Abstract

We present a simple and powerful method for mode generation and transformation in a ridge-type periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide by the use of second-order nonlinear effect and local-temperature-control technique. We show that a Hermite-Gaussian (HG) mode wave (among HG00 to HG22) can be selectively generated via the quasi-phase-matching (QPM) nonlinear process in a PPLN waveguide by tuning the wavelength of fundamental wave or the temperature of the waveguide. As well, it is demonstrated that HG mode can be transformed into Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) one via combination of HG modes which are simultaneously generated in a single PPLN waveguide with local-temperature-control technique.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (1)

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. K. Lam, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, “Optical entanglement of co-propagation modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 399–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J.-F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H.-A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams,” Science 321(5888), 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

K. J. Moh, X.-C. Yuan, J. Bu, R. E. Burge, and B. Z. Gao, “Generating radial or azimuthal polarization by axial sampling of circularly polarized vortex beams,” Appl. Opt. 46(30), 7544–7551 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Laguerre and Hermite soliton clusters in nonlocal nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(5), 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, “Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2813–2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, W. J. Jeong, M. K. Song, and D. H. Yoon, “The ridge waveguide fabrication with periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate for green laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(4), 1101–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Cladé, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Di Leonardo, J. Leach, H. Mushfique, J. M. Cooper, G. Ruocco, and M. J. Padgett, “Multipoint holographic optical velocimetry in microfluidic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(13), 134502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Galvez, P. R. Crawford, H. I. Sztul, M. J. Pysher, P. J. Haglin, and R. E. Williams, “Geometric phase associated with mode transformations of optical beams bearing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 203901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

M. L. Sundheimer, Ch. Bosshard, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, and J. D. Bierlein, “Large nonlinear phase modulation in quasi-phase-matched KTP waveguides as a result of cascaded second-order processes,” Opt. Lett. 18(17), 1397–1399 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, “Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 17(3), 221–223 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. D. Silvestri, V. Magni, O. Svelto, and G. Valentini, “Lasers with super-Gaussian Mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(9), 1500–1509 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, M. F.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Cladé, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anzolin, G.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbore, M. A.

Bachor, H. A.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. K. Lam, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, “Optical entanglement of co-propagation modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 399–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, H.-A.

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J.-F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H.-A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams,” Science 321(5888), 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbieri, C.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bianchini, A.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bierlein, J. D.

Bosshard, Ch.

Bu, J.

Buccoliero, D.

D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Laguerre and Hermite soliton clusters in nonlocal nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(5), 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burge, R. E.

Chen, D.

Cladé, P.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Cladé, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, J. M.

R. Di Leonardo, J. Leach, H. Mushfique, J. M. Cooper, G. Ruocco, and M. J. Padgett, “Multipoint holographic optical velocimetry in microfluidic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(13), 134502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, P. R.

E. J. Galvez, P. R. Crawford, H. I. Sztul, M. J. Pysher, P. J. Haglin, and R. E. Williams, “Geometric phase associated with mode transformations of optical beams bearing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 203901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, K.

Delaubert, V.

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J.-F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H.-A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams,” Science 321(5888), 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desyatnikov, A. S.

D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Laguerre and Hermite soliton clusters in nonlocal nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(5), 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Leonardo, R.

R. Di Leonardo, J. Leach, H. Mushfique, J. M. Cooper, G. Ruocco, and M. J. Padgett, “Multipoint holographic optical velocimetry in microfluidic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(13), 134502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eom, T. J.

Fejer, M. M.

Galvanauskas, A.

Galvez, E. J.

E. J. Galvez, P. R. Crawford, H. I. Sztul, M. J. Pysher, P. J. Haglin, and R. E. Williams, “Geometric phase associated with mode transformations of optical beams bearing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 203901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, B. Z.

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haglin, P. J.

E. J. Galvez, P. R. Crawford, H. I. Sztul, M. J. Pysher, P. J. Haglin, and R. E. Williams, “Geometric phase associated with mode transformations of optical beams bearing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 203901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harb, C.

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J.-F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H.-A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams,” Science 321(5888), 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harb, C. C.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. K. Lam, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, “Optical entanglement of co-propagation modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 399–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harter, D.

Heckenberg, N. R.

Helmerson, K.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Cladé, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imeshev, G.

Janousek, J.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. K. Lam, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, “Optical entanglement of co-propagation modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 399–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J.-F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H.-A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams,” Science 321(5888), 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, W. J.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, W. J. Jeong, M. K. Song, and D. H. Yoon, “The ridge waveguide fabrication with periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate for green laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(4), 1101–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jung, C.

Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kee, C.-S.

Kim, W. K.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, W. J. Jeong, M. K. Song, and D. H. Yoon, “The ridge waveguide fabrication with periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate for green laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(4), 1101–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Laguerre and Hermite soliton clusters in nonlocal nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(5), 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, D.-K.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, “Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2813–2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Laguerre and Hermite soliton clusters in nonlocal nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(5), 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S. W.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, W. J. Jeong, M. K. Song, and D. H. Yoon, “The ridge waveguide fabrication with periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate for green laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(4), 1101–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P. K.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. K. Lam, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, “Optical entanglement of co-propagation modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 399–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J.-F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H.-A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams,” Science 321(5888), 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leach, J.

R. Di Leonardo, J. Leach, H. Mushfique, J. M. Cooper, G. Ruocco, and M. J. Padgett, “Multipoint holographic optical velocimetry in microfluidic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(13), 134502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. M.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, W. J. Jeong, M. K. Song, and D. H. Yoon, “The ridge waveguide fabrication with periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate for green laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(4), 1101–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-Y.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, W. J. Jeong, M. K. Song, and D. H. Yoon, “The ridge waveguide fabrication with periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate for green laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(4), 1101–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, “Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2813–2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. L.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, “Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2813–2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leger, J. R.

Machavariani, G.

Magni, V.

S. D. Silvestri, V. Magni, O. Svelto, and G. Valentini, “Lasers with super-Gaussian Mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(9), 1500–1509 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDuff, R.

Moh, K. J.

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morizur, J.-F.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. K. Lam, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, “Optical entanglement of co-propagation modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 399–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J.-F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H.-A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams,” Science 321(5888), 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mushfique, H.

R. Di Leonardo, J. Leach, H. Mushfique, J. M. Cooper, G. Ruocco, and M. J. Padgett, “Multipoint holographic optical velocimetry in microfluidic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(13), 134502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natarajan, V.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Cladé, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noh, Y.-C.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, “Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2813–2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

R. Di Leonardo, J. Leach, H. Mushfique, J. M. Cooper, G. Ruocco, and M. J. Padgett, “Multipoint holographic optical velocimetry in microfluidic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(13), 134502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, W. D.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Cladé, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proctor, M.

Pysher, M. J.

E. J. Galvez, P. R. Crawford, H. I. Sztul, M. J. Pysher, P. J. Haglin, and R. E. Williams, “Geometric phase associated with mode transformations of optical beams bearing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 203901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruocco, G.

R. Di Leonardo, J. Leach, H. Mushfique, J. M. Cooper, G. Ruocco, and M. J. Padgett, “Multipoint holographic optical velocimetry in microfluidic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(13), 134502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, C.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Cladé, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, W.

Silvestri, S. D.

S. D. Silvestri, V. Magni, O. Svelto, and G. Valentini, “Lasers with super-Gaussian Mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(9), 1500–1509 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. P.

Song, M. K.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, W. J. Jeong, M. K. Song, and D. H. Yoon, “The ridge waveguide fabrication with periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate for green laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(4), 1101–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

Sundheimer, M. L.

Svelto, O.

S. D. Silvestri, V. Magni, O. Svelto, and G. Valentini, “Lasers with super-Gaussian Mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(9), 1500–1509 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sztul, H. I.

E. J. Galvez, P. R. Crawford, H. I. Sztul, M. J. Pysher, P. J. Haglin, and R. E. Williams, “Geometric phase associated with mode transformations of optical beams bearing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 203901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamburini, F.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Treps, N.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. K. Lam, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, “Optical entanglement of co-propagation modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 399–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J.-F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H.-A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams,” Science 321(5888), 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umbriaco, G.

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentini, G.

S. D. Silvestri, V. Magni, O. Svelto, and G. Valentini, “Lasers with super-Gaussian Mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(9), 1500–1509 (1990).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, H. E. L. O.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Vaziri, A.

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Cladé, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, K.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. K. Lam, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, “Optical entanglement of co-propagation modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 399–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J.-F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H.-A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams,” Science 321(5888), 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, A. G.

Williams, R. E.

E. J. Galvez, P. R. Crawford, H. I. Sztul, M. J. Pysher, P. J. Haglin, and R. E. Williams, “Geometric phase associated with mode transformations of optical beams bearing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 203901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, W. S.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, W. J. Jeong, M. K. Song, and D. H. Yoon, “The ridge waveguide fabrication with periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate for green laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(4), 1101–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, D. H.

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, W. J. Jeong, M. K. Song, and D. H. Yoon, “The ridge waveguide fabrication with periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate for green laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(4), 1101–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.-A.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, “Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2813–2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N. E.

Yu, T. J.

Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.-C.

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, H.

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J.-F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H.-A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams,” Science 321(5888), 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

S. W. Kwon, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, H.-Y. Lee, W. J. Jeong, M. K. Song, and D. H. Yoon, “The ridge waveguide fabrication with periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate for green laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(4), 1101–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. D. Silvestri, V. Magni, O. Svelto, and G. Valentini, “Lasers with super-Gaussian Mirrors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(9), 1500–1509 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. K. Lam, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, “Optical entanglement of co-propagation modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 399–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

E. J. Galvez, P. R. Crawford, H. I. Sztul, M. J. Pysher, P. J. Haglin, and R. E. Williams, “Geometric phase associated with mode transformations of optical beams bearing orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 203901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tamburini, G. Anzolin, G. Umbriaco, A. Bianchini, and C. Barbieri, “Overcoming the rayleigh criterion limit with optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 163903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Buccoliero, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Laguerre and Hermite soliton clusters in nonlocal nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(5), 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Andersen, C. Ryu, P. Cladé, V. Natarajan, A. Vaziri, K. Helmerson, and W. D. Phillips, “Quantized rotation of atoms from photons with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 170406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Di Leonardo, J. Leach, H. Mushfique, J. M. Cooper, G. Ruocco, and M. J. Padgett, “Multipoint holographic optical velocimetry in microfluidic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(13), 134502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J.-F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H.-A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams,” Science 321(5888), 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SH and SF curves as a function of fundamental wavelength in a ZnO:PPLN waveguide (@25 °C). Each peak shows different HG mode (from HG 00 to HG 11 ). 1st peak: HG 00 (ω)+HG 00 (ω)→HG 00 (2ω), 2nd peak: HG 00 (ω)+HG 10 (ω)→HG 10 (2ω), 3rd peak: HG 00 (ω)+HG 01 (ω)→HG 01 (2ω), 4th peak: HG 00 (ω)+HG 11 (ω)→HG 11 (2ω).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

HG modes which are generated in a ZnO:PPLN waveguide by second-order nonlinear process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelengths of different HG modes (HG 00 , HG 10 , HG 01 , HG 11 ) as a function of the operation temperature. The wavelength tuning rate is about 0.05 nm/°C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of experimental setup to generate LG mode in a ZnO:PPLN waveguide by the use of second-order nonlinear process and local-temperature-control technique. LD, wavelength tunable diode laser; PS, power splitter, PC1, PC2, polarization controller; PPLN1, Ridge-type Zn:PPLN waveguide; PPLN2, Ridge-type MgO:PPLN waveguide; Lens1, Lens2, 10× objective lens; Filter1, Filter2, infrared cut-off filter; BS1, BS2, beam splitter; CCD, charge-coupled device camera.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of the combination between HG 10 and HG 01 modes with different phase delays and amplitudes. The color and gray images indicate theoretical calculations and experimental results, respectively. a, Amplitude of HG 10 is larger than that of HG 01 . b, Amplitude of HG 10 is smaller than that of HG 01 . c, Amplitude of HG 10 and HG 01 is equal. The temperatures which are written below pictures indicate the deviations from the temperature at π/2 phase shift between two modes (HG 10 , HG 01 ).

Equations (2)

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k S H 2 k f K Q P M = 0
k S F , m k f , m 1 k f , m 2 K Q P M = 0

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