Abstract

We report the first implementation of a 2 μm thulium fiber laser in a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy system. Emission from plasma on copper samples was analyzed from 200 to 900 nm. The low ablation fluence (<100 J.cm−2) and 200 ns pulse duration lead to a plasma with neither continuum emission, nor air emission in the near-infrared region.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. J. Debras-Guédon and N. Liodec, “De l'utilisation du faisceau d'un amplificateur a ondes lumineuses par émission induite de rayonnement (laser à rubis), comme source énergétique pour l'excitation des spectres d’émission des éléments,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 257, 3336 (1963).
  2. B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084701 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, “Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(5), 374 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Khachatrian and P. J. Dagdigian, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with laser irradiation on mid-infrared hybride stretch transitions: polystyrene,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 243–248 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. W. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) – Fundamentals and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  7. D. A. Cremers, and L. J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, 2006)
  8. J. P. Singh, and S. N. Thakur, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier Science Publishing, 2007)
  9. D. E. Chung and A. E. Te, “New techniques for laser prostatectomy: an update,” Ther. Adv. Urol. 1(2), 85–97 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. A. Curcio and C. C. Petty, “The Near Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Liquid Water,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41(5), 302–304 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. von Allmen, and A. Blatter, Laser-Beam Interactions with Materials – Physical Principles and Applications (Springer, 1995)
  12. M. Baudelet, L. Shah, C. Willis, and M. Richardson, “Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Organic Materials with a Mid-IR Thulium-fiber-laer Nanosecond Pulse at 2μm” presented at the 2nd North America Symposium on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, New Orleans, LA, USA, 13–15 July 2009.
  13. M. Sabsabi, F. R. Doucet, P.-P. Berube, and P. Bouchard, “Use of high-power pulsed fiber lasers for LIBS analysis: is it a useful tool?” presented at the 2nd North America Symposium on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, New Orleans, LA, USA, 13–15 July 2009.
  14. C. C. C. Willis, L. Shah, M. Baudelet, T. S. McComb, R. A. Sims, V. Sudesh, and M. C. Richardson, “High-energy Q-switched Tm3+-doped polarization maintaining silica fiber laser”, paper 7580–2 to be published in Photonics West 2010, Proc. SPIE7580 (2010).
  15. A. W. Snyder, and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983).
  16. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (2007)
  17. F. Di Teodoro, and C. D. Brooks, “Multi-mJ Energy, Multi-MW Peak-Power Photonic Crystal Fiber Amplifiers with Near-Diffraction-Limited Output,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Optical Society of America, Washington DC 2007, paper CFI3.
  18. G. W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y. Y. Tsui, and R. Fedosejevs, “Comparative study of laser-induced plasma emission from microjoule picosecond and nanosecond KrF-laser pulses,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58(3), 497–510 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Ralchenko, A.E. Kramida, J. Reader and NIST ASD Team (2008). NIST Atomic Spectra Database (version 3.1.5), [Online]. Available: http://physics.nist.gov/asd3 [2009, October 1]. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
  20. A. G. Shenstone, “The first spectrum of copper (Cu I),” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 241(832), 297–322 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Kono and S. Hattori, “Lifetimes and transition probabilities in Cu II,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(5), 601–605 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Beyond the McWhirter Criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(1), 86–95 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Baudelet, M. Boueri, J. Yu, S. S. Mao, V. Piscitelli, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for organic material analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1329–1334 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Beyond the McWhirter Criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(1), 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. Khachatrian and P. J. Dagdigian, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with laser irradiation on mid-infrared hybride stretch transitions: polystyrene,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 243–248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Chung and A. E. Te, “New techniques for laser prostatectomy: an update,” Ther. Adv. Urol. 1(2), 85–97 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Baudelet, M. Boueri, J. Yu, S. S. Mao, V. Piscitelli, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for organic material analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1329–1334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y. Y. Tsui, and R. Fedosejevs, “Comparative study of laser-induced plasma emission from microjoule picosecond and nanosecond KrF-laser pulses,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58(3), 497–510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, “Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(5), 374 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Kono and S. Hattori, “Lifetimes and transition probabilities in Cu II,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(5), 601–605 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

J. Debras-Guédon and N. Liodec, “De l'utilisation du faisceau d'un amplificateur a ondes lumineuses par émission induite de rayonnement (laser à rubis), comme source énergétique pour l'excitation des spectres d’émission des éléments,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 257, 3336 (1963).

1951 (1)

1948 (1)

A. G. Shenstone, “The first spectrum of copper (Cu I),” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 241(832), 297–322 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Amodeo, T.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baudelet, M.

M. Baudelet, M. Boueri, J. Yu, S. S. Mao, V. Piscitelli, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for organic material analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1329–1334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boueri, M.

M. Baudelet, M. Boueri, J. Yu, S. S. Mao, V. Piscitelli, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for organic material analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1329–1334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chung, D. E.

D. E. Chung and A. E. Te, “New techniques for laser prostatectomy: an update,” Ther. Adv. Urol. 1(2), 85–97 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cristoforetti, G.

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Beyond the McWhirter Criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(1), 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, J. A.

Dagdigian, P. J.

A. Khachatrian and P. J. Dagdigian, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with laser irradiation on mid-infrared hybride stretch transitions: polystyrene,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 243–248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Giacomo, A.

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Beyond the McWhirter Criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(1), 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Debras-Guédon, J.

J. Debras-Guédon and N. Liodec, “De l'utilisation du faisceau d'un amplificateur a ondes lumineuses par émission induite de rayonnement (laser à rubis), comme source énergétique pour l'excitation des spectres d’émission des éléments,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 257, 3336 (1963).

Dell'Aglio, M.

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Beyond the McWhirter Criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(1), 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedosejevs, R.

G. W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y. Y. Tsui, and R. Fedosejevs, “Comparative study of laser-induced plasma emission from microjoule picosecond and nanosecond KrF-laser pulses,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58(3), 497–510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frejafon, E.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guyon, L.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, S.

Kawamura, Y.

Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, “Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(5), 374 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Khachatrian, A.

A. Khachatrian and P. J. Dagdigian, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with laser irradiation on mid-infrared hybride stretch transitions: polystyrene,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 243–248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kono, A.

Laloi, P.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Legnaioli, S.

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Beyond the McWhirter Criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(1), 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liodec, N.

J. Debras-Guédon and N. Liodec, “De l'utilisation du faisceau d'un amplificateur a ondes lumineuses par émission induite de rayonnement (laser à rubis), comme source énergétique pour l'excitation des spectres d’émission des éléments,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 257, 3336 (1963).

Mao, S. S.

M. Baudelet, M. Boueri, J. Yu, S. S. Mao, V. Piscitelli, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for organic material analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1329–1334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X.

M. Baudelet, M. Boueri, J. Yu, S. S. Mao, V. Piscitelli, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for organic material analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1329–1334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Momma, C.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Namba, S.

Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, “Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(5), 374 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Omenetto, N.

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Beyond the McWhirter Criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(1), 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palleschi, V.

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Beyond the McWhirter Criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(1), 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petty, C. C.

Piscitelli, V.

M. Baudelet, M. Boueri, J. Yu, S. S. Mao, V. Piscitelli, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for organic material analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1329–1334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rieger, G. W.

G. W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y. Y. Tsui, and R. Fedosejevs, “Comparative study of laser-induced plasma emission from microjoule picosecond and nanosecond KrF-laser pulses,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58(3), 497–510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R. E.

M. Baudelet, M. Boueri, J. Yu, S. S. Mao, V. Piscitelli, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for organic material analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1329–1334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shenstone, A. G.

A. G. Shenstone, “The first spectrum of copper (Cu I),” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 241(832), 297–322 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Taschuk, M.

G. W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y. Y. Tsui, and R. Fedosejevs, “Comparative study of laser-induced plasma emission from microjoule picosecond and nanosecond KrF-laser pulses,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58(3), 497–510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Te, A. E.

D. E. Chung and A. E. Te, “New techniques for laser prostatectomy: an update,” Ther. Adv. Urol. 1(2), 85–97 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tognoni, E.

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Beyond the McWhirter Criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(1), 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, “Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(5), 374 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tsui, Y. Y.

G. W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y. Y. Tsui, and R. Fedosejevs, “Comparative study of laser-induced plasma emission from microjoule picosecond and nanosecond KrF-laser pulses,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58(3), 497–510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

von Alvensleben, F.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

M. Baudelet, M. Boueri, J. Yu, S. S. Mao, V. Piscitelli, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for organic material analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1329–1334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Khachatrian and P. J. Dagdigian, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with laser irradiation on mid-infrared hybride stretch transitions: polystyrene,” Appl. Phys. B 97(1), 243–248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda, and S. Namba, “Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(5), 374 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

J. Debras-Guédon and N. Liodec, “De l'utilisation du faisceau d'un amplificateur a ondes lumineuses par émission induite de rayonnement (laser à rubis), comme source énergétique pour l'excitation des spectres d’émission des éléments,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 257, 3336 (1963).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Baudelet, L. Guyon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, T. Amodeo, E. Frejafon, and P. Laloi, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection and identification of bacteria: A comparison to the nanosecond regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

A. G. Shenstone, “The first spectrum of copper (Cu I),” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 241(832), 297–322 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. (3)

G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, and N. Omenetto, “Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Beyond the McWhirter Criterion,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(1), 86–95 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Baudelet, M. Boueri, J. Yu, S. S. Mao, V. Piscitelli, X. Mao, and R. E. Russo, “Time-resolved ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for organic material analysis,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1329–1334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y. Y. Tsui, and R. Fedosejevs, “Comparative study of laser-induced plasma emission from microjoule picosecond and nanosecond KrF-laser pulses,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 58(3), 497–510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ther. Adv. Urol. (1)

D. E. Chung and A. E. Te, “New techniques for laser prostatectomy: an update,” Ther. Adv. Urol. 1(2), 85–97 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (11)

M. von Allmen, and A. Blatter, Laser-Beam Interactions with Materials – Physical Principles and Applications (Springer, 1995)

M. Baudelet, L. Shah, C. Willis, and M. Richardson, “Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Organic Materials with a Mid-IR Thulium-fiber-laer Nanosecond Pulse at 2μm” presented at the 2nd North America Symposium on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, New Orleans, LA, USA, 13–15 July 2009.

M. Sabsabi, F. R. Doucet, P.-P. Berube, and P. Bouchard, “Use of high-power pulsed fiber lasers for LIBS analysis: is it a useful tool?” presented at the 2nd North America Symposium on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, New Orleans, LA, USA, 13–15 July 2009.

C. C. C. Willis, L. Shah, M. Baudelet, T. S. McComb, R. A. Sims, V. Sudesh, and M. C. Richardson, “High-energy Q-switched Tm3+-doped polarization maintaining silica fiber laser”, paper 7580–2 to be published in Photonics West 2010, Proc. SPIE7580 (2010).

A. W. Snyder, and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (2007)

F. Di Teodoro, and C. D. Brooks, “Multi-mJ Energy, Multi-MW Peak-Power Photonic Crystal Fiber Amplifiers with Near-Diffraction-Limited Output,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD), Optical Society of America, Washington DC 2007, paper CFI3.

A. W. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, and I. Schechter, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) – Fundamentals and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

D. A. Cremers, and L. J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, 2006)

J. P. Singh, and S. N. Thakur, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier Science Publishing, 2007)

Y. Ralchenko, A.E. Kramida, J. Reader and NIST ASD Team (2008). NIST Atomic Spectra Database (version 3.1.5), [Online]. Available: http://physics.nist.gov/asd3 [2009, October 1]. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. AOM: Acousto-optic modulator, QSC:Q-Switch controller, MO: Microscope objective, TS: translation stage, TSC: motion controller, BL: ball lens, iCCD: intensified CCD, CC: camera controller, PC: computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum from Copper. The arrows indicate the spectral lines used for the temperature calculation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Boltzmann plots for the calculation of the excitation temperature of Cu I and Cu II. Scatter symbols: experimental data, red curve: linear fit, green curve: prediction bands at 95%.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of lines in the calculation of the plasma temperature (λ: transition wavelength, gA: transition probability, Eup: upper level energy, Elow: lower level energy)

Equations (4)

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I ( λ ) = A π γ ( λ λ 0 ) 2 + γ 2 + I b g
I i j = C h c λ i j g j A i j N I , I I Z I , I I ( T I , I I ) e E j T I , I I
ln ( λ i j I i j g j A i j ) = E j T I , I I + ln ( Z I , I I ( T I , I I ) h c N I , I I )
{ N I = Z I ( T I ) h c C e p I N I I = Z I I ( T I I ) h c C e p I I α C u = N I I N I + N I I = 1 1 + Z I ( T I ) e p I Z I I ( T I I ) e p I I ¯

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