. N. Picard, D. P. Adams, and M. J. Vasile, “Focused Ion Beam-shaped Microtools for Ultra-precision Machining of Cylindrical Components,” Precis. Eng. 27(1), 59–69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Butler, D. L.

X. Ding, D. L. Butler, G. C. Lim, C. K. Cheng, K. C. Shaw, K. Liu, W. S. Fong, and H. Y. Zheng, “Machining with Micro-size Single Crystalline Diamond Tools Fabricated by a Focused Ion Beam,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(2), 025005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. K.

X. Ding, D. L. Butler, G. C. Lim, C. K. Cheng, K. C. Shaw, K. Liu, W. S. Fong, and H. Y. Zheng, “Machining with Micro-size Single Crystalline Diamond Tools Fabricated by a Focused Ion Beam,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(2), 025005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, X.

X. Ding, D. L. Butler, G. C. Lim, C. K. Cheng, K. C. Shaw, K. Liu, W. S. Fong, and H. Y. Zheng, “Machining with Micro-size Single Crystalline Diamond Tools Fabricated by a Focused Ion Beam,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(2), 025005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, F. Z.

Fong, W. S.

X. Ding, D. L. Butler, G. C. Lim, C. K. Cheng, K. C. Shaw, K. Liu, W. S. Fong, and H. Y. Zheng, “Machining with Micro-size Single Crystalline Diamond Tools Fabricated by a Focused Ion Beam,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(2), 025005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. Q.

Hu, X. T.

Katahira, K.

H. Ohmori, K. Katahira, T. Naruse, Y. Uehara, A. Nakao, and M. Mizutani, “Microscopic Grinding Effects on Fabrication of Ultra-fine Micro Tools,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 56(1), 569–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Lim, G. C.

X. Ding, D. L. Butler, G. C. Lim, C. K. Cheng, K. C. Shaw, K. Liu, W. S. Fong, and H. Y. Zheng, “Machining with Micro-size Single Crystalline Diamond Tools Fabricated by a Focused Ion Beam,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(2), 025005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

X. Ding, D. L. Butler, G. C. Lim, C. K. Cheng, K. C. Shaw, K. Liu, W. S. Fong, and H. Y. Zheng, “Machining with Micro-size Single Crystalline Diamond Tools Fabricated by a Focused Ion Beam,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(2), 025005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Marsh, E. R.

C. J. Morgan, R. R. Vallance, and E. R. Marsh, “Micro Machining Glass with Polycrystalline Diamond Tools Shaped by Micro Electro Discharge Machining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(12), 1687–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maruo, S.

Mizutani, M.

H. Ohmori, K. Katahira, T. Naruse, Y. Uehara, A. Nakao, and M. Mizutani, “Microscopic Grinding Effects on Fabrication of Ultra-fine Micro Tools,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 56(1), 569–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, C. J.

C. J. Morgan, R. R. Vallance, and E. R. Marsh, “Micro Machining Glass with Polycrystalline Diamond Tools Shaped by Micro Electro Discharge Machining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(12), 1687–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakao, A.

H. Ohmori, K. Katahira, T. Naruse, Y. Uehara, A. Nakao, and M. Mizutani, “Microscopic Grinding Effects on Fabrication of Ultra-fine Micro Tools,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 56(1), 569–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naruse, T.

H. Ohmori, K. Katahira, T. Naruse, Y. Uehara, A. Nakao, and M. Mizutani, “Microscopic Grinding Effects on Fabrication of Ultra-fine Micro Tools,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 56(1), 569–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, H.

H. Ohmori, K. Katahira, T. Naruse, Y. Uehara, A. Nakao, and M. Mizutani, “Microscopic Grinding Effects on Fabrication of Ultra-fine Micro Tools,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 56(1), 569–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Picard, Y. N.

Y. N. Picard, D. P. Adams, and M. J. Vasile, “Focused Ion Beam-shaped Microtools for Ultra-precision Machining of Cylindrical Components,” Precis. Eng. 27(1), 59–69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riedl, M. J.

M. J. Riedl, “Diamond-turned Diffractive Optical Elements for the Infrared,” Proc. SPIE 2540, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saeki, T.

Shaw, K. C.

X. Ding, D. L. Butler, G. C. Lim, C. K. Cheng, K. C. Shaw, K. Liu, W. S. Fong, and H. Y. Zheng, “Machining with Micro-size Single Crystalline Diamond Tools Fabricated by a Focused Ion Beam,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(2), 025005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, Y.

H. Ohmori, K. Katahira, T. Naruse, Y. Uehara, A. Nakao, and M. Mizutani, “Microscopic Grinding Effects on Fabrication of Ultra-fine Micro Tools,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 56(1), 569–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vallance, R. R.

C. J. Morgan, R. R. Vallance, and E. R. Marsh, “Micro Machining Glass with Polycrystalline Diamond Tools Shaped by Micro Electro Discharge Machining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(12), 1687–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vasile, M. J.

Y. N. Picard, D. P. Adams, and M. J. Vasile, “Focused Ion Beam-shaped Microtools for Ultra-precision Machining of Cylindrical Components,” Precis. Eng. 27(1), 59–69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. W.

Yi, A. Y.

Zhang, X. D.

Zheng, H. Y.

X. Ding, D. L. Butler, G. C. Lim, C. K. Cheng, K. C. Shaw, K. Liu, W. S. Fong, and H. Y. Zheng, “Machining with Micro-size Single Crystalline Diamond Tools Fabricated by a Focused Ion Beam,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(2), 025005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. L.

CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. (1)

H. Ohmori, K. Katahira, T. Naruse, Y. Uehara, A. Nakao, and M. Mizutani, “Microscopic Grinding Effects on Fabrication of Ultra-fine Micro Tools,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol. 56(1), 569–572 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (2)

C. J. Morgan, R. R. Vallance, and E. R. Marsh, “Micro Machining Glass with Polycrystalline Diamond Tools Shaped by Micro Electro Discharge Machining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(12), 1687–1692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Ding, D. L. Butler, G. C. Lim, C. K. Cheng, K. C. Shaw, K. Liu, W. S. Fong, and H. Y. Zheng, “Machining with Micro-size Single Crystalline Diamond Tools Fabricated by a Focused Ion Beam,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(2), 025005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Precis. Eng. (1)

Y. N. Picard, D. P. Adams, and M. J. Vasile, “Focused Ion Beam-shaped Microtools for Ultra-precision Machining of Cylindrical Components,” Precis. Eng. 27(1), 59–69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. J. Riedl, “Diamond-turned Diffractive Optical Elements for the Infrared,” Proc. SPIE 2540, 257–269 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. P. Herzig, Micro-optics: Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis Ltd, London, 1997).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Shadowing effect comparison in MDOE fabrication with spherical and hemi-spherical tools. (a) Traditional shape tool, (b) Micro hemi-spherical tool.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of micro tool sharp edge formation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Micro tools machining using FIB.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM images of the FIB fabricated arc-shaped micro tool. (a) Spherical micro tool, (b) hemi-spherical micro tool.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of the micro tool edge radius measured by AFM. (a) Sharpening AFM tip, (b) Edge result of micro tool.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The sinusoidal surface machined by micro tool. (a)A sinusoidal template by WLI, (b) Cross-section of the sinusoidal results.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of the Fresnel lens fabrication

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The hemi-spherical micro tool shaped by FIB.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Data of micro Fresnel diffractive optical component. (a) Micro Fresnel optical component, (b) Morphology of the micro Fresnel lens, (c) Diffraction rings.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

MDOE fabricated by a DOE-shaped micro tool by FIB. (a) DOE-shaped micro tool by FIB, (b) MDOE machined by the DOE-shaped micro tool.

Equations (3)

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x t = R ( 1 + cos θ )
x h = R cos θ
cos θ = d l 2 + d 2

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