Abstract

Applications of subwavelength-diameter optical fibres in nonlinear optics require precise knowledge of the submicrometre fibre waist diameter. We demonstrate a new technique for optical measurement of the diameter based on second- and third-harmonic generation with an accuracy of better than 2%. To generate the harmonic light, inter-modal phase matching must be achieved. We find that the phase-matching condition allows us to unambiguously deduce the fibre diameter from the wavelength of the harmonic light. High-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging is used to verify the results.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S.  Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 107–161 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. R. Gattass, G. T. Svacha, L. Tong, and E. Mazur, “Supercontinuum generation in submicrometer diameter silica fibers,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9408–9414 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11952–11958 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2258–2263 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, W. Wadsworth, P. St J Russell, and M. Mason, “Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2864–2869 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Ward, D. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(8), 083105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Warken, A. Rauschenbeutel, and T. Bartholomäus, “Fiber pulling profits from precise positioning,” Photon. Spectra 42(3), 73 (2008).
  12. L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, Orlando, 2001).
  14. P. Weidner and A. Penzkofer, “Spectral broadening of picosecond laser pulses in optical fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 25(1), 1–25 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. Österberg and W. Margulis, “Dye laser pumped by Nd:YAG laser pulses frequency doubled in a glass optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 11(8), 516–518 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. U. Österberg and W. Margulis, “Experimental studies on efficient frequency doubling in glass optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 12(1), 57–59 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, “Photoinduced generation of the second harmonic in centrosymmetric media,” Quantum Electron. 25(5), 395–407 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. G. Kazansky and P. St. J. Russell, “Thermally poled glass: frozen-in electric field or oriented dipoles?” Opt. Commun. 110(5-6), 611–614 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Dumais, F. Gonthier, S. Lacroix, J. Bures, A. Villeneuve, P. G. J. Wigley, and G. I. Stegeman, “Enhanced self-phase modulation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 18(23), 1996–1998 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1415–1417 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatov, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J.  Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).
  22. V. Grubsky and A. Savchenko, “Glass micro-fibers for efficient third harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6798–6806 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, “Phase-matched third-harmonic UV generation using low-order modes in a glass micro-fiber,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 447–450 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Warken and H. Giessen, “Fast profile measurement of micrometer-sized tapered fibers with better than 50-nm accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1727–1729 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. Brambilla and D. N. Payne, “The ultimate strength of glass silica nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 831–835 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 182–183 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, A. Hale, and J. W. Nicholson, “Probing optical microfiber nonuniformities at nanoscale,” Opt. Lett. 31(16), 2393–2395 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. W. Snyder, and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983), Chap. 12.
  29. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2003), p. 108.
  30. M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432(7015), 374–376 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying Loss Minimisation in Single-Mode Fibre Tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22(17), 912–914 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The Shape of Fiber Tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  33. B. Rieger, and G. N. A. van Veen, “Method to determine image sharpness and resolution in Scanning Electron Microscopy images,” in EMC 2008 14th Electron Microscopy Congress, Vol. 1: Instrumentation and Methods, M. Luysberg, K. Tillmann, and T. Weirich, (Springer, Heidelberg, 2008), pp. 613–614.
  34. J. S. Villarrubia, A. E. Vladar, J. R. Lowney, and M. T. Postek, “Scanning Electron Microscope Analog of Scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 304–312 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  35. E. V. Anoikin, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. B. Neustruev, V. A. Tikhomirov, and Yu. B. Zverev, “UV and gamma radiation damage in silica glass and fibres doped with germanium and cerium,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 65(1-4), 392–396 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Warken, A. Rauschenbeutel, and T. Bartholomäus, “Fiber pulling profits from precise positioning,” Photon. Spectra 42(3), 73 (2008).

2007 (3)

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, “Phase-matched third-harmonic UV generation using low-order modes in a glass micro-fiber,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 447–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11952–11958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (5)

2003 (2)

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatov, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J.  Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. S. Villarrubia, A. E. Vladar, J. R. Lowney, and M. T. Postek, “Scanning Electron Microscope Analog of Scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 304–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1415–1417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 182–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, “Photoinduced generation of the second harmonic in centrosymmetric media,” Quantum Electron. 25(5), 395–407 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. G. Kazansky and P. St. J. Russell, “Thermally poled glass: frozen-in electric field or oriented dipoles?” Opt. Commun. 110(5-6), 611–614 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The Shape of Fiber Tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Anoikin, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. B. Neustruev, V. A. Tikhomirov, and Yu. B. Zverev, “UV and gamma radiation damage in silica glass and fibres doped with germanium and cerium,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 65(1-4), 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying Loss Minimisation in Single-Mode Fibre Tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22(17), 912–914 (1986).
[CrossRef]

U. Österberg and W. Margulis, “Dye laser pumped by Nd:YAG laser pulses frequency doubled in a glass optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 11(8), 516–518 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akimov, D. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatov, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J.  Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Alfimov, M. V.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatov, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J.  Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Alt, W.

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anoikin, E. V.

E. V. Anoikin, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. B. Neustruev, V. A. Tikhomirov, and Yu. B. Zverev, “UV and gamma radiation damage in silica glass and fibres doped with germanium and cerium,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 65(1-4), 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartholomäus, T.

F. Warken, A. Rauschenbeutel, and T. Bartholomäus, “Fiber pulling profits from precise positioning,” Photon. Spectra 42(3), 73 (2008).

Baudrier-Raybaut, M.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432(7015), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beausoleil, R. G.

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatov, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J.  Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 182–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1415–1417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The Shape of Fiber Tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Bures, J.

Deasy, K.

J. Ward, D. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(8), 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, “Photoinduced generation of the second harmonic in centrosymmetric media,” Quantum Electron. 25(5), 395–407 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Anoikin, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. B. Neustruev, V. A. Tikhomirov, and Yu. B. Zverev, “UV and gamma radiation damage in silica glass and fibres doped with germanium and cerium,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 65(1-4), 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dimmick, T. E.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 182–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dulashko, Y.

Dumais, P.

Feinberg, J.

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, “Phase-matched third-harmonic UV generation using low-order modes in a glass micro-fiber,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 447–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Finazzi, V.

Fini, J. M.

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass, G. T. Svacha, L. Tong, and E. Mazur, “Supercontinuum generation in submicrometer diameter silica fibers,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9408–9414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

Gonthier, F.

Grubsky, V.

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, “Phase-matched third-harmonic UV generation using low-order modes in a glass micro-fiber,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 447–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky and A. Savchenko, “Glass micro-fibers for efficient third harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6798–6806 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guryanov, A. N.

E. V. Anoikin, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. B. Neustruev, V. A. Tikhomirov, and Yu. B. Zverev, “UV and gamma radiation damage in silica glass and fibres doped with germanium and cerium,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 65(1-4), 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gusovsky, D. D.

E. V. Anoikin, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. B. Neustruev, V. A. Tikhomirov, and Yu. B. Zverev, “UV and gamma radiation damage in silica glass and fibres doped with germanium and cerium,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 65(1-4), 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haïdar, R.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432(7015), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hale, A.

Hall, M.

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying Loss Minimisation in Single-Mode Fibre Tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22(17), 912–914 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Horak, P.

Ivanov, A. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatov, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J.  Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Jung, Y.

Kazansky, P. G.

P. G. Kazansky and P. St. J. Russell, “Thermally poled glass: frozen-in electric field or oriented dipoles?” Opt. Commun. 110(5-6), 611–614 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 182–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koizumi, F.

Kolevatov, O. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatov, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J.  Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Koukharenko, E.

Kumar, P.

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kupecek, Ph.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432(7015), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacroix, S.

Lemasson, Ph.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432(7015), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leon-Saval, S.

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The Shape of Fiber Tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Lou, J.

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying Loss Minimisation in Single-Mode Fibre Tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22(17), 912–914 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lowney, J. R.

J. S. Villarrubia, A. E. Vladar, J. R. Lowney, and M. T. Postek, “Scanning Electron Microscope Analog of Scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 304–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

Mashinsky, V. M.

E. V. Anoikin, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. B. Neustruev, V. A. Tikhomirov, and Yu. B. Zverev, “UV and gamma radiation damage in silica glass and fibres doped with germanium and cerium,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 65(1-4), 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mason, M.

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

Meschede, D.

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11952–11958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miroshnichenko, S. I.

E. V. Anoikin, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. B. Neustruev, V. A. Tikhomirov, and Yu. B. Zverev, “UV and gamma radiation damage in silica glass and fibres doped with germanium and cerium,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 65(1-4), 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morrissey, M. J.

J. Ward, D. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(8), 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murugan, G. S. 

Naumov, A. N.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatov, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J.  Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Neustruev, V. B.

E. V. Anoikin, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. B. Neustruev, V. A. Tikhomirov, and Yu. B. Zverev, “UV and gamma radiation damage in silica glass and fibres doped with germanium and cerium,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 65(1-4), 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nic Chormaic, S.

J. Ward, D. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(8), 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

O’Shea, D.

J. Ward, D. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(8), 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Österberg, U.

Pati, G. S.

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, D. N.

G. Brambilla and D. N. Payne, “The ultimate strength of glass silica nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 831–835 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penzkofer, A.

P. Weidner and A. Penzkofer, “Spectral broadening of picosecond laser pulses in optical fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 25(1), 1–25 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Podshivalov, A. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatov, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J.  Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Postek, M. T.

J. S. Villarrubia, A. E. Vladar, J. R. Lowney, and M. T. Postek, “Scanning Electron Microscope Analog of Scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 304–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

F. Warken, A. Rauschenbeutel, and T. Bartholomäus, “Fiber pulling profits from precise positioning,” Photon. Spectra 42(3), 73 (2008).

F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11952–11958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

Rosencher, E.

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432(7015), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatov, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J.  Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1415–1417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky and P. St. J. Russell, “Thermally poled glass: frozen-in electric field or oriented dipoles?” Opt. Commun. 110(5-6), 611–614 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sagué, G.

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salit, K.

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savchenko, A.

Sessions, N. P.

Shahriar, M. S.

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shortt, B. J.

J. Ward, D. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(8), 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski, M.

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

St J Russell, P.

Starodubov, D. S.

E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, “Photoinduced generation of the second harmonic in centrosymmetric media,” Quantum Electron. 25(5), 395–407 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

Sumetsky, M.

Svacha, G. T.

Tikhomirov, V. A.

E. V. Anoikin, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. B. Neustruev, V. A. Tikhomirov, and Yu. B. Zverev, “UV and gamma radiation damage in silica glass and fibres doped with germanium and cerium,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 65(1-4), 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

Turner, A. C.

Vetsch, E.

F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11952–11958 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villarrubia, J. S.

J. S. Villarrubia, A. E. Vladar, J. R. Lowney, and M. T. Postek, “Scanning Electron Microscope Analog of Scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 304–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

Vladar, A. E.

J. S. Villarrubia, A. E. Vladar, J. R. Lowney, and M. T. Postek, “Scanning Electron Microscope Analog of Scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 304–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wadsworth, W. J. 

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatov, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J.  Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Ward, J.

J. Ward, D. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(8), 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Warken, F.

Weidner, P.

P. Weidner and A. Penzkofer, “Spectral broadening of picosecond laser pulses in optical fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 25(1), 1–25 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wigley, P. G. J.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Xu, F.

Zheltikov, A. M.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatov, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J.  Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Zverev, Yu. B.

E. V. Anoikin, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. B. Neustruev, V. A. Tikhomirov, and Yu. B. Zverev, “UV and gamma radiation damage in silica glass and fibres doped with germanium and cerium,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 65(1-4), 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatov, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J.  Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying Loss Minimisation in Single-Mode Fibre Tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22(17), 912–914 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 182–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The Shape of Fiber Tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

G. Brambilla and D. N. Payne, “The ultimate strength of glass silica nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 831–835 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Baudrier-Raybaut, R. Haïdar, Ph. Kupecek, Ph. Lemasson, and E. Rosencher, “Random quasi-phase-matching in bulk polycrystalline isotropic nonlinear materials,” Nature 432(7015), 374–376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instr. Meth. B (1)

E. V. Anoikin, A. N. Guryanov, D. D. Gusovsky, E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, S. I. Miroshnichenko, V. B. Neustruev, V. A. Tikhomirov, and Yu. B. Zverev, “UV and gamma radiation damage in silica glass and fibres doped with germanium and cerium,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 65(1-4), 392–396 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. G. Kazansky and P. St. J. Russell, “Thermally poled glass: frozen-in electric field or oriented dipoles?” Opt. Commun. 110(5-6), 611–614 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, “Phase-matched third-harmonic UV generation using low-order modes in a glass micro-fiber,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 447–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Weidner and A. Penzkofer, “Spectral broadening of picosecond laser pulses in optical fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 25(1), 1–25 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Spectra (1)

F. Warken, A. Rauschenbeutel, and T. Bartholomäus, “Fiber pulling profits from precise positioning,” Photon. Spectra 42(3), 73 (2008).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. Sagué, E. Vetsch, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Cold-atom physics using ultrathin optical fibers: light-induced dipole forces and surface interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 163602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, G. S. Pati, K. Salit, M. Hall, P. Kumar, R. G. Beausoleil, and M. S. Shahriar, “Observation of nonlinear optical interactions of ultralow levels of light in a tapered optical nanofiber embedded in a hot rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 233602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. S. Villarrubia, A. E. Vladar, J. R. Lowney, and M. T. Postek, “Scanning Electron Microscope Analog of Scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 4689, 304–312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron. (1)

E. M. Dianov and D. S. Starodubov, “Photoinduced generation of the second harmonic in centrosymmetric media,” Quantum Electron. 25(5), 395–407 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Ward, D. O’Shea, B. J. Shortt, M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Heat-and-pull rig for fiber taper fabrication,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(8), 083105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, Orlando, 2001).

B. Rieger, and G. N. A. van Veen, “Method to determine image sharpness and resolution in Scanning Electron Microscopy images,” in EMC 2008 14th Electron Microscopy Congress, Vol. 1: Instrumentation and Methods, M. Luysberg, K. Tillmann, and T. Weirich, (Springer, Heidelberg, 2008), pp. 613–614.

A. W. Snyder, and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983), Chap. 12.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2003), p. 108.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The effective refractive index of the fundamental mode (leftmost) and the higher modes depending on the fibre diameter. The modes were calculated for n silica = 1.450 (λ = 1000 nm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a, b) Effective refractive index of the fundamental wave (dashed line) and the second harmonic wave (continuous lines). For each wavelength the phase-matching condition is fulfilled at the three intersections. (c) Dependence of the fibre diameter on the phase-matching wavelength for the three modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Sketch of the diameter profile of an SDOF. (b) Frequency of occurrence of the fibre diameters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Diameter profile of an SDOF (sample A) obtained by SEM measurements of different beam energies and scan speeds, designated Meas. 1 to Meas. 6. The position of zero along the fibre is arbitrary. (b) Vertically enlarged picture of the waist. A short thinner region at the right end of the waist can be seen. All the individual points are measured with an accuracy of <7 × 10−3 µm. (c) Diameter histogram.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for SHG and THG measurement.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) SHG at a fixed laser wavelength. The spectrally broadened IR light is converted to the second harmonic. Due to different coupling efficiencies of the IR and the second-harmonic light to the spectrometer, the peak heights are not up to scale. (b) Full second-harmonic spectral response of sample A: envelope (thick line) of individual SHG spectra taken at different laser wavelengths (thin lines).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Second-harmonic spectral response of sample B measured with CW light (dotted line; the solid squares represent the measured points) in comparison to the measurement with pulsed light (continuous line). The heights of the two signals are not up to scale.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) The spectral response of sample C for SHG (thick line) and THG (thin line) plotted vs. the fundamental wavelength. The spectrometer signal of the THG measurement is scaled up for visibility. The four peaks correspond to phase matching to the following modes (from left to right): HE21(2ω), HE12(3ω), HE31(3ω), TM01(2ω). (b) Wavelength-dependent phase matching diameter. Thick lines: SHG, thin lines: THG, dashed lines: modes not observed. The horizontal line indicates the diameter of the investigated sample determined by this method.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The fibre diameter measured by harmonic generation (d optical) vs. the diameter as measured by SEM (d SEM) for samples A to F.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

SEM images of the damaged sample G. No phase matching and therefore no harmonic light could be achieved within our laser wavelength range for (a) a very thick section of the taper (d = 0.790 µm) and (d) for the waist (d = 0.319 µm). Images (b) and (c) show the taper sections where harmonic light was generated (d = 0.430 µm and d = 0.355 µm, respectively). The fissures on all images are due to the gold coating.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Phase-matching wavelengths and corresponding waist diameters of sample C.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fibre waist diameters obtained by optical method and SEM

Tables Icon

Table 3 SEM error contributions

Metrics