Abstract

Direct-backward third harmonic generation (DBTHG) has been regarded as negligible or even inexistent due to the large value of wave-vector mismatch. In the past, BTHG signals were often interpreted as back-reflected or back-scattered forward-THG (FTHG). In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that backward third harmonic waves can be directly generated, and that their magnitude can be comparable with FTHG in nanostructures. Experimental data of DBTHG from ZnO thin films, CdSe quantum dots and Fe3O4 nanoparticles agree well with simulation results based on the Green’s function. An integral equation was also derived for fast computation of DBTHG in nano films. Our investigation suggests that DBTHG can be a potentially powerful tool in nano-science research, especially when combined with FTHG measurements.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054022 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Yu, I.-J. Wang, and C.-K. Sun, “Infrared-based third and second harmonic generation imaging of cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044012 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064041 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C.-K. Sun, C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, I.-J. Wang, H.-C. Yu, H.-J. Huang, W.-J. Lee, and Y.-F. Chan, “In vivo and ex vivo imaging of intra-tissue elastic fibers using third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11167–11177 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Yelin and Y. Silberberg, “Laser scanning third-harmonic-generation microscopy in biology,” Opt. Express 5(8), 169–175 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, “Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(3), 190–200 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C.-S. Hsieh, S.-U. Chen, Y.-W. Lee, Y.-S. Yang, and C.-K. Sun, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy of in vitro cultured mammal oocytes and embryos,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11574–11588 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  9. S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, L.-F. Wang, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Chiang, “Noninvasive in vitro and in vivo assessment of epidermal hyperkeratosis and dermal fibrosis in atopic dermatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014008 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti: sapphire and Cr: forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Yelin, Y. Silberberg, Y. Barad, and J. S. Patel, “Depth-resolved imaging of nematic liquid crystals by third-harmonic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3107 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. I. Shcheslavskiy, S. M. Saltiel, A. R. Faustov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, “How to measure χ(3) of a nanoparticle,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1486–1488 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. A. Squier and M. Müller, “Third-harmonic generation imaging of laser-induced breakdown in glass,” Appl. Opt. 38(27), 5789–5794 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S.-W. Chu, M.-C. Chan, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C.-K. Sun, “Simultaneous four-photon luminescence, third-harmonic generation, and second-harmonic generation microscopy of GaN,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2463–2465 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. Canioni, S. Rivet, L. Sarger, R. Barille, P. Vacher, and P. Voisin, “Imaging of Ca(2)+ intracellular dynamics with a third-harmonic generation microscope,” Opt. Lett. 26(8), 515–517 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C.-K. Sun, C.-C. Chen, S.-W. Chu, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, and B.-L. Lin, “Multiharmonic-generation biopsy of skin,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2488–2490 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T.-H. Tsai, S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “Optical signal degradation study in fixed human skin using confocal microscopy and higher-harmonic optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(2), 749–758 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. V. Barzda, C. Greenhalgh, J. Aus der Au, S. Elmore, J. van Beek, and J. Squier, “Visualization of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes by simultaneous harmonic generation and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8263–8276 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S.-P. Tai, T.-H. Tsai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, Y.-H. Liao, H.-Y. Huang, K. Zhang, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Optical biopsy of fixed human skin with backward-collected optical harmonics signals,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8231–8242 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S.-Y. Chen, S.-P. Tai, T.-H. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “Direct backward-emitted third-harmonic generation and its application to clinical microscopy,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 2005. QELS '05(2005), p. 167.
  25. S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, P.-C. Wu, H.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6178–6187 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. Débarre, N. Olivier, and E. Beaurepaire, “Signal epidetection in third-harmonic generation microscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8913–8924 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. S. Hsu, and C.-K. Sun, “Epi-third and second harmonic generation microscopic imaging of abnormal enamel,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11670–11679 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  28. S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060505 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Green's function formulation for third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(7), 1604–1610 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics (Academic Press, Amsterdam; Boston, 2003).
  31. J. M. Schins, T. Schrama, J. Squier, G. J. Brakenhoff, and M. Muller, “Determination of material properties by use of third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(7), 1627–1634 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103 (2005).
  33. J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003).
  35. V. I. Shcheslavskiy, S. M. Saltiel, A. Faustov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Third-harmonic Rayleigh scattering: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(11), 2402–2408 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Y. Segawa, C. Y. Liu, B. P. Zhang, and N. T. Binh, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 83–86 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. Miragliotta and D. Wickenden, “Optical third-harmonic studies of the dispersion in χ(3) for gallium nitride thin films on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 14960–14964 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  38. H.-C. Chen, M.-J. Chen, M.-K. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and F.-Y. Tsai, “Low-threshold stimulated emission in ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1053–1057 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  39. W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C. H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S. S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst. 40(5), 924–930 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, Handbook of optics. Vol. 2, Devices, measurements, and properties (McGraw-Hill New York, USA, 1995).
  41. C.-F. Chang, C.-Y. Chen, F.-H. Chang, S.-P. Tai, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Yu, Y. B. Tseng, T. H. Tsai, I. S. Liu, W. F. Su, and C. K. Sun, “Cell tracking and detection of molecular expression in live cells using lipid-enclosed CdSe quantum dots as contrast agents for epi-third harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9534–9548 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. C.-Y. Chen, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Tai, C.-F. Chang, S.-H. Wu, Y. Hung, C.-Y. Mou, L.-W. Hsin, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Chen, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Clinically-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticles for High Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging Using Third Harmonic Generation.”
  43. T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol–gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3184 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

S.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Yu, I.-J. Wang, and C.-K. Sun, “Infrared-based third and second harmonic generation imaging of cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, L.-F. Wang, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Chiang, “Noninvasive in vitro and in vivo assessment of epidermal hyperkeratosis and dermal fibrosis in atopic dermatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

2007 (4)

C.-K. Sun, C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, I.-J. Wang, H.-C. Yu, H.-J. Huang, W.-J. Lee, and Y.-F. Chan, “In vivo and ex vivo imaging of intra-tissue elastic fibers using third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11167–11177 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C. H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S. S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst. 40(5), 924–930 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Débarre, N. Olivier, and E. Beaurepaire, “Signal epidetection in third-harmonic generation microscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8913–8924 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

T.-H. Tsai, S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “Optical signal degradation study in fixed human skin using confocal microscopy and higher-harmonic optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(2), 749–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, P.-C. Wu, H.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6178–6187 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Shcheslavskiy, S. M. Saltiel, A. R. Faustov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, “How to measure χ(3) of a nanoparticle,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1486–1488 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

2004 (2)

Y. Segawa, C. Y. Liu, B. P. Zhang, and N. T. Binh, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 83–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (4)

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Green's function formulation for third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(7), 1604–1610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, T. Schrama, J. Squier, G. J. Brakenhoff, and M. Muller, “Determination of material properties by use of third-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(7), 1627–1634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, “Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(3), 190–200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti: sapphire and Cr: forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1996 (1)

T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol–gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3184 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Miragliotta and D. Wickenden, “Optical third-harmonic studies of the dispersion in χ(3) for gallium nitride thin films on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 14960–14964 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Y. I.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103 (2005).

Aus der Au, J.

Avrutin, V.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103 (2005).

Barad, Y.

D. Yelin, Y. Silberberg, Y. Barad, and J. S. Patel, “Depth-resolved imaging of nematic liquid crystals by third-harmonic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barille, R.

Barzda, V.

Battle, R.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beaurepaire, E.

D. Débarre, N. Olivier, and E. Beaurepaire, “Signal epidetection in third-harmonic generation microscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8913–8924 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Binh, N. T.

Y. Segawa, C. Y. Liu, B. P. Zhang, and N. T. Binh, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 83–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

Brown, H.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Canioni, L.

Chan, M.-C.

Chan, Y.-F.

Chang, C.-F.

C.-F. Chang, C.-Y. Chen, F.-H. Chang, S.-P. Tai, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Yu, Y. B. Tseng, T. H. Tsai, I. S. Liu, W. F. Su, and C. K. Sun, “Cell tracking and detection of molecular expression in live cells using lipid-enclosed CdSe quantum dots as contrast agents for epi-third harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9534–9548 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Chen, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Tai, C.-F. Chang, S.-H. Wu, Y. Hung, C.-Y. Mou, L.-W. Hsin, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Chen, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Clinically-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticles for High Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging Using Third Harmonic Generation.”

Chang, C.-H.

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, F.-H.

C.-F. Chang, C.-Y. Chen, F.-H. Chang, S.-P. Tai, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Yu, Y. B. Tseng, T. H. Tsai, I. S. Liu, W. F. Su, and C. K. Sun, “Cell tracking and detection of molecular expression in live cells using lipid-enclosed CdSe quantum dots as contrast agents for epi-third harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9534–9548 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Chen, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Tai, C.-F. Chang, S.-H. Wu, Y. Hung, C.-Y. Mou, L.-W. Hsin, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Chen, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Clinically-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticles for High Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging Using Third Harmonic Generation.”

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, C.-C.

Chen, C.-Y.

C.-F. Chang, C.-Y. Chen, F.-H. Chang, S.-P. Tai, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Yu, Y. B. Tseng, T. H. Tsai, I. S. Liu, W. F. Su, and C. K. Sun, “Cell tracking and detection of molecular expression in live cells using lipid-enclosed CdSe quantum dots as contrast agents for epi-third harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9534–9548 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Chen, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Tai, C.-F. Chang, S.-H. Wu, Y. Hung, C.-Y. Mou, L.-W. Hsin, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Chen, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Clinically-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticles for High Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging Using Third Harmonic Generation.”

Chen, H.-C.

H.-C. Chen, M.-J. Chen, M.-K. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and F.-Y. Tsai, “Low-threshold stimulated emission in ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1053–1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, I.-H.

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti: sapphire and Cr: forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, “Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(3), 190–200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.-H.

C.-Y. Chen, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Tai, C.-F. Chang, S.-H. Wu, Y. Hung, C.-Y. Mou, L.-W. Hsin, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Chen, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Clinically-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticles for High Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging Using Third Harmonic Generation.”

Chen, L.-J.

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.-J.

H.-C. Chen, M.-J. Chen, M.-K. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and F.-Y. Tsai, “Low-threshold stimulated emission in ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1053–1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-U.

Chen, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Yu, I.-J. Wang, and C.-K. Sun, “Infrared-based third and second harmonic generation imaging of cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, L.-F. Wang, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Chiang, “Noninvasive in vitro and in vivo assessment of epidermal hyperkeratosis and dermal fibrosis in atopic dermatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. S. Hsu, and C.-K. Sun, “Epi-third and second harmonic generation microscopic imaging of abnormal enamel,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11670–11679 (2008).
[PubMed]

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-C.

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, C.-C. Chen, S.-W. Chu, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, and B.-L. Lin, “Multiharmonic-generation biopsy of skin,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2488–2490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chen, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Tai, C.-F. Chang, S.-H. Wu, Y. Hung, C.-Y. Mou, L.-W. Hsin, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Chen, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Clinically-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticles for High Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging Using Third Harmonic Generation.”

Cheng, J. X.

Cheng, P.-C.

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti: sapphire and Cr: forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, “Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(3), 190–200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.-C.

H.-C. Chen, M.-J. Chen, M.-K. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and F.-Y. Tsai, “Low-threshold stimulated emission in ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1053–1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, B.-L.

J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, L.-F. Wang, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Chiang, “Noninvasive in vitro and in vivo assessment of epidermal hyperkeratosis and dermal fibrosis in atopic dermatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chien, F. S. S.

W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C. H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S. S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst. 40(5), 924–930 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. J.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103 (2005).

Chu, S.-W.

J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, L.-F. Wang, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Chiang, “Noninvasive in vitro and in vivo assessment of epidermal hyperkeratosis and dermal fibrosis in atopic dermatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, M.-C. Chan, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C.-K. Sun, “Simultaneous four-photon luminescence, third-harmonic generation, and second-harmonic generation microscopy of GaN,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2463–2465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, C.-C. Chen, S.-W. Chu, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, and B.-L. Lin, “Multiharmonic-generation biopsy of skin,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2488–2490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, “Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(3), 190–200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti: sapphire and Cr: forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Combettes, L.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Creekmore, L.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Débarre, D.

D. Débarre, N. Olivier, and E. Beaurepaire, “Signal epidetection in third-harmonic generation microscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8913–8924 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S.-W. Chu, M.-C. Chan, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C.-K. Sun, “Simultaneous four-photon luminescence, third-harmonic generation, and second-harmonic generation microscopy of GaN,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2463–2465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dogan, S.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103 (2005).

Elmore, S.

Fabre, A.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Faustov, A.

Faustov, A. R.

Greenhalgh, C.

Hashimoto, T.

T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol–gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3184 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-S.

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Hsieh, S.-U. Chen, Y.-W. Lee, Y.-S. Yang, and C.-K. Sun, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy of in vitro cultured mammal oocytes and embryos,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11574–11588 (2008).
[PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, W. F.

W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C. H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S. S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst. 40(5), 924–930 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsin, L.-W.

C.-Y. Chen, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Tai, C.-F. Chang, S.-H. Wu, Y. Hung, C.-Y. Mou, L.-W. Hsin, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Chen, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Clinically-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticles for High Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging Using Third Harmonic Generation.”

Hsu, C. H.

W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C. H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S. S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst. 40(5), 924–930 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-Y. S.

Hu, C.-H.

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H.-J.

Huang, H.-Y.

Hung, Y.

C.-Y. Chen, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Tai, C.-F. Chang, S.-H. Wu, Y. Hung, C.-Y. Mou, L.-W. Hsin, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Chen, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Clinically-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticles for High Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging Using Third Harmonic Generation.”

Jackson, A.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. S.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

S.-W. Chu, M.-C. Chan, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C.-K. Sun, “Simultaneous four-photon luminescence, third-harmonic generation, and second-harmonic generation microscopy of GaN,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2463–2465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ko, C.-Y.

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kung, C.-T.

Kuo, M.-X.

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, “Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(3), 190–200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, L.-F. Wang, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Chiang, “Noninvasive in vitro and in vivo assessment of epidermal hyperkeratosis and dermal fibrosis in atopic dermatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-P.

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, “Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(3), 190–200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W.-J.

Lee, Y.-W.

Liang, K. S.

W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C. H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S. S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst. 40(5), 924–930 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.-H.

Lin, B.-L.

C.-K. Sun, C.-C. Chen, S.-W. Chu, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, and B.-L. Lin, “Multiharmonic-generation biopsy of skin,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2488–2490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti: sapphire and Cr: forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, “Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(3), 190–200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, D.-J.

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, “Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(3), 190–200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, K.-H.

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K.-J.

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103 (2005).

Liu, C. Y.

Y. Segawa, C. Y. Liu, B. P. Zhang, and N. T. Binh, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 83–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-L.

S.-P. Tai, T.-H. Tsai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, Y.-H. Liao, H.-Y. Huang, K. Zhang, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Optical biopsy of fixed human skin with backward-collected optical harmonics signals,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8231–8242 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, “Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(3), 190–200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, I. S.

Liu, T.-M.

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, “Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(3), 190–200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W. R.

W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C. H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S. S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst. 40(5), 924–930 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S. M.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miragliotta, J.

J. Miragliotta and D. Wickenden, “Optical third-harmonic studies of the dispersion in χ(3) for gallium nitride thin films on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 14960–14964 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103 (2005).

Mou, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chen, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Tai, C.-F. Chang, S.-H. Wu, Y. Hung, C.-Y. Mou, L.-W. Hsin, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Chen, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Clinically-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticles for High Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging Using Third Harmonic Generation.”

Muller, M.

Müller, M.

Namkung, M.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, N.

Ozgur, U.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103 (2005).

Patel, J. S.

D. Yelin, Y. Silberberg, Y. Barad, and J. S. Patel, “Depth-resolved imaging of nematic liquid crystals by third-harmonic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pena, A.-M.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, G. I.

Reshchikov, M. A.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103 (2005).

Rivet, S.

Saltiel, S. M.

Sarger, L.

Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schins, J. M.

Schrama, T.

Segawa, Y.

Y. Segawa, C. Y. Liu, B. P. Zhang, and N. T. Binh, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 83–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. T.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shcheslavskiy, V. I.

Shi, X.-Y.

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, D.-B.

Silberberg, Y.

D. Yelin, Y. Silberberg, Y. Barad, and J. S. Patel, “Depth-resolved imaging of nematic liquid crystals by third-harmonic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin and Y. Silberberg, “Laser scanning third-harmonic-generation microscopy in biology,” Opt. Express 5(8), 169–175 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skyles, T.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Squier, J. A.

Su, W. F.

Sun, C. K.

Sun, C.-K.

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, L.-F. Wang, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Chiang, “Noninvasive in vitro and in vivo assessment of epidermal hyperkeratosis and dermal fibrosis in atopic dermatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Yu, I.-J. Wang, and C.-K. Sun, “Infrared-based third and second harmonic generation imaging of cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Hsieh, S.-U. Chen, Y.-W. Lee, Y.-S. Yang, and C.-K. Sun, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy of in vitro cultured mammal oocytes and embryos,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11574–11588 (2008).
[PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. S. Hsu, and C.-K. Sun, “Epi-third and second harmonic generation microscopic imaging of abnormal enamel,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11670–11679 (2008).
[PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, I.-J. Wang, H.-C. Yu, H.-J. Huang, W.-J. Lee, and Y.-F. Chan, “In vivo and ex vivo imaging of intra-tissue elastic fibers using third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11167–11177 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “Optical signal degradation study in fixed human skin using confocal microscopy and higher-harmonic optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(2), 749–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, P.-C. Wu, H.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6178–6187 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, T.-H. Tsai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, Y.-H. Liao, H.-Y. Huang, K. Zhang, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Optical biopsy of fixed human skin with backward-collected optical harmonics signals,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8231–8242 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, M.-C. Chan, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C.-K. Sun, “Simultaneous four-photon luminescence, third-harmonic generation, and second-harmonic generation microscopy of GaN,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2463–2465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, C.-C. Chen, S.-W. Chu, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, and B.-L. Lin, “Multiharmonic-generation biopsy of skin,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2488–2490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, “Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(3), 190–200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti: sapphire and Cr: forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chen, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Tai, C.-F. Chang, S.-H. Wu, Y. Hung, C.-Y. Mou, L.-W. Hsin, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Chen, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Clinically-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticles for High Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging Using Third Harmonic Generation.”

Supatto, W.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tabibi, B.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tai, S.-P.

C.-F. Chang, C.-Y. Chen, F.-H. Chang, S.-P. Tai, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Yu, Y. B. Tseng, T. H. Tsai, I. S. Liu, W. F. Su, and C. K. Sun, “Cell tracking and detection of molecular expression in live cells using lipid-enclosed CdSe quantum dots as contrast agents for epi-third harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9534–9548 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, I.-J. Wang, H.-C. Yu, H.-J. Huang, W.-J. Lee, and Y.-F. Chan, “In vivo and ex vivo imaging of intra-tissue elastic fibers using third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11167–11177 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Tsai, S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “Optical signal degradation study in fixed human skin using confocal microscopy and higher-harmonic optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(2), 749–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, P.-C. Wu, H.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6178–6187 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, T.-H. Tsai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, Y.-H. Liao, H.-Y. Huang, K. Zhang, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Optical biopsy of fixed human skin with backward-collected optical harmonics signals,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8231–8242 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, M.-C. Chan, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C.-K. Sun, “Simultaneous four-photon luminescence, third-harmonic generation, and second-harmonic generation microscopy of GaN,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2463–2465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chen, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Tai, C.-F. Chang, S.-H. Wu, Y. Hung, C.-Y. Mou, L.-W. Hsin, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Chen, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Clinically-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticles for High Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging Using Third Harmonic Generation.”

Teke, A.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103 (2005).

Tordjmann, T.

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, F.-Y.

H.-C. Chen, M.-J. Chen, M.-K. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and F.-Y. Tsai, “Low-threshold stimulated emission in ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1053–1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, H.-J.

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T. H.

Tsai, T.-H.

Tseng, Y. B.

Vacher, P.

van Beek, J.

Voisin, P.

Wang, I.-J.

Wang, L.-F.

J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, L.-F. Wang, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Chiang, “Noninvasive in vitro and in vivo assessment of epidermal hyperkeratosis and dermal fibrosis in atopic dermatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, Y.-C.

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wickenden, D.

J. Miragliotta and D. Wickenden, “Optical third-harmonic studies of the dispersion in χ(3) for gallium nitride thin films on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 14960–14964 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.-S.

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.-K.

H.-C. Chen, M.-J. Chen, M.-K. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and F.-Y. Tsai, “Low-threshold stimulated emission in ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1053–1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P.-C.

Wu, S.-H.

C.-Y. Chen, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Tai, C.-F. Chang, S.-H. Wu, Y. Hung, C.-Y. Mou, L.-W. Hsin, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Chen, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Clinically-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticles for High Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging Using Third Harmonic Generation.”

Wu, Y.

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

Yakovlev, V. V.

Yamada, T.

T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol–gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3184 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.-S.

Yelin, D.

D. Yelin and Y. Silberberg, “Laser scanning third-harmonic-generation microscopy in biology,” Opt. Express 5(8), 169–175 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, Y. Silberberg, Y. Barad, and J. S. Patel, “Depth-resolved imaging of nematic liquid crystals by third-harmonic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol–gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3184 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. H.

Yu, C.-H.

J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, L.-F. Wang, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Chiang, “Noninvasive in vitro and in vivo assessment of epidermal hyperkeratosis and dermal fibrosis in atopic dermatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, I.-J. Wang, H.-C. Yu, H.-J. Huang, W.-J. Lee, and Y.-F. Chan, “In vivo and ex vivo imaging of intra-tissue elastic fibers using third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11167–11177 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, P.-C. Wu, H.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6178–6187 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H.-C.

Yu, W.

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B. P.

Y. Segawa, C. Y. Liu, B. P. Zhang, and N. T. Binh, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 83–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

Adv. Mater. (1)

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Segawa, C. Y. Liu, B. P. Zhang, and N. T. Binh, “Third-harmonic generation from ZnO films deposited by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys. B 79(1), 83–86 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2331 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin, Y. Silberberg, Y. Barad, and J. S. Patel, “Depth-resolved imaging of nematic liquid crystals by third-harmonic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H.-C. Chen, M.-J. Chen, M.-K. Wu, Y.-C. Cheng, and F.-Y. Tsai, “Low-threshold stimulated emission in ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(4), 1053–1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

J. T. Seo, S. M. Ma, Q. Yang, L. Creekmore, R. Battle, H. Brown, A. Jackson, T. Skyles, B. Tabibi, W. Yu, S. S. Jung, and M. Namkung, “Large Resonant Third-order Optical Nonlinearity of CdSe Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” J Phys. Conf. Ser. 38, 91–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Cryst. (1)

W. R. Liu, W. F. Hsieh, C. H. Hsu, K. S. Liang, and F. S. S. Chien, “Threading dislocations in domain-matching epitaxial films of ZnO,” J. Appl. Cryst. 40(5), 924–930 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103 (2005).

T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol–gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3184 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, L.-F. Wang, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Chiang, “Noninvasive in vitro and in vivo assessment of epidermal hyperkeratosis and dermal fibrosis in atopic dermatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-S. Hsieh, S.-W. Chu, C.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Ko, Y.-C. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “Noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy for long-term observation of embryonic nervous system development in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Yu, I.-J. Wang, and C.-K. Sun, “Infrared-based third and second harmonic generation imaging of cornea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Hsieh, C.-Y. Ko, S.-Y. Chen, T.-M. Liu, J.-S. Wu, C.-H. Hu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo long-term continuous observation of gene expression in zebrafish embryo nerve systems by using harmonic generation microscopy and morphant technology,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, “Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multimodal nonlinear microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(3), 190–200 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

D. Débarre, W. Supatto, A.-M. Pena, A. Fabre, T. Tordjmann, L. Combettes, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Imaging lipid bodies in cells and tissues using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Nat. Methods 3(1), 47–53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (11)

D. Yelin and Y. Silberberg, “Laser scanning third-harmonic-generation microscopy in biology,” Opt. Express 5(8), 169–175 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Hsieh, S.-U. Chen, Y.-W. Lee, Y.-S. Yang, and C.-K. Sun, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy of in vitro cultured mammal oocytes and embryos,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11574–11588 (2008).
[PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, I.-J. Wang, H.-C. Yu, H.-J. Huang, W.-J. Lee, and Y.-F. Chan, “In vivo and ex vivo imaging of intra-tissue elastic fibers using third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11167–11177 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, P.-C. Wu, H.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6178–6187 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, N. Olivier, and E. Beaurepaire, “Signal epidetection in third-harmonic generation microscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8913–8924 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Chen, C.-Y. S. Hsu, and C.-K. Sun, “Epi-third and second harmonic generation microscopic imaging of abnormal enamel,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11670–11679 (2008).
[PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “Optical signal degradation study in fixed human skin using confocal microscopy and higher-harmonic optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(2), 749–758 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Barzda, C. Greenhalgh, J. Aus der Au, S. Elmore, J. van Beek, and J. Squier, “Visualization of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes by simultaneous harmonic generation and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8263–8276 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-P. Tai, T.-H. Tsai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, Y.-H. Liao, H.-Y. Huang, K. Zhang, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Optical biopsy of fixed human skin with backward-collected optical harmonics signals,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8231–8242 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-F. Chang, C.-Y. Chen, F.-H. Chang, S.-P. Tai, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Yu, Y. B. Tseng, T. H. Tsai, I. S. Liu, W. F. Su, and C. K. Sun, “Cell tracking and detection of molecular expression in live cells using lipid-enclosed CdSe quantum dots as contrast agents for epi-third harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9534–9548 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: a micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti: sapphire and Cr: forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1251–1266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Miragliotta and D. Wickenden, “Optical third-harmonic studies of the dispersion in χ(3) for gallium nitride thin films on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 14960–14964 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, Handbook of optics. Vol. 2, Devices, measurements, and properties (McGraw-Hill New York, USA, 1995).

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC Press, 2003).

S.-Y. Chen, S.-P. Tai, T.-H. Tsai, and C.-K. Sun, “Direct backward-emitted third-harmonic generation and its application to clinical microscopy,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 2005. QELS '05(2005), p. 167.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics (Academic Press, Amsterdam; Boston, 2003).

C.-Y. Chen, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Tai, C.-F. Chang, S.-H. Wu, Y. Hung, C.-Y. Mou, L.-W. Hsin, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Chen, and F.-H. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Clinically-Approved Magnetic Nanoparticles for High Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging Using Third Harmonic Generation.”

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Numerical simulations of THG strength as a function of ZnO thin film thickness. (a) The focusing geometry for the simulation. The focal plane is set on the surface of thin films. (b) FTHG strength, normalized to its maximum. (c) BTHG strength, normalized to the maximum of FTHG. (d) The ratio between backward and forward THG. Black solid and red dashed lines represent the simulation results using the Green’s function and the integral equation, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical simulations of THG strength from CdSe quantum dots, plotted as a function of particle diameter. (a) FTHG strength, normalized to its maximum. (b) BTHG strength, normalized to the FTHG maximum. (c) BTHG/FTHG ratio. (d) Schematics of a Gaussian beam for BTHG interpretation. A Guassian beam can be interpreted as a collection of concentric, cylindrical layers infinite in number, each of which in turn can be further decomposed as a set of infinite rays.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematics of the experimental setup. (a) Configuration for BTHG and FTHG measurements. (b) Configuration for signal calibration. M: mirror; HWP: half-wave plate; PBS: polarization beam-splitter; DM: dichroic mirror; L: lens; CF: color filter; PMT: photomultiplier tube; AL: aspheric lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental results of the BTHG/FTHG ratio from ZnO thin films on sapphire. The simulation trace is also plotted. (b) Simulation of the BTHG/FTHG ratio of ZnO thin films on sapphire, assuming the χ(3) value of ZnO is increased by 100X. Black solid and red dashed lines represent the simulation results using the Green’s function and the integral equation, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results of BTHG in CdSe and Fe3O4 LEQDs. Solid and dashed lines represent simulation results of BTHG and FTHG, respectively, by assuming a Gaussian distribution of particle polydispersity. Results from CdSe and Fe3O4 calculations are plotted in black and red lines, respectively. Black circles, black triangles and red squares are measured THG signals from CdSe LEQDs, CdSe quantum dots and Fe3O4 LEQDs, respectively, in the epi-direction.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( 3 ω ) ( R ) V d V ( I ¯ + k 3 2 ) exp ( i k 3 | R r | ) | R r | P ( 3 ω ) ( r ) ,
P ( 3 ω ) θ d θ 0 2 π d ϕ | E ( 3 ω ) ( R ) | 2 R 2 sin θ .
E = A ω ( 1 + i ζ ) exp ( r 2 w 0 2 ( 1 + i ζ ) ) exp ( i k 1 z i ω t ) + c . c . ,
A FTHG , 3 ω = i 3 ω 8 c A ω 3 z χ ( 3 ) n 3 1 ( 1 + i ζ ' ) 2 exp ( i ( 3 k 1 k 3 ) z ' ) d z ' .
[ 1 2 i k 3 T 2 z ] E 3 ω = i 3 ω 8 n 3 c χ ( 3 ) A ω 3 ( 1 + i ζ ) 3 exp ( 3 r 2 w 0 2 ( 1 + i ζ ) ) exp ( i Δ k z ) ,
E 3 ω = A BTHG , 3 ω ( 1 i ζ ) exp ( 3 r 2 w 0 2 ( 1 i ζ ) ) .
A BTHG , 3 ω = i 3 ω 8 c A ω 3 z χ ( 3 ) n 3 ( 1 i ζ ' ( 1 + i ζ ' ) 3 ) exp ( i ( 3 k 1 + k 3 ) z ' ) d z ' .
A B T H G , 3 ω = i 3 ω 8 c A ω 3 j exp ( i Δ ϕ j ) q j r j χ j ( 3 ) n 3 , j 1 i ζ ' ( 1 + i ζ ' ) 3 exp ( i Δ k j z ' ) d z ' ,
I B T H G 0 r ρ g 2 ( ρ ) | z 1 z 2 F ( ρ , z ) d z | 2 d ρ
P p o l y ( 3 ω ) ( d ) d ' d d ' P ( 3 ω ) ( d ' ) 1 σ exp ( ( d ' d ) 2 2 σ 2 )

Metrics