Abstract

We present the first prediction of lateral leakage behavior of the TM-like mode in thin-ridge SOI curved waveguides and ring resonators. A simple phenomenological model is first presented which predicts that the lateral leakage in these structures is significantly impacted by both the ring radius and waveguide width. This prediction is verified using full vectorial mode matching and finite element methods. We show that specific combinations of waveguide width and ring radius can lead to very low-loss propagation in the TM-like mode. This finding is critical for the design of high-Q resonators on such waveguide platforms and will have major impact on the field of silicon lasers and sensing applications.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, "Silicon Photonics," J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600-4615 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108-231110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. L. Koch, R. M. Pafchek, and M. A. Webster, "Fabrication of Optical Waveguides," US Patent App. 20060098928, (2006).
  4. R. Pafchek, R. Tummidi, J. Li, M. A. Webster, E. Chen, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss silicon-on-insulator shallow ridge TE and TM waveguides formed using thermal oxidation," Appl. Opt. 48(5), 958-963 (2009). URL http://ao.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-48-5-958.
  5. A. A. Oliner, S.-T. Peng, T.-I. Hsu, and A. Sanchez, "Guidance and Leakage Properties of a Class of Open Dielectric Waveguides: Part II-New Physical Effects," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 29(9), 855-869 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Ogusu, "Optical strip waveguide-A detailed analysis including leaky modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 353-357 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Webster, R. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. Koch, "Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429-431 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. S. Tummidi, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, "Anomalous Losses in Curved Waveguides and Directional Couplers at "Magic Widths"," in 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, pp.521-522, (2008).
  9. T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, and A. Mitchell, "Rigorous Modeling of Lateral Leakage Loss in SOI Thin-Ridge Waveguides and Couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 486 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, and A. Mitchell, "Lateral leakage in TM-like whispering gallery mode of thin-ridge silicon-on-insulator disk resonators," Opt. Lett. 34(7), 980-982 (2009). URL http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-7-980.
  11. T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, and A. Mitchell, "Thin-Ridge SOI Disk and Ring Resonators with "Magic Radius" and "Magic Width" Phenomena," in IEEE/OSA Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2009 (Baltimore, MD, 2009).
  12. A. S. Sudbo, "Improved formulation of the film mode matching method for mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 381-388 (1994).
  13. L. Prkna, M. Hubálek, and J. Ctyroký, "Field modeling of circular microresonators by film mode matching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 217-223 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Jin, The finite element method in electromagnetics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-IEEE press, 2002).
  15. Comsol, Inc. URL http://www.comsol.com.

2009

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, and A. Mitchell, "Rigorous Modeling of Lateral Leakage Loss in SOI Thin-Ridge Waveguides and Couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 486 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Webster, R. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. Koch, "Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429-431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

L. Prkna, M. Hubálek, and J. Ctyroký, "Field modeling of circular microresonators by film mode matching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 217-223 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108-231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. S. Sudbo, "Improved formulation of the film mode matching method for mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 381-388 (1994).

1983

1981

A. A. Oliner, S.-T. Peng, T.-I. Hsu, and A. Sanchez, "Guidance and Leakage Properties of a Class of Open Dielectric Waveguides: Part II-New Physical Effects," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 29(9), 855-869 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ctyroký, J.

L. Prkna, M. Hubálek, and J. Ctyroký, "Field modeling of circular microresonators by film mode matching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 217-223 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Hsu, T.-I.

A. A. Oliner, S.-T. Peng, T.-I. Hsu, and A. Sanchez, "Guidance and Leakage Properties of a Class of Open Dielectric Waveguides: Part II-New Physical Effects," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 29(9), 855-869 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hubálek, M.

L. Prkna, M. Hubálek, and J. Ctyroký, "Field modeling of circular microresonators by film mode matching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 217-223 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Koch, T.

M. Webster, R. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. Koch, "Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429-431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, and A. Mitchell, "Rigorous Modeling of Lateral Leakage Loss in SOI Thin-Ridge Waveguides and Couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 486 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108-231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A.

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, and A. Mitchell, "Rigorous Modeling of Lateral Leakage Loss in SOI Thin-Ridge Waveguides and Couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 486 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Webster, R. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. Koch, "Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429-431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T. G.

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, and A. Mitchell, "Rigorous Modeling of Lateral Leakage Loss in SOI Thin-Ridge Waveguides and Couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 486 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ogusu, K.

Oliner, A. A.

A. A. Oliner, S.-T. Peng, T.-I. Hsu, and A. Sanchez, "Guidance and Leakage Properties of a Class of Open Dielectric Waveguides: Part II-New Physical Effects," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 29(9), 855-869 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pafchek, R.

M. Webster, R. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. Koch, "Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429-431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pafchek, R. M.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108-231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, S.-T.

A. A. Oliner, S.-T. Peng, T.-I. Hsu, and A. Sanchez, "Guidance and Leakage Properties of a Class of Open Dielectric Waveguides: Part II-New Physical Effects," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 29(9), 855-869 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Prkna, L.

L. Prkna, M. Hubálek, and J. Ctyroký, "Field modeling of circular microresonators by film mode matching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 217-223 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

A. A. Oliner, S.-T. Peng, T.-I. Hsu, and A. Sanchez, "Guidance and Leakage Properties of a Class of Open Dielectric Waveguides: Part II-New Physical Effects," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 29(9), 855-869 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sudbo, A. S.

A. S. Sudbo, "Improved formulation of the film mode matching method for mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 381-388 (1994).

Sukumaran, G.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108-231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tummidi, R. S.

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, and A. Mitchell, "Rigorous Modeling of Lateral Leakage Loss in SOI Thin-Ridge Waveguides and Couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 486 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M.

M. Webster, R. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. Koch, "Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429-431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M. A.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108-231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108-231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

L. Prkna, M. Hubálek, and J. Ctyroký, "Field modeling of circular microresonators by film mode matching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 217-223 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Webster, R. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. Koch, "Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429-431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, and A. Mitchell, "Rigorous Modeling of Lateral Leakage Loss in SOI Thin-Ridge Waveguides and Couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 486 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

A. A. Oliner, S.-T. Peng, T.-I. Hsu, and A. Sanchez, "Guidance and Leakage Properties of a Class of Open Dielectric Waveguides: Part II-New Physical Effects," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 29(9), 855-869 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

A. S. Sudbo, "Improved formulation of the film mode matching method for mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 381-388 (1994).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Other

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, and A. Mitchell, "Lateral leakage in TM-like whispering gallery mode of thin-ridge silicon-on-insulator disk resonators," Opt. Lett. 34(7), 980-982 (2009). URL http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-7-980.

T. G. Nguyen, R. S. Tummidi, T. L. Koch, and A. Mitchell, "Thin-Ridge SOI Disk and Ring Resonators with "Magic Radius" and "Magic Width" Phenomena," in IEEE/OSA Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2009 (Baltimore, MD, 2009).

R. S. Tummidi, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, "Anomalous Losses in Curved Waveguides and Directional Couplers at "Magic Widths"," in 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, pp.521-522, (2008).

J. Jin, The finite element method in electromagnetics, 2nd ed. (Wiley-IEEE press, 2002).

Comsol, Inc. URL http://www.comsol.com.

T. L. Koch, R. M. Pafchek, and M. A. Webster, "Fabrication of Optical Waveguides," US Patent App. 20060098928, (2006).

R. Pafchek, R. Tummidi, J. Li, M. A. Webster, E. Chen, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss silicon-on-insulator shallow ridge TE and TM waveguides formed using thermal oxidation," Appl. Opt. 48(5), 958-963 (2009). URL http://ao.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-48-5-958.

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