Abstract

The tapering of silicon optical fibers is demonstrated using a fusion splicer. The silicon fibers are fabricated using a high pressure chemical deposition technique to deposit an amorphous silicon core inside a silica capillary and the tapering is performed in a separate post-process. Optical and material characterization has revealed a smooth transition region leading to a uniform tapered waist that are both simultaneously crystallized to yield a solid polysilicon core. The strong mode confinement and low taper loss measured in the silicon fibers verifies this tapering approach for the fabrication of structures with nanoscale core dimensions.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. A. Kudlinski, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, J. C. Travers, A. B. Rulkov, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Zerodispersion wavelength decreasing photonic crystal fibers for ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 14, 5715-5722 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  8. J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, "Silicon optical fiber," Opt. Express 16, 18675-18683 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Lagonigro, N. V. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Wavelengthdependent loss measurements in polysilicon modified optical fibres," CLEO/Europe-EQEC CE3 (2009).
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  14. L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Large mode area silicon microstructured fiber with robust dual mode guidance," Opt. Express 17, 18076-18082 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, T. Zijlstra, and E. W. J. M. van der Drift, "Amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 649-653 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Large mode area silicon microstructured fiber with robust dual mode guidance," Opt. Express 17, 18076-18082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, T. Zijlstra, and E. W. J. M. van der Drift, "Amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 649-653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, "Fabrication of silicon optical fiber," Opt. Eng. 48, 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (5)

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, "Silicon Photonics," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4600-4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Efficient Raman Lasing in Tapered Silicon Waveguides," Spectroscopy 21, 26 (2006).

A. Kudlinski, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, J. C. Travers, A. B. Rulkov, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Zerodispersion wavelength decreasing photonic crystal fibers for ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 14, 5715-5722 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. Lipson, "Overcoming the limitations of microelectronics using Si nanophotonics: solving the coupling, modulation and switching challenges," Nanotechnology 15, S622-S627 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1989 (1)

C. R. Kurkjian, J. T. Krause, and M. J. Matthewson, "Strength and Fatigue of Silica Optical Fibers," J. Ligthwave Technol. 7, 1360-1370 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Almeida, V. R.

Amezcua-Correa, A.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badding, J. V.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Large mode area silicon microstructured fiber with robust dual mode guidance," Opt. Express 17, 18076-18082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballato, J.

Baril, N. F.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, J. M.

Birks, T. A.

Brinkmeyer, E.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Efficient Raman Lasing in Tapered Silicon Waveguides," Spectroscopy 21, 26 (2006).

Caluori, V.

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, "Fabrication of silicon optical fiber," Opt. Eng. 48, 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

Crespi, V. H.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daw, M.

de Dood, M. J. A.

M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, T. Zijlstra, and E. W. J. M. van der Drift, "Amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 649-653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ellison, M.

Farr, L.

Fathpour, S.

Finlayson, C. E.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

Foy, P.

Gaeta, A. L.

George, A. K.

Gopalan, V.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenther, K. H.

Hawkins, T.

Hayes, J. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Healy, N.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Large mode area silicon microstructured fiber with robust dual mode guidance," Opt. Express 17, 18076-18082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, B. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

Knight, J. C.

Kokuoz, B.

Krause, J. T.

C. R. Kurkjian, J. T. Krause, and M. J. Matthewson, "Strength and Fatigue of Silica Optical Fibers," J. Ligthwave Technol. 7, 1360-1370 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Krause, M.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Efficient Raman Lasing in Tapered Silicon Waveguides," Spectroscopy 21, 26 (2006).

Kudlinski, A.

Kurkjian, C. R.

C. R. Kurkjian, J. T. Krause, and M. J. Matthewson, "Strength and Fatigue of Silica Optical Fibers," J. Ligthwave Technol. 7, 1360-1370 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lagonigro, L.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Mangan, B. J.

Manolatou, C.

Margine, E. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mason, M. W.

Matthewson, M. J.

C. R. Kurkjian, J. T. Krause, and M. J. Matthewson, "Strength and Fatigue of Silica Optical Fibers," J. Ligthwave Technol. 7, 1360-1370 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, C.

Panepucci, R. R.

Peacock, A. C.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Large mode area silicon microstructured fiber with robust dual mode guidance," Opt. Express 17, 18076-18082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrovich, M. N.

Pickrell, G.

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, "Fabrication of silicon optical fiber," Opt. Eng. 48, 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, T. Zijlstra, and E. W. J. M. van der Drift, "Amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 649-653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S. V.

Powers, D. R.

Rao, A. M.

Renner, H.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Efficient Raman Lasing in Tapered Silicon Waveguides," Spectroscopy 21, 26 (2006).

Reppert, J.

Rice, R. R.

Roberts, P. J.

Rulkov, A. B.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sabert, H.

Sazio, P. J. A.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Large mode area silicon microstructured fiber with robust dual mode guidance," Opt. Express 17, 18076-18082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheidemantel, T. J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B. S.

Scott, B.

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, "Fabrication of silicon optical fiber," Opt. Eng. 48, 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S.

Sharping, J. E.

Shori, R.

Sparks, J. R.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. N. Petrovich, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Large mode area silicon microstructured fiber with robust dual mode guidance," Opt. Express 17, 18076-18082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stafsudd, O.

Stolen, R.

Taylor, J. R.

Tomlinson, A.

Travers, J. C.

Turner, A. C.

van der Drift, E. W. J. M.

M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, T. Zijlstra, and E. W. J. M. van der Drift, "Amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 649-653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, "Fabrication of silicon optical fiber," Opt. Eng. 48, 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, P. G.

Williams, D. P.

Won, D.-J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zijlstra, T.

M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, T. Zijlstra, and E. W. J. M. van der Drift, "Amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 649-653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, T. Zijlstra, and E. W. J. M. van der Drift, "Amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 649-653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Ligthwave Technol. (1)

C. R. Kurkjian, J. T. Krause, and M. J. Matthewson, "Strength and Fatigue of Silica Optical Fibers," J. Ligthwave Technol. 7, 1360-1370 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

M. Lipson, "Overcoming the limitations of microelectronics using Si nanophotonics: solving the coupling, modulation and switching challenges," Nanotechnology 15, S622-S627 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, "Fabrication of silicon optical fiber," Opt. Eng. 48, 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, "Microstructured Optical Fibers as High-Pressure Microfluidic Reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectroscopy (1)

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Efficient Raman Lasing in Tapered Silicon Waveguides," Spectroscopy 21, 26 (2006).

Other (1)

L. Lagonigro, N. V. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, "Wavelengthdependent loss measurements in polysilicon modified optical fibres," CLEO/Europe-EQEC CE3 (2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Brightfield microscope images (diascopic illumination) of the longitudinal taper profiles for starting fiber core diameters of (a) 5.6μm, (b) 2.7μm, and 1.3μm. The 70μm scale bar is applicable for all images.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) DIC image of the 2.7μm fiber taper; scale bar 3μm. (b) Micro-Raman spectra for three positions along the 2.7μm fiber core: untapered region (inset), taper transition (bottom), taper waist (middle) and a single crystal silicon wafer (top). Dashed lines are Voigt fits including Gaussian instrument broadening of 2.1cm-1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Effective fundamental mode (a) index and (b) area as functions of the taper core diameter, together with the corresponding (c) group velocity dispersion parameter. All calculations are for a transmission wavelength of 1550nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Top: microscope images of the polished cross sections of the 2.7μm tapered fiber corresponding to the three regions: (a) untapered fiber (scale bar 30μm), (b) taper transition and (c) taper waist, all at the same scale . Bottom: near field mode profiles exiting the three core sizes displayed above, all imaged at the same scale (scale bar 4μm).

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