Abstract

We fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode (LED) arrays using nanosphere lithography for nanorod formation, PECVD (plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) grown SiO2 layer for sidewall passivation, and chemical mechanical polishing for uniform nanorod contact. The nano-device demonstrates a reverse current 4.77nA at −5V, an ideality factor 7.35, and an optical output intensity 6807mW/cm2 at the injection current density 32A/cm2 (20mA). Moreover, the investigation of the droop effect for such a nanorod LED array reveals that junction heating is responsible for the sharp decrease at the low current.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  24. A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, (2009).

2008 (2)

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, C.-T. Liang, T. Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9357–9365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 612905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. M. Shah, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(1-2), 12–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12(10), 738–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bochkareva, N. I.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Calarco, R.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. Y.

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, (2009).

Chang, H. J.

Chapelle, M. L.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(1-2), 12–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12(10), 738–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. D.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

Chen, C. Y.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

Chen, L. Y.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. T.

Chen, Y.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Cheng, Y. W.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

Chhajed, S.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, (2009).

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.-H.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Chung, K. S.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Darvish, S. R.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davydov, A. V.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deb, P.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, S.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drory, M. D.

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Efremov, A. A.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. S.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(1-2), 12–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, Th.

J. M. Shah, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gorbunov, R. I.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grzegory, I.

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gutowski, J.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardtdegen, H.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, M. Y.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, Y. P.

Hsueh, T. H.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Hu, Z.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. F.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Huang, J. J.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huo, K.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaluza, N.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, T. W.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Ke, M. Y.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, A.

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 612905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-M.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. I.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, K.

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 612905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kung, P.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, (2009).

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Lahiji, R.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, C. F.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinovich, D. A.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Levin, I.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(1-2), 12–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-L.

J. M. Shah, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C.-T.

Lin, C. F.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Lin, S. Y.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. Y.

Lu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lüth, H.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayes, K.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McClintock, R.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meijers, R.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melngailis, J.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, K.

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 612905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mohammad, S. N.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Montanari, S.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motayed, A.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munkholm, A.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noemaun, A. N.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, M.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. H.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

Piprek, J.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Porowski, S.

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Y.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Razeghi, M.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rebane, Yu. T.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reifenberger, R.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, S. R.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sands, T.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shah, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sebald, K.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, J. M.

J. M. Shah, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, B.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shiell, D.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shreter, Yu. G.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suski, T.

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tada, M.

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 612905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. C.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(1-2), 12–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, T. Y.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tarkhin, D. V.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thillosen, N.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, S. C.

Vaudin, M. D.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

Wang, S. C.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Wang, X.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. S.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H. M.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. R.

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, (2009).

Xu, J.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, N.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasan, A.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. C.

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12(10), 738–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. M.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Yu, P.

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, (2009).

Zhang, R.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12(10), 738–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(1-2), 12–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shah, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Nano Lett. (3)

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, C.-T. Liang, T. Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9357–9365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 612905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semiconductors (1)

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

W. Alexander and J. Shackelford, CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook (CRC press, USA 1997) p.474.

C. T. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier generation and recombination in p-n junctions and p-n junction characteristics,” Proc. IRE. 45, 1228 (1957).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The process flow of nanorod LED array fabrication. (a) The device employs a typical MQW LED (b) The nanorod array is realized by nanosphere lithography (c) The PECVD grown SiO2 layer was deposited to prevent p-n shorting and to passivate the sidewalls (d) The CMP process to expose the nanorod tips (e) Deposition of contact pads.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of (a) the nanorod structure after ICP etching and (b) the surface profile after SiO2 passivation and CMP process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The I-V curve of a nanorod LED. The dash line indicates an ideality factor of 7.35

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical output power density (left axis) and the corresponding EQE (right axis) of the nanorod LED array at different injection current densities. (Inset) Light emission image from the nanorod LED array at 1.6 A/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized EQE at (a) 100% and (b)1% duty cycles

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The radiation profile of a nanorod LED array. The red line indicates that θ1/2 of the nanorod LED is 30°.

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