Abstract

We have coherently combined a high-power broad-area laser diode array by using a feedback loop closed off-axis external Talbot cavity. The off-axis feedback from two gratings provides transverse-mode control of broad-area lasers. The Talbot configuration of the external cavity implements diffractive coupling among laser diodes. Feedback from two gratings increases external cavity quality factor and spectrum selection capability. As a result, spatial coherence was improved and spectral linewidth was narrowed down. The high visibility of the far-field profile indicates that high spatial coherence was achieved. We also observed symmetric far-field profiles indicating that laser array was phase locked to in-phase and out-of-phase super-modes, respectively. Transition between these super-modes was observed by tuning one grating’s tilted angle.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (2)

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

A. Jechow, V. Raab, R. Menzel, M. Cenkier, S. Stry, and J. Sacher, “1 W tunable near diffraction limited light from a broad area laser diode in an external cavity with a line width of 1.7MHz,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 161–165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

Y. Zheng and H. Kan, “Effective bandwidth reduction for a high-power laser-diode array by an external-cavity technique,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2424–2426 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Huang, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, and G. W. Turner, “High-Brightness Slab-Coupled Optical Waveguide Laser Arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 959–961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, “Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 567–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Chen, X. D. Wu, J. H. Ge, A. Hermerschmidt, and H. J. Eichler, “Broad-area laser diode with 0.02nm bandwidth and diffraction limited output due to double external cavity feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 525–527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Gao, Y. Zheng, H. Kan, and K. Shinoda, “Effective suppression of beam divergence for a high-power laser diode bar by an external-cavity technique,” Opt. Lett. 29(4), 361–363 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

R. M. R. Pillai and E. M. Garmire, “Paraxial-misalignment insensitive external-cavity semiconductor-laser array emitting near-diffraction limited single-lobed beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 996–1008 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Walpole, “Semiconductor amplifiers and lasers with tapered gain regions,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28(6), 623–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer, and D. Scifres, “High-power, cw, diffraction-limited, GaAlAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(23), 2586–2588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, and C. Roychoudhuri, “Coherent operation of an array of diode lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(9), 816–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg and J. F. Weller, “Narrow lobe emission of high power broad strip laser in external resonator cavity,” Electron. Lett. 25(2), 112–114 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent addition of AlGaAs lasers using microlenses and diffractive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(21), 1771–1773 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Mehuys, K. Mitsunaga, L. Eng, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, “Supermode control in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(13), 1165–1167 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Berger, D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, J. R. Whinnery, and A. Dienes, “High power with high efficiency in a narrow single-lobed beam from a diode laser array in an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(21), 1465–1467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Benner, R. E.

Berger, J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Berger, D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, J. R. Whinnery, and A. Dienes, “High power with high efficiency in a narrow single-lobed beam from a diode laser array in an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(21), 1465–1467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bourdet, G.

Braiman, Y.

Calligaro, M.

Cenkier, M.

A. Jechow, V. Raab, R. Menzel, M. Cenkier, S. Stry, and J. Sacher, “1 W tunable near diffraction limited light from a broad area laser diode in an external cavity with a line width of 1.7MHz,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 161–165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Berger, D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, J. R. Whinnery, and A. Dienes, “High power with high efficiency in a narrow single-lobed beam from a diode laser array in an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(21), 1465–1467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chann, B.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, X. D. Wu, J. H. Ge, A. Hermerschmidt, and H. J. Eichler, “Broad-area laser diode with 0.02nm bandwidth and diffraction limited output due to double external cavity feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 525–527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D’Amato, F. X.

F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, and C. Roychoudhuri, “Coherent operation of an array of diode lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(9), 816–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Berger, D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, J. R. Whinnery, and A. Dienes, “High power with high efficiency in a narrow single-lobed beam from a diode laser array in an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(21), 1465–1467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, J. P.

R. K. Huang, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, and G. W. Turner, “High-Brightness Slab-Coupled Optical Waveguide Laser Arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 959–961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

J. Chen, X. D. Wu, J. H. Ge, A. Hermerschmidt, and H. J. Eichler, “Broad-area laser diode with 0.02nm bandwidth and diffraction limited output due to double external cavity feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 525–527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eng, L.

D. Mehuys, K. Mitsunaga, L. Eng, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, “Supermode control in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(13), 1165–1167 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Evans, D. J.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, “Laser beam combining for high-power, high-radiance sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 567–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

Garmire, E. M.

R. M. R. Pillai and E. M. Garmire, “Paraxial-misalignment insensitive external-cavity semiconductor-laser array emitting near-diffraction limited single-lobed beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 996–1008 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ge, J. H.

J. Chen, X. D. Wu, J. H. Ge, A. Hermerschmidt, and H. J. Eichler, “Broad-area laser diode with 0.02nm bandwidth and diffraction limited output due to double external cavity feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 525–527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Glova, A. F.

A. F. Glova, “Phase locking of optically coupled lasers,” Quantum Electron. 33(4), 283–306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

L. Goldberg and J. F. Weller, “Narrow lobe emission of high power broad strip laser in external resonator cavity,” Electron. Lett. 25(2), 112–114 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gray, G. R.

Harris, C. T.

R. K. Huang, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, and G. W. Turner, “High-Brightness Slab-Coupled Optical Waveguide Laser Arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 959–961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hassiaoui, I.

Hermerschmidt, A.

J. Chen, X. D. Wu, J. H. Ge, A. Hermerschmidt, and H. J. Eichler, “Broad-area laser diode with 0.02nm bandwidth and diffraction limited output due to double external cavity feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 525–527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrandt, L.

Huang, R. K.

R. K. Huang, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, and G. W. Turner, “High-Brightness Slab-Coupled Optical Waveguide Laser Arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 959–961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

Jechow, A.

A. Jechow, V. Raab, R. Menzel, M. Cenkier, S. Stry, and J. Sacher, “1 W tunable near diffraction limited light from a broad area laser diode in an external cavity with a line width of 1.7MHz,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 161–165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Jechow, V. Raab, and R. Menzel, “High cw power using an external cavity for spectral beam combining of diode laser-bar emission,” Appl. Opt. 45(15), 3545–3547 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, O. B.

Johnson, C. W.

Kan, H.

Knispel, R.

Knowlton, D. D.

Krakowski, M.

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Hassiaoui, N. Michel, G. Bourdet, R. Mc Bride, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and J. P. Huignard, “Very compact external cavity diffraction-coupled tapered laser diodes,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 746–750 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larkins, E.

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, M.

Leger, J. R.

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent addition of AlGaAs lasers using microlenses and diffractive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(21), 1771–1773 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Liu, Y.

Lucas-Leclin, G.

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, W. K.

D. Mehuys, K. Mitsunaga, L. Eng, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, “Supermode control in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(13), 1165–1167 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mc Bride, R.

Mehuys, D.

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer, and D. Scifres, “High-power, cw, diffraction-limited, GaAlAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(23), 2586–2588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Mehuys, K. Mitsunaga, L. Eng, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, “Supermode control in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(13), 1165–1167 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, R.

Michel, N.

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Hassiaoui, N. Michel, G. Bourdet, R. Mc Bride, M. Lecomte, O. Parillaud, M. Calligaro, M. Krakowski, and J. P. Huignard, “Very compact external cavity diffraction-coupled tapered laser diodes,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 746–750 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Missaggia, L. J.

R. K. Huang, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, and G. W. Turner, “High-Brightness Slab-Coupled Optical Waveguide Laser Arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 959–961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitsunaga, K.

D. Mehuys, K. Mitsunaga, L. Eng, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, “Supermode control in diffraction-coupled semiconductor laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(13), 1165–1167 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nam, D.

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer, and D. Scifres, “High-power, cw, diffraction-limited, GaAlAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(23), 2586–2588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, I.

Paboeuf, D.

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, M. W.

Parillaud, O.

Pillai, R. M. R.

R. M. R. Pillai and E. M. Garmire, “Paraxial-misalignment insensitive external-cavity semiconductor-laser array emitting near-diffraction limited single-lobed beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 996–1008 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Raab, V.

Roychoudhuri, C.

F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, and C. Roychoudhuri, “Coherent operation of an array of diode lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(9), 816–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sacher, J.

A. Jechow, V. Raab, R. Menzel, M. Cenkier, S. Stry, and J. Sacher, “1 W tunable near diffraction limited light from a broad area laser diode in an external cavity with a line width of 1.7MHz,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 161–165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sacher, J. R.

Schael, F.

Scifres, D.

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer, and D. Scifres, “High-power, cw, diffraction-limited, GaAlAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(23), 2586–2588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D. R.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Berger, D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, J. R. Whinnery, and A. Dienes, “High power with high efficiency in a narrow single-lobed beam from a diode laser array in an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(21), 1465–1467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Scott, M. L.

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent addition of AlGaAs lasers using microlenses and diffractive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(21), 1771–1773 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shinoda, K.

Siebert, E. T.

F. X. D’Amato, E. T. Siebert, and C. Roychoudhuri, “Coherent operation of an array of diode lasers using a spatial filter in a Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(9), 816–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Skoczowsky, D.

Smith, L. M.

Streifer, W.

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer, and D. Scifres, “High-power, cw, diffraction-limited, GaAlAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(23), 2586–2588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. Berger, D. R. Scifres, W. Streifer, J. R. Whinnery, and A. Dienes, “High power with high efficiency in a narrow single-lobed beam from a diode laser array in an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(21), 1465–1467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stry, S.

A. Jechow, V. Raab, R. Menzel, M. Cenkier, S. Stry, and J. Sacher, “1 W tunable near diffraction limited light from a broad area laser diode in an external cavity with a line width of 1.7MHz,” Opt. Commun. 277(1), 161–165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Hildebrandt, R. Knispel, S. Stry, J. R. Sacher, and F. Schael, “Antireflection-coated blue GaN laser diodes in an external cavity and Doppler-free indium absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42(12), 2110–2118 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sujecki, S.

D. Paboeuf, G. Lucas-Leclin, P. Georges, N. Michel, M. Krakowski, J. Lim, S. Sujecki, and E. Larkins, “Narrow-line coherently combined tapered laser diodes in a Talbot external cavity with a volume Bragg grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 211102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thestrup, B.

Turner, G. W.

R. K. Huang, L. J. Missaggia, J. P. Donnelly, C. T. Harris, and G. W. Turner, “High-Brightness Slab-Coupled Optical Waveguide Laser Arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 959–961 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Veldkamp, W. B.

J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, and W. B. Veldkamp, “Coherent addition of AlGaAs lasers using microlenses and diffractive coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(21), 1771–1773 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vijayakumar, D.

Waarts, R.

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer, and D. Scifres, “High-power, cw, diffraction-limited, GaAlAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(23), 2586–2588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T. G.

Walpole, J. N.

J. N. Walpole, “Semiconductor amplifiers and lasers with tapered gain regions,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28(6), 623–645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D.

R. Waarts, D. Mehuys, D. Nam, D. Welch, W. Streifer, and D. Scifres, “High-power, cw, diffraction-limited, GaAlAs laser diode array in an external Talbot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(23), 2586–2588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Weller, J. F.

L. Goldberg and J. F. Weller, “Narrow lobe emission of high power broad strip laser in external resonator cavity,” Electron. Lett. 25(2), 112–114 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Whinnery, J. R.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) A schematic diagram of a closed-V-shape external cavity (top view). LDA is broad-area laser diode array, CL1~CL6 are cylindrical lenses with the focal length 200 mm. G1 and G2 are diffraction gratings. PM1, PM2 are prism mirrors. Two prism mirrors form right angle to separate the laser beams into two paths. One feedback path consists of cylindrical lenses CL1~CL3, and G1. FAC lens and CL2 collimate laser beam along fast-axis, and the confocal lens pair CL1, CL3 image laser diodes on the CL3 focal plane. The second feedback path consists of CL4~CL6, and G2. FAC lens and CL5 collimate laser beam along the fast axis, and the confocal lens pair CL4, CL6 image laser diodes on the CL6 focal plane. Grating G2 feedbacks the first-order diffraction beam and couples the zero-order diffraction beam out. The far-field profile of laser diode array is projected on CL7 (f 7 = 300 mm) focal plane. A CCD camera records the far-field profile and optical spectrum analyzer measures the spectrum while a power-meter monitors the output power. Inset 1 shows the closed-V-shape external cavity of an individual laser emitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Unfolded closed-V-shape external cavity. The unfolded laser diode array is in an external cavity formed by G1 and G2. G1 is located at the half Talbot plane and provides a self-imaged diffractive-coupling feedback. G2 is located at the image plane and feedbacks the first-order diffraction and couples the zero-order out. G2 serves as an optical coupler of the entire laser system. CL7 projects the laser output and shows the far-field profile on its focal plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two different symmetric far-field profiles of laser diode array at injection current 34 A corresponding to different phase locking states: (a) out-of-phase super-mode and (b) in-phase super-mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) CW L-I characteristic of the AR-coated broad-area laser diode array with and without external cavity. Solid-squares (black) show the output from closed-V-shape external cavity with in-phase super-mode far-field profile. Solid-circles (red) show the output from free-running broad-area laser diode array.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental measurements for far-field profile and spectrum at injection current 32 A: (a) far field profile and (b) spectrum of the laser diode array.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental results of (a) far-field profile and (b) spectrum of a phase-locked laser array at 60 A with a closed V-shape external cavity.

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