Abstract

A low-noise high-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector was demonstrated with a double-self-differencing spike signal cancellation technique. A photon-number resolving method was used to analyze the ratio of avalanche signal to background noise. By adding a post-self-differencing circuit to the pre-self-differencing circuit, the signal to noise ratio was improved by 11.0 dB. The typical error count probability was as low as 2.1% and 6.4% at the detection efficiency of 20.6% and 30.5%, respectively.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, E. Wu, L. Xu, Y. Liang, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number resolving performance of the InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with short gates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wu, Y. Jian, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number-resolving detection based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode in the sub-saturated mode,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18782–18787 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, and G. W. Pabst, “A high-performance integrated single-photon detector for telecom wavelengths,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1359–1368 (2004).

2003 (1)

C. Zhou, G. Wu, X. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Plug and play” quantum key distribution system with differential phase shift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1692–1694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Wehr and U. Lohr, “Airborne laser scanning—an introduction and overview,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 54(2-3), 68–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

T. Isoshima, Y. Isojima, K. Hakomori, K. Kikuchi, K. Nagai, and H. Nakagawa, “Ultrahigh sensitivity single-photon detector using a Si avalanche photodiode for the measurement of ultraweak biochemiluminescence,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(4), 2922–2926 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Becher, C.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethune, D. S.

D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, and G. W. Pabst, “A high-performance integrated single-photon detector for telecom wavelengths,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1359–1368 (2004).

Buller, G.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, E. Wu, L. Xu, Y. Liang, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number resolving performance of the InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with short gates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wu, C. Zhou, X. Chen, and H. Zeng, “High performance of gated-mode single-photon detector at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 265(1), 126–131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhou, G. Wu, X. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Plug and play” quantum key distribution system with differential phase shift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1692–1694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

Fernandez, V.

Gautier, J. D.

Gisin, N.

Gordon, K.

Gu, X.

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gui, Y. Z.

Guo, G. C.

Hakomori, K.

T. Isoshima, Y. Isojima, K. Hakomori, K. Kikuchi, K. Nagai, and H. Nakagawa, “Ultrahigh sensitivity single-photon detector using a Si avalanche photodiode for the measurement of ultraweak biochemiluminescence,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(4), 2922–2926 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z. F.

Hu, E.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, S.

Isojima, Y.

T. Isoshima, Y. Isojima, K. Hakomori, K. Kikuchi, K. Nagai, and H. Nakagawa, “Ultrahigh sensitivity single-photon detector using a Si avalanche photodiode for the measurement of ultraweak biochemiluminescence,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(4), 2922–2926 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Isoshima, T.

T. Isoshima, Y. Isojima, K. Hakomori, K. Kikuchi, K. Nagai, and H. Nakagawa, “Ultrahigh sensitivity single-photon detector using a Si avalanche photodiode for the measurement of ultraweak biochemiluminescence,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(4), 2922–2926 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jian, Y.

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wu, Y. Jian, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number-resolving detection based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode in the sub-saturated mode,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18782–18787 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kardynal, B. E.

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

T. Isoshima, Y. Isojima, K. Hakomori, K. Kikuchi, K. Nagai, and H. Nakagawa, “Ultrahigh sensitivity single-photon detector using a Si avalanche photodiode for the measurement of ultraweak biochemiluminescence,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(4), 2922–2926 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kiraz, A.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacaita, A.

Liang, Y.

X. Chen, E. Wu, L. Xu, Y. Liang, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number resolving performance of the InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with short gates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lohr, U.

A. Wehr and U. Lohr, “Airborne laser scanning—an introduction and overview,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 54(2-3), 68–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lovati, P.

Michler, P.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mo, X. F.

Nagai, K.

T. Isoshima, Y. Isojima, K. Hakomori, K. Kikuchi, K. Nagai, and H. Nakagawa, “Ultrahigh sensitivity single-photon detector using a Si avalanche photodiode for the measurement of ultraweak biochemiluminescence,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(4), 2922–2926 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, H.

T. Isoshima, Y. Isojima, K. Hakomori, K. Kikuchi, K. Nagai, and H. Nakagawa, “Ultrahigh sensitivity single-photon detector using a Si avalanche photodiode for the measurement of ultraweak biochemiluminescence,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(4), 2922–2926 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

Namekata, N.

Pabst, G. W.

D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, and G. W. Pabst, “A high-performance integrated single-photon detector for telecom wavelengths,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1359–1368 (2004).

Petroff, P. M.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rech, I.

Ribordy, G.

Risk, W. P.

D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, and G. W. Pabst, “A high-performance integrated single-photon detector for telecom wavelengths,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1359–1368 (2004).

Sasamori, S.

Schoenfeld, W. V.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, A. W.

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

Townsend, P.

Wehr, A.

A. Wehr and U. Lohr, “Airborne laser scanning—an introduction and overview,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 54(2-3), 68–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

X. Chen, E. Wu, L. Xu, Y. Liang, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number resolving performance of the InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with short gates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wu, Y. Jian, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number-resolving detection based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode in the sub-saturated mode,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18782–18787 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G.

G. Wu, Y. Jian, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number-resolving detection based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode in the sub-saturated mode,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18782–18787 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, E. Wu, L. Xu, Y. Liang, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number resolving performance of the InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with short gates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wu, C. Zhou, X. Chen, and H. Zeng, “High performance of gated-mode single-photon detector at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 265(1), 126–131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhou, G. Wu, X. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Plug and play” quantum key distribution system with differential phase shift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1692–1694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, E. Wu, L. Xu, Y. Liang, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number resolving performance of the InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with short gates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zappa, F.

Zbinden, H.

Zeng, H.

G. Wu, Y. Jian, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number-resolving detection based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode in the sub-saturated mode,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18782–18787 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, E. Wu, L. Xu, Y. Liang, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number resolving performance of the InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with short gates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wu, C. Zhou, X. Chen, and H. Zeng, “High performance of gated-mode single-photon detector at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 265(1), 126–131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhou, G. Wu, X. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Plug and play” quantum key distribution system with differential phase shift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1692–1694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

G. Wu, C. Zhou, X. Chen, and H. Zeng, “High performance of gated-mode single-photon detector at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 265(1), 126–131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhou, G. Wu, X. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Plug and play” quantum key distribution system with differential phase shift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1692–1694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

L. Xu, E. Wu, X. Gu, Y. Jian, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed InGaAs/InP-based single-photon detector with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, E. Wu, L. Xu, Y. Liang, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number resolving performance of the InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode with short gates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhou, G. Wu, X. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Plug and play” quantum key distribution system with differential phase shift,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1692–1694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. (1)

A. Wehr and U. Lohr, “Airborne laser scanning—an introduction and overview,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 54(2-3), 68–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. S. Bethune, W. P. Risk, and G. W. Pabst, “A high-performance integrated single-photon detector for telecom wavelengths,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1359–1368 (2004).

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. E. Kardynal, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Wu, C. Zhou, X. Chen, and H. Zeng, “High performance of gated-mode single-photon detector at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 265(1), 126–131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Isoshima, Y. Isojima, K. Hakomori, K. Kikuchi, K. Nagai, and H. Nakagawa, “Ultrahigh sensitivity single-photon detector using a Si avalanche photodiode for the measurement of ultraweak biochemiluminescence,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(4), 2922–2926 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device,” Science 290(5500), 2282–2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. H. Bennett, and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing”, in Proceedings of the IEEE international Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), pp. 175–179.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated waveforms in the double-self-differencing module. (a) Response of the APD in eight cycles with a strong and a weak avalanche at the 1st and 5th cycle, respectively. Av1: a strong avalanche at the 1st cycle; Av2: a weak avalanche at the 5th cycle. (b) Subtracted spike and avalanche signals after the pre-self-differencing with exact self-differencing delay to match the repetitive cycles. (c) Weak avalanche signal buried in the incompletely suppressed spike signal as the self-differencing delay is mismatched by 2 ps to the repetitive cycles; Inset: enlarged view of weak avalanche signal buried in the incompletely suppressed spike signal. (d) Further suppressed spike and increased avalanche signals after the double-self-differencing process. Inset: enlarged view of weak avalanche after double-self-differencing process. The pink, black and green dashed lines in the insets of (c) and (d) are the level of the peak voltage of the background noise, the discrimination level and the peak voltage of the avalanche signal, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the double-self-differencing single-photon detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Waveforms captured by an oscilloscope in the double-self-differencing single-photon detector. (a) Amplified APD response. (b) Output signal of the pre-self-differencing circuit. (c) Output signal of the post-self-differencing circuit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of avalanche peak voltage distribution for (a) the pre-self-differencing and (b) double-self-differencing detector, respectively. (c) Simulated distribution of the double-self-differencing detector. The green solid line shows the simulations of the experiment data, and the red and blue solid lines present the background noise and 1-photon signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Detection efficiency as a function of the bias voltage. (b) Error count probability as a function of the detection efficiency.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distribution of the afterpulse as a function of the delay time after the photon-excited avalanche.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The ideal avalanche probability and detected avalanche probability of both pre-self-differencing and post-self-differencing circuits.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V p r e sup ( t ) = a [ V s s ( t ) V s s ( t Δ t 1 ) ] ,
V p r e s i g ( t ) = a [ V a s ( t ) V a s ( t Δ t 1 ) ] ,
V p o s t sup ( t ) = b [ V p r e sup ( t ) V p r e sup ( t Δ t 2 ) ] ,
V p o s t s i g ( t ) = a b [ V a s ( t Δ t 1 Δ t 2 ) + V a s ( t ) V a s ( t Δ t 1 ) V a s ( t Δ t 2 ) ] ,

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