Abstract

This investigation explores, for the first time, the random laser behavior of ground powder obtained from organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on Rhodamine 6G incorporated into a di-ureasil matrix. The experimental results, both in the spectral and temporal domains, obtained by pumping with picosecond laser pulses, show the existence of efficient random laser emission in this system. Finally, the random laser performance is compared with the one of other Rhodamine-doped solid state silica compounds.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Y. Lam and M. J. Damzen, “Characterisation of solid-state dyes and their use as tunable laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 77(6-7), 577–584 (2003).
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  4. O. García, L. Garrido, R. Sastre, A. Costela, and I. García-Moreno, “Synthetic strategies for hybrid materials to improve properties for optoelectronic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2017–2025 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. V. de Zea Bermudez, L. D. Carlos, and L. Alcácer, “Sol-gel derived urea cross-linked organically modified silicates. 1. Room temperature mid-infrared spectra,” Chem. Mater. 11(3), 569–580 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Photopatternable di-ureasil-zirconium oxocluster organic-inorganic hybrids as cost effective integrated optical substrates,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3696–3705 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  26. X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, “Time dependent theory for random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 70–73 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]

2009

L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, V. de Zea Bermudez, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Lanthanide-Containing Light-Emitting Organic-Inorganic Hybrids: A Bet on the Future,” Adv. Mater. 21(5), 509–534 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. García-Revilla, J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. Zayat, and D. Levy, “Real-time spectroscopy of novel solid-state random lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7212, K1–K11 (2009).

C. Kim, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Middle-infrared random lasing of Cr2+ doped ZnSe, ZnS, CdSe powders, powders imbedded in polymer liquid solutions, and polymer films,” Opt. Commun. 282(10), 2049–2052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. García-Revilla, M. Zayac, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, D. Levy, and J. Fernández, “1Low threshold random lasing in dye-doped silica nano powders,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13202–13215 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. García-Revilla, J. Fernández, M. A. Illarramendi, B. García-Ramiro, R. Balda, H. Cui, M. Zayat, and D. Levy, “Ultrafast random laser emission in a dye-doped silica gel powder,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12251–12263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. García, L. Garrido, R. Sastre, A. Costela, and I. García-Moreno, “Synthetic strategies for hybrid materials to improve properties for optoelectronic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2017–2025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Photopatternable di-ureasil-zirconium oxocluster organic-inorganic hybrids as cost effective integrated optical substrates,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3696–3705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. M. S. Vicente, E. Pecoraro, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, R. Nogueira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Waveguides and gratings fabrication in zirconium-based organic/inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 48(1-2), 80–85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Grandi, C. Tomasi, P. Mustarelli, F. Clemente, and C. M. Carbonaro, “Characterisation of a new sol-gel precursor for a SiO2-Rhodamine 6G hybrid class II material,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn. 41, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Valverde-Aguilar, “Photostability of laser dyes incorporated in formamide SiO(2)ORMOSILs,” Opt. Mater. 28(10), 1209–1215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Oliveira, Y. Messaddeq, K. Dahmouche, S. J. L. Ribeiro, R. R. Gonçalves, A. Vesperini, D. Gindre, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Distributed feedback multipeak laser emission in Rhodamine 6G doped organic-inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 40, 359–363 (2006).

2005

C. Molina, P. J. Moreira, R. R. Gonçalves, R. A. S. Ferreira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, O. Soppera, A. P. Leite, P. V. S. Marques, V. de Zea Bermudez, and L. D. Carlos, “Planar and UV written channel optical waveguides prepared with siloxane poly(oxyethylene)-zirconia organic-inorganic hybrids. Structure and optical properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3937–3945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. H. Nhung, M. Canva, F. Chaput, H. Goudket, G. Roger, A. Brun, D. D. Manh, N. D. Hung, and J. P. Boilot, “Dye energy transfer in xerogel matrices and application to solid-state dye lasers,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 343–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Anglos, A. Stassinopoulos, R. N. Das, G. Zacharakis, M. Psyllaki, R. Jakubiak, R. A. Vaia, E. P. Giannelis, and S. H. Anastasiadis, “Random laser action in organic-inorganic nanocomposites,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(1), 208–213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Sanchez, B. Lebeau, F. Chaput, and J. P. Boilot, “Optical Properties of Functional Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 1969–1994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lam and M. J. Damzen, “Characterisation of solid-state dyes and their use as tunable laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 77(6-7), 577–584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Model for a random laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(21), 215503 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Stathatos, P. Lianos, U. L. Stangar, and B. Orel, “Study of laser action of Coumarine-153 incorporated in sol-gel made silica/poly(propylene oxide) nanocomposite gels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 345(5-6), 381–385 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, “Prospects of sol-gel technology towards luminescent materials,” Opt. Mater. 16(1-2), 1–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, “Time dependent theory for random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 70–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

G. Zacharakis, G. Heliotis, G. Filippidis, D. Anglos, and T. G. Papazoglou, “Investigation of the laserlike behavior of polymeric scattering gain media under subpicosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Opt. 38(28), 6087–6092 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. de Zea Bermudez, L. D. Carlos, and L. Alcácer, “Sol-gel derived urea cross-linked organically modified silicates. 1. Room temperature mid-infrared spectra,” Chem. Mater. 11(3), 569–580 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Lee, K. S. Wong, J. D. Huang, S. V. Frolov, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser action in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films: stimulated emission in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton distribution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 314(5-6), 564–569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. John and G. Pang, “Theory of lasing in a multiple-scattering medium,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 3642–3652 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

J. C. Altman, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, and F. Nishida, “Solid-state laser using a Rhodamine-doped silica-gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(3), 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

R. Reisfeld, D. Brusilovsky, M. Eyal, E. Miron, Z. Burstein, and J. Irvi, “A new solid-state tunable laser in the visible,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 160(1), 43–44 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. Avnir, D. Levy, and R. Reisfeld, “The nature of the silica cage as reflected by spectral changes and enhanced photostability of trapped Rhodamine-6G,” J. Phys. Chem. 88(24), 5956–5959 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1967

V. S. Letokhov, “Stimulated emission of an ensemble of scattering particles with negative absorption,” JETP Lett. 5, 212–215 (1967).

Alcácer, L.

V. de Zea Bermudez, L. D. Carlos, and L. Alcácer, “Sol-gel derived urea cross-linked organically modified silicates. 1. Room temperature mid-infrared spectra,” Chem. Mater. 11(3), 569–580 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Al-Saleh, M.

Altman, J. C.

J. C. Altman, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, and F. Nishida, “Solid-state laser using a Rhodamine-doped silica-gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(3), 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anastasiadis, S. H.

André, P. S.

D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Photopatternable di-ureasil-zirconium oxocluster organic-inorganic hybrids as cost effective integrated optical substrates,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3696–3705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. M. S. Vicente, E. Pecoraro, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, R. Nogueira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Waveguides and gratings fabrication in zirconium-based organic/inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 48(1-2), 80–85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anglos, D.

Avnir, D.

D. Avnir, D. Levy, and R. Reisfeld, “The nature of the silica cage as reflected by spectral changes and enhanced photostability of trapped Rhodamine-6G,” J. Phys. Chem. 88(24), 5956–5959 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

Boilot, J. P.

T. H. Nhung, M. Canva, F. Chaput, H. Goudket, G. Roger, A. Brun, D. D. Manh, N. D. Hung, and J. P. Boilot, “Dye energy transfer in xerogel matrices and application to solid-state dye lasers,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 343–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Sanchez, B. Lebeau, F. Chaput, and J. P. Boilot, “Optical Properties of Functional Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 1969–1994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brun, A.

T. H. Nhung, M. Canva, F. Chaput, H. Goudket, G. Roger, A. Brun, D. D. Manh, N. D. Hung, and J. P. Boilot, “Dye energy transfer in xerogel matrices and application to solid-state dye lasers,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 343–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brusilovsky, D.

R. Reisfeld, D. Brusilovsky, M. Eyal, E. Miron, Z. Burstein, and J. Irvi, “A new solid-state tunable laser in the visible,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 160(1), 43–44 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Burin, A. L.

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Model for a random laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(21), 215503 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burstein, Z.

R. Reisfeld, D. Brusilovsky, M. Eyal, E. Miron, Z. Burstein, and J. Irvi, “A new solid-state tunable laser in the visible,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 160(1), 43–44 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Canva, M.

T. H. Nhung, M. Canva, F. Chaput, H. Goudket, G. Roger, A. Brun, D. D. Manh, N. D. Hung, and J. P. Boilot, “Dye energy transfer in xerogel matrices and application to solid-state dye lasers,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 343–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Model for a random laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(21), 215503 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carbonaro, C. M.

S. Grandi, C. Tomasi, P. Mustarelli, F. Clemente, and C. M. Carbonaro, “Characterisation of a new sol-gel precursor for a SiO2-Rhodamine 6G hybrid class II material,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn. 41, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carlos, L. D.

L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, V. de Zea Bermudez, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Lanthanide-Containing Light-Emitting Organic-Inorganic Hybrids: A Bet on the Future,” Adv. Mater. 21(5), 509–534 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. S. Vicente, E. Pecoraro, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, R. Nogueira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Waveguides and gratings fabrication in zirconium-based organic/inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 48(1-2), 80–85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Photopatternable di-ureasil-zirconium oxocluster organic-inorganic hybrids as cost effective integrated optical substrates,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3696–3705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Molina, P. J. Moreira, R. R. Gonçalves, R. A. S. Ferreira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, O. Soppera, A. P. Leite, P. V. S. Marques, V. de Zea Bermudez, and L. D. Carlos, “Planar and UV written channel optical waveguides prepared with siloxane poly(oxyethylene)-zirconia organic-inorganic hybrids. Structure and optical properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3937–3945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. de Zea Bermudez, L. D. Carlos, and L. Alcácer, “Sol-gel derived urea cross-linked organically modified silicates. 1. Room temperature mid-infrared spectra,” Chem. Mater. 11(3), 569–580 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Model for a random laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(21), 215503 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaput, F.

T. H. Nhung, M. Canva, F. Chaput, H. Goudket, G. Roger, A. Brun, D. D. Manh, N. D. Hung, and J. P. Boilot, “Dye energy transfer in xerogel matrices and application to solid-state dye lasers,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 343–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Sanchez, B. Lebeau, F. Chaput, and J. P. Boilot, “Optical Properties of Functional Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 1969–1994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clemente, F.

S. Grandi, C. Tomasi, P. Mustarelli, F. Clemente, and C. M. Carbonaro, “Characterisation of a new sol-gel precursor for a SiO2-Rhodamine 6G hybrid class II material,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn. 41, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Costela, A.

O. García, L. Garrido, R. Sastre, A. Costela, and I. García-Moreno, “Synthetic strategies for hybrid materials to improve properties for optoelectronic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2017–2025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, H.

Dahmouche, K.

D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Photopatternable di-ureasil-zirconium oxocluster organic-inorganic hybrids as cost effective integrated optical substrates,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3696–3705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Oliveira, Y. Messaddeq, K. Dahmouche, S. J. L. Ribeiro, R. R. Gonçalves, A. Vesperini, D. Gindre, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Distributed feedback multipeak laser emission in Rhodamine 6G doped organic-inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 40, 359–363 (2006).

Damzen, M. J.

S. Y. Lam and M. J. Damzen, “Characterisation of solid-state dyes and their use as tunable laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 77(6-7), 577–584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Das, R. N.

de Zea Bermudez, V.

L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, V. de Zea Bermudez, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Lanthanide-Containing Light-Emitting Organic-Inorganic Hybrids: A Bet on the Future,” Adv. Mater. 21(5), 509–534 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Photopatternable di-ureasil-zirconium oxocluster organic-inorganic hybrids as cost effective integrated optical substrates,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3696–3705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Molina, P. J. Moreira, R. R. Gonçalves, R. A. S. Ferreira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, O. Soppera, A. P. Leite, P. V. S. Marques, V. de Zea Bermudez, and L. D. Carlos, “Planar and UV written channel optical waveguides prepared with siloxane poly(oxyethylene)-zirconia organic-inorganic hybrids. Structure and optical properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3937–3945 (2005).
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J. C. Altman, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, and F. Nishida, “Solid-state laser using a Rhodamine-doped silica-gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(3), 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Knobbe, B. Dunn, P. D. Fuqua, and F. Nishida, “Laser behavior and photostability characteristics of organic-dye doped silicate gel materials,” Appl. Opt. 29(18), 2729–2733 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Reisfeld, D. Brusilovsky, M. Eyal, E. Miron, Z. Burstein, and J. Irvi, “A new solid-state tunable laser in the visible,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 160(1), 43–44 (1989).
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C. Kim, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Middle-infrared random lasing of Cr2+ doped ZnSe, ZnS, CdSe powders, powders imbedded in polymer liquid solutions, and polymer films,” Opt. Commun. 282(10), 2049–2052 (2009).
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Fernández, J.

Ferreira, R. A. S.

L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, V. de Zea Bermudez, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Lanthanide-Containing Light-Emitting Organic-Inorganic Hybrids: A Bet on the Future,” Adv. Mater. 21(5), 509–534 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. S. Vicente, E. Pecoraro, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, R. Nogueira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Waveguides and gratings fabrication in zirconium-based organic/inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 48(1-2), 80–85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Photopatternable di-ureasil-zirconium oxocluster organic-inorganic hybrids as cost effective integrated optical substrates,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3696–3705 (2008).
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C. Molina, P. J. Moreira, R. R. Gonçalves, R. A. S. Ferreira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, O. Soppera, A. P. Leite, P. V. S. Marques, V. de Zea Bermudez, and L. D. Carlos, “Planar and UV written channel optical waveguides prepared with siloxane poly(oxyethylene)-zirconia organic-inorganic hybrids. Structure and optical properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3937–3945 (2005).
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Frolov, S. V.

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García, O.

O. García, L. Garrido, R. Sastre, A. Costela, and I. García-Moreno, “Synthetic strategies for hybrid materials to improve properties for optoelectronic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2017–2025 (2008).
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García-Moreno, I.

O. García, L. Garrido, R. Sastre, A. Costela, and I. García-Moreno, “Synthetic strategies for hybrid materials to improve properties for optoelectronic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2017–2025 (2008).
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García-Revilla, S.

Garrido, L.

O. García, L. Garrido, R. Sastre, A. Costela, and I. García-Moreno, “Synthetic strategies for hybrid materials to improve properties for optoelectronic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2017–2025 (2008).
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Giannelis, E. P.

Gindre, D.

D. C. Oliveira, Y. Messaddeq, K. Dahmouche, S. J. L. Ribeiro, R. R. Gonçalves, A. Vesperini, D. Gindre, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Distributed feedback multipeak laser emission in Rhodamine 6G doped organic-inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 40, 359–363 (2006).

Gonçalves, R. R.

D. C. Oliveira, Y. Messaddeq, K. Dahmouche, S. J. L. Ribeiro, R. R. Gonçalves, A. Vesperini, D. Gindre, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Distributed feedback multipeak laser emission in Rhodamine 6G doped organic-inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 40, 359–363 (2006).

C. Molina, P. J. Moreira, R. R. Gonçalves, R. A. S. Ferreira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, O. Soppera, A. P. Leite, P. V. S. Marques, V. de Zea Bermudez, and L. D. Carlos, “Planar and UV written channel optical waveguides prepared with siloxane poly(oxyethylene)-zirconia organic-inorganic hybrids. Structure and optical properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3937–3945 (2005).
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S. Grandi, C. Tomasi, P. Mustarelli, F. Clemente, and C. M. Carbonaro, “Characterisation of a new sol-gel precursor for a SiO2-Rhodamine 6G hybrid class II material,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn. 41, 57–63 (2007).
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Heliotis, G.

Huang, J. D.

C. W. Lee, K. S. Wong, J. D. Huang, S. V. Frolov, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser action in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films: stimulated emission in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton distribution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 314(5-6), 564–569 (1999).
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Hung, N. D.

T. H. Nhung, M. Canva, F. Chaput, H. Goudket, G. Roger, A. Brun, D. D. Manh, N. D. Hung, and J. P. Boilot, “Dye energy transfer in xerogel matrices and application to solid-state dye lasers,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 343–351 (2004).
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Irvi, J.

R. Reisfeld, D. Brusilovsky, M. Eyal, E. Miron, Z. Burstein, and J. Irvi, “A new solid-state tunable laser in the visible,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 160(1), 43–44 (1989).
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Jiang, X.

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S. John and G. Pang, “Theory of lasing in a multiple-scattering medium,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 3642–3652 (1996).
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C. Kim, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Middle-infrared random lasing of Cr2+ doped ZnSe, ZnS, CdSe powders, powders imbedded in polymer liquid solutions, and polymer films,” Opt. Commun. 282(10), 2049–2052 (2009).
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Lagendijk, A.

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C. Sanchez, B. Lebeau, F. Chaput, and J. P. Boilot, “Optical Properties of Functional Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 1969–1994 (2003).
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Lee, C. W.

C. W. Lee, K. S. Wong, J. D. Huang, S. V. Frolov, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Femtosecond time-resolved laser action in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films: stimulated emission in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton distribution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 314(5-6), 564–569 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leite, A. P.

C. Molina, P. J. Moreira, R. R. Gonçalves, R. A. S. Ferreira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, O. Soppera, A. P. Leite, P. V. S. Marques, V. de Zea Bermudez, and L. D. Carlos, “Planar and UV written channel optical waveguides prepared with siloxane poly(oxyethylene)-zirconia organic-inorganic hybrids. Structure and optical properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3937–3945 (2005).
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S. García-Revilla, M. Zayac, R. Balda, M. Al-Saleh, D. Levy, and J. Fernández, “1Low threshold random lasing in dye-doped silica nano powders,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13202–13215 (2009).
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D. Avnir, D. Levy, and R. Reisfeld, “The nature of the silica cage as reflected by spectral changes and enhanced photostability of trapped Rhodamine-6G,” J. Phys. Chem. 88(24), 5956–5959 (1984).
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Lianos, P.

E. Stathatos, P. Lianos, U. L. Stangar, and B. Orel, “Study of laser action of Coumarine-153 incorporated in sol-gel made silica/poly(propylene oxide) nanocomposite gels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 345(5-6), 381–385 (2001).
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Macedo, A. G.

D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Photopatternable di-ureasil-zirconium oxocluster organic-inorganic hybrids as cost effective integrated optical substrates,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3696–3705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manh, D. D.

T. H. Nhung, M. Canva, F. Chaput, H. Goudket, G. Roger, A. Brun, D. D. Manh, N. D. Hung, and J. P. Boilot, “Dye energy transfer in xerogel matrices and application to solid-state dye lasers,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 343–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marques, P. V. S.

C. Molina, P. J. Moreira, R. R. Gonçalves, R. A. S. Ferreira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, O. Soppera, A. P. Leite, P. V. S. Marques, V. de Zea Bermudez, and L. D. Carlos, “Planar and UV written channel optical waveguides prepared with siloxane poly(oxyethylene)-zirconia organic-inorganic hybrids. Structure and optical properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3937–3945 (2005).
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Martyshkin, D. V.

C. Kim, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Middle-infrared random lasing of Cr2+ doped ZnSe, ZnS, CdSe powders, powders imbedded in polymer liquid solutions, and polymer films,” Opt. Commun. 282(10), 2049–2052 (2009).
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Messaddeq, Y.

D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Photopatternable di-ureasil-zirconium oxocluster organic-inorganic hybrids as cost effective integrated optical substrates,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3696–3705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. M. S. Vicente, E. Pecoraro, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, R. Nogueira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Waveguides and gratings fabrication in zirconium-based organic/inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 48(1-2), 80–85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Oliveira, Y. Messaddeq, K. Dahmouche, S. J. L. Ribeiro, R. R. Gonçalves, A. Vesperini, D. Gindre, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Distributed feedback multipeak laser emission in Rhodamine 6G doped organic-inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 40, 359–363 (2006).

C. Molina, P. J. Moreira, R. R. Gonçalves, R. A. S. Ferreira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, O. Soppera, A. P. Leite, P. V. S. Marques, V. de Zea Bermudez, and L. D. Carlos, “Planar and UV written channel optical waveguides prepared with siloxane poly(oxyethylene)-zirconia organic-inorganic hybrids. Structure and optical properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3937–3945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miron, E.

R. Reisfeld, D. Brusilovsky, M. Eyal, E. Miron, Z. Burstein, and J. Irvi, “A new solid-state tunable laser in the visible,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 160(1), 43–44 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mirov, S. B.

C. Kim, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Middle-infrared random lasing of Cr2+ doped ZnSe, ZnS, CdSe powders, powders imbedded in polymer liquid solutions, and polymer films,” Opt. Commun. 282(10), 2049–2052 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Molina, C.

D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Photopatternable di-ureasil-zirconium oxocluster organic-inorganic hybrids as cost effective integrated optical substrates,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3696–3705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Molina, P. J. Moreira, R. R. Gonçalves, R. A. S. Ferreira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, O. Soppera, A. P. Leite, P. V. S. Marques, V. de Zea Bermudez, and L. D. Carlos, “Planar and UV written channel optical waveguides prepared with siloxane poly(oxyethylene)-zirconia organic-inorganic hybrids. Structure and optical properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3937–3945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moreira, P. J.

C. Molina, P. J. Moreira, R. R. Gonçalves, R. A. S. Ferreira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, O. Soppera, A. P. Leite, P. V. S. Marques, V. de Zea Bermudez, and L. D. Carlos, “Planar and UV written channel optical waveguides prepared with siloxane poly(oxyethylene)-zirconia organic-inorganic hybrids. Structure and optical properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3937–3945 (2005).
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Mustarelli, P.

S. Grandi, C. Tomasi, P. Mustarelli, F. Clemente, and C. M. Carbonaro, “Characterisation of a new sol-gel precursor for a SiO2-Rhodamine 6G hybrid class II material,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn. 41, 57–63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nhung, T. H.

T. H. Nhung, M. Canva, F. Chaput, H. Goudket, G. Roger, A. Brun, D. D. Manh, N. D. Hung, and J. P. Boilot, “Dye energy transfer in xerogel matrices and application to solid-state dye lasers,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 343–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, F.

J. C. Altman, R. E. Stone, B. Dunn, and F. Nishida, “Solid-state laser using a Rhodamine-doped silica-gel compound,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(3), 189–190 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Knobbe, B. Dunn, P. D. Fuqua, and F. Nishida, “Laser behavior and photostability characteristics of organic-dye doped silicate gel materials,” Appl. Opt. 29(18), 2729–2733 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nogueira, R.

C. M. S. Vicente, E. Pecoraro, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, R. Nogueira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Waveguides and gratings fabrication in zirconium-based organic/inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 48(1-2), 80–85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J.-M.

D. C. Oliveira, Y. Messaddeq, K. Dahmouche, S. J. L. Ribeiro, R. R. Gonçalves, A. Vesperini, D. Gindre, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Distributed feedback multipeak laser emission in Rhodamine 6G doped organic-inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 40, 359–363 (2006).

Oliveira, D. C.

D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Photopatternable di-ureasil-zirconium oxocluster organic-inorganic hybrids as cost effective integrated optical substrates,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3696–3705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Oliveira, Y. Messaddeq, K. Dahmouche, S. J. L. Ribeiro, R. R. Gonçalves, A. Vesperini, D. Gindre, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Distributed feedback multipeak laser emission in Rhodamine 6G doped organic-inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 40, 359–363 (2006).

Orel, B.

E. Stathatos, P. Lianos, U. L. Stangar, and B. Orel, “Study of laser action of Coumarine-153 incorporated in sol-gel made silica/poly(propylene oxide) nanocomposite gels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 345(5-6), 381–385 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pang, G.

S. John and G. Pang, “Theory of lasing in a multiple-scattering medium,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 3642–3652 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papazoglou, T. G.

Pecoraro, E.

C. M. S. Vicente, E. Pecoraro, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, R. Nogueira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Waveguides and gratings fabrication in zirconium-based organic/inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 48(1-2), 80–85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Psyllaki, M.

Ratner, M. A.

A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Model for a random laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(21), 215503 (2001).
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Reisfeld, R.

R. Reisfeld, “Prospects of sol-gel technology towards luminescent materials,” Opt. Mater. 16(1-2), 1–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, D. Brusilovsky, M. Eyal, E. Miron, Z. Burstein, and J. Irvi, “A new solid-state tunable laser in the visible,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 160(1), 43–44 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Avnir, D. Levy, and R. Reisfeld, “The nature of the silica cage as reflected by spectral changes and enhanced photostability of trapped Rhodamine-6G,” J. Phys. Chem. 88(24), 5956–5959 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, V. de Zea Bermudez, and S. J. L. Ribeiro, “Lanthanide-Containing Light-Emitting Organic-Inorganic Hybrids: A Bet on the Future,” Adv. Mater. 21(5), 509–534 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. S. Vicente, E. Pecoraro, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, R. Nogueira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Waveguides and gratings fabrication in zirconium-based organic/inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 48(1-2), 80–85 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Photopatternable di-ureasil-zirconium oxocluster organic-inorganic hybrids as cost effective integrated optical substrates,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3696–3705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Oliveira, Y. Messaddeq, K. Dahmouche, S. J. L. Ribeiro, R. R. Gonçalves, A. Vesperini, D. Gindre, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Distributed feedback multipeak laser emission in Rhodamine 6G doped organic-inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci,” Techn. 40, 359–363 (2006).

C. Molina, P. J. Moreira, R. R. Gonçalves, R. A. S. Ferreira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, O. Soppera, A. P. Leite, P. V. S. Marques, V. de Zea Bermudez, and L. D. Carlos, “Planar and UV written channel optical waveguides prepared with siloxane poly(oxyethylene)-zirconia organic-inorganic hybrids. Structure and optical properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3937–3945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roger, G.

T. H. Nhung, M. Canva, F. Chaput, H. Goudket, G. Roger, A. Brun, D. D. Manh, N. D. Hung, and J. P. Boilot, “Dye energy transfer in xerogel matrices and application to solid-state dye lasers,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 343–351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, C.

C. Sanchez, B. Lebeau, F. Chaput, and J. P. Boilot, “Optical Properties of Functional Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 1969–1994 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sastre, R.

O. García, L. Garrido, R. Sastre, A. Costela, and I. García-Moreno, “Synthetic strategies for hybrid materials to improve properties for optoelectronic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2017–2025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Silva, N. J. O.

D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Photopatternable di-ureasil-zirconium oxocluster organic-inorganic hybrids as cost effective integrated optical substrates,” Chem. Mater. 20(11), 3696–3705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soppera, O.

C. Molina, P. J. Moreira, R. R. Gonçalves, R. A. S. Ferreira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, O. Soppera, A. P. Leite, P. V. S. Marques, V. de Zea Bermudez, and L. D. Carlos, “Planar and UV written channel optical waveguides prepared with siloxane poly(oxyethylene)-zirconia organic-inorganic hybrids. Structure and optical properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(35-36), 3937–3945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, “Time dependent theory for random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 70–73 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stangar, U. L.

E. Stathatos, P. Lianos, U. L. Stangar, and B. Orel, “Study of laser action of Coumarine-153 incorporated in sol-gel made silica/poly(propylene oxide) nanocomposite gels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 345(5-6), 381–385 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stassinopoulos, A.

Stathatos, E.

E. Stathatos, P. Lianos, U. L. Stangar, and B. Orel, “Study of laser action of Coumarine-153 incorporated in sol-gel made silica/poly(propylene oxide) nanocomposite gels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 345(5-6), 381–385 (2001).
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C. M. S. Vicente, E. Pecoraro, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, R. Nogueira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Waveguides and gratings fabrication in zirconium-based organic/inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 48(1-2), 80–85 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.

C. M. S. Vicente, E. Pecoraro, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. S. André, R. Nogueira, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and L. D. Carlos, “Waveguides and gratings fabrication in zirconium-based organic/inorganic hybrids,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 48(1-2), 80–85 (2008).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Normalized emission spectra of the ground powder of d-U(600)@R6G/3.75 obtained at 10.3 μJ/pulse (red), 14.7 μJ/pulse (blue), 20.7 μJ/pulse (green), 24.5 μJ/pulse (black), and 103 μJ/pulse (orange). (b) Pump energy dependence of the emission linewidths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized temporal profiles of the ground powder of d-U(600)@R6G/3.75 obtained at 1.8 μJ/pulse (point line), 4.5 μJ/pulse (dashed line), 13.3 μJ/pulse (dash-dot line), 16.9 μJ/pulse (thin full line), and 29.5 μJ/pulse (thick full line). (b) FWHM of the temporal profiles as a function of the pump pulse energy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized emission spectra of the ground powder of d-U(600)@R6G/7.50 obtained at 11 μJ/pulse (red), 18 μJ/pulse (blue), 20 μJ/pulse (green), 24 μJ/pulse (black), and 100 μJ/pulse (orange). (b) Pump energy dependence of the emission linewidths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Normalized temporal profiles of the ground powder of d-U(600)@R6G/7.50 obtained at 1.6 μJ/pulse (point line), 4.8 μJ/pulse (dashed line), 7.5 μJ/pulse (dash-dot line), 11.2 μJ/pulse (thin full line), and 25.3 μJ/pulse (thick full line). (b) FWHM of the temporal profiles as a function of the pump pulse energy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectral narrowing of the ground powders of d-U(600)@R6G/3.75 (red dots) and bulk silica gel containing 4 wt% Rh6G-SiO2 nanoparticles (blue triangles). (b) Integrated intensity of the emission spectra of these samples as a function of the pump pulse energy. The red and blue lines represent the linear fits of the corresponding experimental data.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Rh6G excited state lifetime and emission quantum yield of the studied samples

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