Abstract

The optical properties of a-periodic, depth-graded multilayer mirrors operating at 13.5 nm wavelength are investigated using different compositions and designs to provide a constant reflectivity over an essentially wider angular range than periodic multilayers. A reflectivity of up to about 60% is achieved in these calculation in the [0, 18°] range of the angle of incidence for the structures without roughness. The effects of different physical and technological factors (interfacial roughness, natural interlayers, number of bi-layers, minimum layer thickness, inaccuracy of optical constants, and thickness errors) are discussed. The results from an experiment on the fabrication of a depth-graded Mo/Si multilayer mirror with a wide angular bandpass in the [0, 16°] range are presented and analyzed.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).
  2. H. Meiling, J. Benshop, U. Dinger, and P. Kurz, “Progress of the EUVL alphatool,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 38–50 (2001).
  3. P. Lee, “Uniform and graded multilayers as x-ray optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 22(8), 1241–1246 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  4. K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Hoghoj, and F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34(34), 7935–7944 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  5. P. van Loevezijn, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, B. A. van Tiggelen, and E. M. Gullikson, “Numerical and experimental study of disordered multilayers for broadband X-ray reflection,” Appl. Opt. 35(19), 3614–3619 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  6. V. V. Protopopov and V. A. Kalnov, “X-ray multilayer mirrors with an extended angular range,” Opt. Commun. 158(1-6), 127–140 (1998).
  7. A. V. Vinogradov and R. M. Faschenko, “An approach to the theory of X-ray multilayers with graded period,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448(1-2), 142–146 (2000).
  8. Z. Wang and A. G. Michette, “Optimization of depth-graded multilayer designs for EUV and X-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 4145, 243–253 (2001).
  9. I. Vkozhevnikov, I. Nbukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of x-ray supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460(2-3), 424–443 (2001).
  10. K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, F. E. Christensen, P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, and J. Wood, “Multilayer mirrors: broad-band reflection coatings for the 15 to 100 keV range,” Proc. SPIE 2253, 299–308 (1994).
  11. S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, and R. S. Rosen, “Chirped multilayer coatings for increased x-ray throughput,” Opt. Lett. 18(9), 672–674 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  12. C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J.-C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493(3), 189–198 (2002).
  13. T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).
  14. T. Kuhlmann, S. A. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, H. Bernitzki, and H. Lauth, “Design and fabrication of broadband EUV multilayer mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 509 (2002).
  15. S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 286–293 (2003).
  16. J. E. Dennis, Jr., and R. B. Schnabel, in Numerical Methods for Unconstrained Optimization and Nonlinear Equations, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, ed. (NJ, 1983).
  17. J. M. Slaughter, A. Shapiro, P. A. Kearney, and C. M. Falco, “Growth of molybdenum on silicon: Structure and interface formation,” Phys. Rev. B 44(8), 3854–3863 (1991).
  18. A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, P. C. Gorts, E. L. G. Maas, and F. Bijkerk, “Determination of the layered structure in Mo/Si multilayers by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry,” Physica B 283(1-3), 143–148 (2000).
  19. S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-tocrystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(2), 1017–1025 (2001).
  20. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9(5), 2662–2669 (1991).
  21. S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1216–1220 (2002).
  22. S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).
  23. N. Kaiser, S. Yulin, and T. Feigl, “Si-based multilayers with high thermal stability,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 91 (2000).
  24. J. B. Shellan, P. Agmon, P. Yeh, and A. Yariv, “Statistical analysis of Bragg reflectors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68(1), 18–27 (1978).
  25. E. Spiller, “Characterization of Multilayer Coatings by X-Ray Reflection,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 23(10), 1687–1700 (1988).
  26. M. J. H. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, F. D. Tichelaar, and J. Verhoeven, “Determination of in-depth density profiles of multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9Issue 9), 093513 (2005).
  27. I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24Issue 24), 245404 (2007).
  28. I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8Issue 8), 083549 (2008).
  29. E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Yu. Ya. Platonov, G. E. van Dorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of reflectivity of multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography by temperature optimization and ion bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).
  30. E. Spiller, in Soft X-ray optics, Bellingham ed. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Washington 1994).
  31. R. Schlatmann, S. Lu, J. Verhoeven, E. J. Puik, and M. J. van der Wiel, “Modification by Ar and Kr ion bombardment of Mo/Si x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 78(2), 147–157 (1994).
  32. J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).
  33. A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157–164 (2004).

2008 (1)

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8Issue 8), 083549 (2008).

2007 (1)

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24Issue 24), 245404 (2007).

2006 (1)

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. J. H. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, F. D. Tichelaar, and J. Verhoeven, “Determination of in-depth density profiles of multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9Issue 9), 093513 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157–164 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).

S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 286–293 (2003).

2002 (4)

C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J.-C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493(3), 189–198 (2002).

T. Kuhlmann, S. A. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, H. Bernitzki, and H. Lauth, “Design and fabrication of broadband EUV multilayer mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 509 (2002).

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1216–1220 (2002).

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).

2001 (5)

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-tocrystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(2), 1017–1025 (2001).

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

H. Meiling, J. Benshop, U. Dinger, and P. Kurz, “Progress of the EUVL alphatool,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 38–50 (2001).

Z. Wang and A. G. Michette, “Optimization of depth-graded multilayer designs for EUV and X-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 4145, 243–253 (2001).

I. Vkozhevnikov, I. Nbukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of x-ray supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460(2-3), 424–443 (2001).

2000 (3)

A. V. Vinogradov and R. M. Faschenko, “An approach to the theory of X-ray multilayers with graded period,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448(1-2), 142–146 (2000).

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, P. C. Gorts, E. L. G. Maas, and F. Bijkerk, “Determination of the layered structure in Mo/Si multilayers by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry,” Physica B 283(1-3), 143–148 (2000).

N. Kaiser, S. Yulin, and T. Feigl, “Si-based multilayers with high thermal stability,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 91 (2000).

1998 (1)

V. V. Protopopov and V. A. Kalnov, “X-ray multilayer mirrors with an extended angular range,” Opt. Commun. 158(1-6), 127–140 (1998).

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, F. E. Christensen, P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, and J. Wood, “Multilayer mirrors: broad-band reflection coatings for the 15 to 100 keV range,” Proc. SPIE 2253, 299–308 (1994).

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Yu. Ya. Platonov, G. E. van Dorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of reflectivity of multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography by temperature optimization and ion bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).

R. Schlatmann, S. Lu, J. Verhoeven, E. J. Puik, and M. J. van der Wiel, “Modification by Ar and Kr ion bombardment of Mo/Si x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 78(2), 147–157 (1994).

1993 (1)

1991 (2)

J. M. Slaughter, A. Shapiro, P. A. Kearney, and C. M. Falco, “Growth of molybdenum on silicon: Structure and interface formation,” Phys. Rev. B 44(8), 3854–3863 (1991).

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9(5), 2662–2669 (1991).

1988 (1)

E. Spiller, “Characterization of Multilayer Coatings by X-Ray Reflection,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 23(10), 1687–1700 (1988).

1983 (1)

1978 (1)

Agmon, P.

Attwood, D. T.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-tocrystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(2), 1017–1025 (2001).

Ballard, W. P.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Benoit, N.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).

Benshop, J.

H. Meiling, J. Benshop, U. Dinger, and P. Kurz, “Progress of the EUVL alphatool,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 38–50 (2001).

Berger, K. W.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Bernitzki, H.

T. Kuhlmann, S. A. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, H. Bernitzki, and H. Lauth, “Design and fabrication of broadband EUV multilayer mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 509 (2002).

Bijkerk, F.

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8Issue 8), 083549 (2008).

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24Issue 24), 245404 (2007).

M. J. H. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, F. D. Tichelaar, and J. Verhoeven, “Determination of in-depth density profiles of multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9Issue 9), 093513 (2005).

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, P. C. Gorts, E. L. G. Maas, and F. Bijkerk, “Determination of the layered structure in Mo/Si multilayers by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry,” Physica B 283(1-3), 143–148 (2000).

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Yu. Ya. Platonov, G. E. van Dorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of reflectivity of multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography by temperature optimization and ion bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).

Bjorkholm, J. E.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Blaedel, K.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Blume, H.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).

Bokor, J.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Brandt, G.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).

Braun, S.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).

Chapman, H. N.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Christensen, F. E.

K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Hoghoj, and F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34(34), 7935–7944 (1995).
[PubMed]

K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, F. E. Christensen, P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, and J. Wood, “Multilayer mirrors: broad-band reflection coatings for the 15 to 100 keV range,” Proc. SPIE 2253, 299–308 (1994).

Dinger, U.

H. Meiling, J. Benshop, U. Dinger, and P. Kurz, “Progress of the EUVL alphatool,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 38–50 (2001).

Eden, J.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).

Falco, C. M.

J. M. Slaughter, A. Shapiro, P. A. Kearney, and C. M. Falco, “Growth of molybdenum on silicon: Structure and interface formation,” Phys. Rev. B 44(8), 3854–3863 (1991).

Faschenko, R. M.

A. V. Vinogradov and R. M. Faschenko, “An approach to the theory of X-ray multilayers with graded period,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448(1-2), 142–146 (2000).

Fedorenko, A. I.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1216–1220 (2002).

Feigl, T.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).

S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 286–293 (2003).

T. Kuhlmann, S. A. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, H. Bernitzki, and H. Lauth, “Design and fabrication of broadband EUV multilayer mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 509 (2002).

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1216–1220 (2002).

N. Kaiser, S. Yulin, and T. Feigl, “Si-based multilayers with high thermal stability,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 91 (2000).

Folta, J. A.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Freund, A.

K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, F. E. Christensen, P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, and J. Wood, “Multilayer mirrors: broad-band reflection coatings for the 15 to 100 keV range,” Proc. SPIE 2253, 299–308 (1994).

Goldberg, K. A.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Gorenstein, P.

K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Hoghoj, and F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34(34), 7935–7944 (1995).
[PubMed]

K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, F. E. Christensen, P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, and J. Wood, “Multilayer mirrors: broad-band reflection coatings for the 15 to 100 keV range,” Proc. SPIE 2253, 299–308 (1994).

Gorts, P. C.

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, P. C. Gorts, E. L. G. Maas, and F. Bijkerk, “Determination of the layered structure in Mo/Si multilayers by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry,” Physica B 283(1-3), 143–148 (2000).

Gottwald, A.

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157–164 (2004).

Gullikson, E. M.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

P. van Loevezijn, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, B. A. van Tiggelen, and E. M. Gullikson, “Numerical and experimental study of disordered multilayers for broadband X-ray reflection,” Appl. Opt. 35(19), 3614–3619 (1996).
[PubMed]

Gwyn, C. W.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Hale, L. C.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Hansen, R.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Hoghoj, P.

Høghøj, P.

K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, F. E. Christensen, P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, and J. Wood, “Multilayer mirrors: broad-band reflection coatings for the 15 to 100 keV range,” Proc. SPIE 2253, 299–308 (1994).

Jefferson, K. L.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Joensen, K. D.

K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Hoghoj, and F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34(34), 7935–7944 (1995).
[PubMed]

K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, F. E. Christensen, P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, and J. Wood, “Multilayer mirrors: broad-band reflection coatings for the 15 to 100 keV range,” Proc. SPIE 2253, 299–308 (1994).

Kaiser, N.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).

S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 286–293 (2003).

T. Kuhlmann, S. A. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, H. Bernitzki, and H. Lauth, “Design and fabrication of broadband EUV multilayer mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 509 (2002).

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1216–1220 (2002).

N. Kaiser, S. Yulin, and T. Feigl, “Si-based multilayers with high thermal stability,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 91 (2000).

Kalnov, V. A.

V. V. Protopopov and V. A. Kalnov, “X-ray multilayer mirrors with an extended angular range,” Opt. Commun. 158(1-6), 127–140 (1998).

Kearney, P. A.

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-tocrystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(2), 1017–1025 (2001).

J. M. Slaughter, A. Shapiro, P. A. Kearney, and C. M. Falco, “Growth of molybdenum on silicon: Structure and interface formation,” Phys. Rev. B 44(8), 3854–3863 (1991).

Kessels, M. J. H.

M. J. H. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, F. D. Tichelaar, and J. Verhoeven, “Determination of in-depth density profiles of multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9Issue 9), 093513 (2005).

Klebanoff, L. E.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Kondratenko, V. V.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1216–1220 (2002).

Koster, N. B.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Yu. Ya. Platonov, G. E. van Dorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of reflectivity of multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography by temperature optimization and ion bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J.-C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493(3), 189–198 (2002).

Kroth, U.

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157–164 (2004).

Kubiak, G. D.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Kuhlmann, T.

S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 286–293 (2003).

T. Kuhlmann, S. A. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, H. Bernitzki, and H. Lauth, “Design and fabrication of broadband EUV multilayer mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 509 (2002).

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1216–1220 (2002).

Kurz, P.

H. Meiling, J. Benshop, U. Dinger, and P. Kurz, “Progress of the EUVL alphatool,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 38–50 (2001).

Lauth, H.

T. Kuhlmann, S. A. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, H. Bernitzki, and H. Lauth, “Design and fabrication of broadband EUV multilayer mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 509 (2002).

Lee, P.

Lee, S. H.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Leson, A.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).

Letz, M.

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157–164 (2004).

Leung, A. H.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Louis, E.

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, P. C. Gorts, E. L. G. Maas, and F. Bijkerk, “Determination of the layered structure in Mo/Si multilayers by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry,” Physica B 283(1-3), 143–148 (2000).

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Yu. Ya. Platonov, G. E. van Dorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of reflectivity of multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography by temperature optimization and ion bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).

Lu, S.

R. Schlatmann, S. Lu, J. Verhoeven, E. J. Puik, and M. J. van der Wiel, “Modification by Ar and Kr ion bombardment of Mo/Si x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 78(2), 147–157 (1994).

Maas, E. L. G.

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, P. C. Gorts, E. L. G. Maas, and F. Bijkerk, “Determination of the layered structure in Mo/Si multilayers by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry,” Physica B 283(1-3), 143–148 (2000).

Mai, H.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).

Meiling, H.

H. Meiling, J. Benshop, U. Dinger, and P. Kurz, “Progress of the EUVL alphatool,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 38–50 (2001).

Meyer, B.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).

Michette, A. G.

Z. Wang and A. G. Michette, “Optimization of depth-graded multilayer designs for EUV and X-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 4145, 243–253 (2001).

Mickan, U.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Morawe, C.

C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J.-C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493(3), 189–198 (2002).

Moss, M.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).

Naulleau, P.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Nbukreeva, I.

I. Vkozhevnikov, I. Nbukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of x-ray supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460(2-3), 424–443 (2001).

Nedelcu, I.

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8Issue 8), 083549 (2008).

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24Issue 24), 245404 (2007).

O’Connell, D. J.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Padmore, H. A.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Yu. Ya. Platonov, G. E. van Dorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of reflectivity of multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography by temperature optimization and ion bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).

Panning, E.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Peffen, J.-C.

C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J.-C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493(3), 189–198 (2002).

Platonov, Yu. Ya.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Yu. Ya. Platonov, G. E. van Dorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of reflectivity of multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography by temperature optimization and ion bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).

Poltseva, O. V.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1216–1220 (2002).

Protopopov, V. V.

V. V. Protopopov and V. A. Kalnov, “X-ray multilayer mirrors with an extended angular range,” Opt. Commun. 158(1-6), 127–140 (1998).

Puik, E. J.

R. Schlatmann, S. Lu, J. Verhoeven, E. J. Puik, and M. J. van der Wiel, “Modification by Ar and Kr ion bombardment of Mo/Si x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 78(2), 147–157 (1994).

Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Replogle, W. C.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Richter, M.

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157–164 (2004).

Roll, J.

Rosen, R. S.

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, and R. S. Rosen, “Chirped multilayer coatings for increased x-ray throughput,” Opt. Lett. 18(9), 672–674 (1993).
[PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9(5), 2662–2669 (1991).

Scherr, H.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).

Schlatmann, R.

P. van Loevezijn, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, B. A. van Tiggelen, and E. M. Gullikson, “Numerical and experimental study of disordered multilayers for broadband X-ray reflection,” Appl. Opt. 35(19), 3614–3619 (1996).
[PubMed]

R. Schlatmann, S. Lu, J. Verhoeven, E. J. Puik, and M. J. van der Wiel, “Modification by Ar and Kr ion bombardment of Mo/Si x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 78(2), 147–157 (1994).

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Yu. Ya. Platonov, G. E. van Dorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of reflectivity of multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography by temperature optimization and ion bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).

Schoeppe, H.

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157–164 (2004).

Scholz, F.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).

Scholz, R.

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).

Sevryukova, V. A.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1216–1220 (2002).

Shapiro, A.

J. M. Slaughter, A. Shapiro, P. A. Kearney, and C. M. Falco, “Growth of molybdenum on silicon: Structure and interface formation,” Phys. Rev. B 44(8), 3854–3863 (1991).

Shellan, J. B.

Shmaenok, L.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Yu. Ya. Platonov, G. E. van Dorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of reflectivity of multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography by temperature optimization and ion bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).

Slaughter, J. M.

J. M. Slaughter, A. Shapiro, P. A. Kearney, and C. M. Falco, “Growth of molybdenum on silicon: Structure and interface formation,” Phys. Rev. B 44(8), 3854–3863 (1991).

Sommargren, G. E.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Soufti, R.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Spiller, E.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

E. Spiller, “Characterization of Multilayer Coatings by X-Ray Reflection,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 23(10), 1687–1700 (1988).

Stearns, D. G.

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-tocrystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(2), 1017–1025 (2001).

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, and R. S. Rosen, “Chirped multilayer coatings for increased x-ray throughput,” Opt. Lett. 18(9), 672–674 (1993).
[PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9(5), 2662–2669 (1991).

Stulen, R. H.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Susini, J.

K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, F. E. Christensen, P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, and J. Wood, “Multilayer mirrors: broad-band reflection coatings for the 15 to 100 keV range,” Proc. SPIE 2253, 299–308 (1994).

Sweeney, D. W.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Szentgyorgyi, A.

Taylor, J. S.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Tichelaar, F. D.

M. J. H. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, F. D. Tichelaar, and J. Verhoeven, “Determination of in-depth density profiles of multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9Issue 9), 093513 (2005).

Tichenor, D. A.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Tümmler, J.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).

Ulm, G.

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).

van de Kruijs, R. W. E.

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8Issue 8), 083549 (2008).

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24Issue 24), 245404 (2007).

van der Wiel, M. J.

R. Schlatmann, S. Lu, J. Verhoeven, E. J. Puik, and M. J. van der Wiel, “Modification by Ar and Kr ion bombardment of Mo/Si x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 78(2), 147–157 (1994).

van Dorssen, G. E.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Yu. Ya. Platonov, G. E. van Dorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of reflectivity of multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography by temperature optimization and ion bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).

van Loevezijn, P.

van Tiggelen, B. A.

Verhoeven, J.

M. J. H. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, F. D. Tichelaar, and J. Verhoeven, “Determination of in-depth density profiles of multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9Issue 9), 093513 (2005).

P. van Loevezijn, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, B. A. van Tiggelen, and E. M. Gullikson, “Numerical and experimental study of disordered multilayers for broadband X-ray reflection,” Appl. Opt. 35(19), 3614–3619 (1996).
[PubMed]

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Yu. Ya. Platonov, G. E. van Dorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of reflectivity of multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography by temperature optimization and ion bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).

R. Schlatmann, S. Lu, J. Verhoeven, E. J. Puik, and M. J. van der Wiel, “Modification by Ar and Kr ion bombardment of Mo/Si x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 78(2), 147–157 (1994).

Vernon, S. P.

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, and R. S. Rosen, “Chirped multilayer coatings for increased x-ray throughput,” Opt. Lett. 18(9), 672–674 (1993).
[PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9(5), 2662–2669 (1991).

Vinogradov, A. V.

A. V. Vinogradov and R. M. Faschenko, “An approach to the theory of X-ray multilayers with graded period,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448(1-2), 142–146 (2000).

Vkozhevnikov, I.

I. Vkozhevnikov, I. Nbukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of x-ray supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460(2-3), 424–443 (2001).

Voorma, H.-J.

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Yu. Ya. Platonov, G. E. van Dorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of reflectivity of multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography by temperature optimization and ion bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).

Voutov, P.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and A. G. Michette, “Optimization of depth-graded multilayer designs for EUV and X-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 4145, 243–253 (2001).

Wood, J.

K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, F. E. Christensen, P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, and J. Wood, “Multilayer mirrors: broad-band reflection coatings for the 15 to 100 keV range,” Proc. SPIE 2253, 299–308 (1994).

Wronosky, J. B.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Yakshin, A. E.

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8Issue 8), 083549 (2008).

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24Issue 24), 245404 (2007).

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, P. C. Gorts, E. L. G. Maas, and F. Bijkerk, “Determination of the layered structure in Mo/Si multilayers by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry,” Physica B 283(1-3), 143–148 (2000).

Yan, P.-Y.

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

Yariv, A.

Yeh, P.

Yulin, S.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).

S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 286–293 (2003).

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1216–1220 (2002).

N. Kaiser, S. Yulin, and T. Feigl, “Si-based multilayers with high thermal stability,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 91 (2000).

Yulin, S. A.

T. Kuhlmann, S. A. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, H. Bernitzki, and H. Lauth, “Design and fabrication of broadband EUV multilayer mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 509 (2002).

Ziegler, E.

C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J.-C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493(3), 189–198 (2002).

I. Vkozhevnikov, I. Nbukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of x-ray supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460(2-3), 424–443 (2001).

K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, F. E. Christensen, P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, and J. Wood, “Multilayer mirrors: broad-band reflection coatings for the 15 to 100 keV range,” Proc. SPIE 2253, 299–308 (1994).

Zolotaryov, A. Yu.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1216–1220 (2002).

Zubarev, E. N.

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1216–1220 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

R. Schlatmann, S. Lu, J. Verhoeven, E. J. Puik, and M. J. van der Wiel, “Modification by Ar and Kr ion bombardment of Mo/Si x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 78(2), 147–157 (1994).

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

M. J. H. Kessels, F. Bijkerk, F. D. Tichelaar, and J. Verhoeven, “Determination of in-depth density profiles of multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9Issue 9), 093513 (2005).

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Thermally enhanced interdiffusion in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8Issue 8), 083549 (2008).

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-tocrystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(2), 1017–1025 (2001).

S. Yulin, T. Feigl, T. Kuhlmann, N. Kaiser, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, O. V. Poltseva, V. A. Sevryukova, A. Yu. Zolotaryov, and E. N. Zubarev, “Interlayer transition zones in Mo/Si superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1216–1220 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9(5), 2662–2669 (1991).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Braun, H. Mai, M. Moss, R. Scholz, and A. Leson, “Mo/Si Multilayers with Different Barrier Layers for Applications as Extreme Ultraviolet Mirrors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4074–4081 (2002).

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

E. Louis, H.-J. Voorma, N. B. Koster, L. Shmaenok, F. Bijkerk, R. Schlatmann, J. Verhoeven, Yu. Ya. Platonov, G. E. van Dorssen, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of reflectivity of multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography by temperature optimization and ion bombardment,” Microelectron. Eng. 23(1-4), 215–218 (1994).

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (3)

I. Vkozhevnikov, I. Nbukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of x-ray supermirrors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 460(2-3), 424–443 (2001).

C. Morawe, E. Ziegler, J.-C. Peffen, and I. V. Kozhevnikov, “Design and fabrication of depth-graded x-ray multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 493(3), 189–198 (2002).

A. V. Vinogradov and R. M. Faschenko, “An approach to the theory of X-ray multilayers with graded period,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 448(1-2), 142–146 (2000).

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. V. Protopopov and V. A. Kalnov, “X-ray multilayer mirrors with an extended angular range,” Opt. Commun. 158(1-6), 127–140 (1998).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

I. Nedelcu, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, and F. Bijkerk, “Temperature-dependent nanocrystal formation in Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24Issue 24), 245404 (2007).

J. M. Slaughter, A. Shapiro, P. A. Kearney, and C. M. Falco, “Growth of molybdenum on silicon: Structure and interface formation,” Phys. Rev. B 44(8), 3854–3863 (1991).

Physica B (1)

A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, P. C. Gorts, E. L. G. Maas, and F. Bijkerk, “Determination of the layered structure in Mo/Si multilayers by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry,” Physica B 283(1-3), 143–148 (2000).

Proc. SPIE (9)

N. Kaiser, S. Yulin, and T. Feigl, “Si-based multilayers with high thermal stability,” Proc. SPIE 4146, 91 (2000).

J. Tümmler, H. Blume, G. Brandt, J. Eden, B. Meyer, H. Scherr, F. Scholz, and G. Ulm, “Characterization of the PTB EUV reflectometry facility for large EUVL optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 265–273 (2003).

A. Gottwald, U. Kroth, M. Letz, H. Schoeppe, and M. Richter, “High-accuracy VUV reflectometry at selectable sample temperatures,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 157–164 (2004).

K. D. Joensen, P. Gorenstein, F. E. Christensen, P. Høghøj, E. Ziegler, J. Susini, A. Freund, and J. Wood, “Multilayer mirrors: broad-band reflection coatings for the 15 to 100 keV range,” Proc. SPIE 2253, 299–308 (1994).

T. Kuhlmann, S. A. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, H. Bernitzki, and H. Lauth, “Design and fabrication of broadband EUV multilayer mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4688, 509 (2002).

S. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Spectral reflectance tuning of EUV mirrors for metrology applications,” Proc. SPIE 5037, 286–293 (2003).

Z. Wang and A. G. Michette, “Optimization of depth-graded multilayer designs for EUV and X-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 4145, 243–253 (2001).

D. A. Tichenor, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, S. H. Lee, H. N. Chapman, W. C. Replogle, K. W. Berger, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, D. J. O’Connell, A. H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, W. P. Ballard, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, E. Spiller, R. Soufti, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hansen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, J. E. Bjorkholm, and C. W. Gwyn, “Initial Results from the EUV Engineering Test Stand,” Proc. SPIE 4506, 9 (2001).

H. Meiling, J. Benshop, U. Dinger, and P. Kurz, “Progress of the EUVL alphatool,” Proc. SPIE 4343, 38–50 (2001).

Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) (1)

E. Spiller, “Characterization of Multilayer Coatings by X-Ray Reflection,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 23(10), 1687–1700 (1988).

Other (2)

E. Spiller, in Soft X-ray optics, Bellingham ed. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Washington 1994).

J. E. Dennis, Jr., and R. B. Schnabel, in Numerical Methods for Unconstrained Optimization and Nonlinear Equations, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, ed. (NJ, 1983).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The calculated reflectivity versus the angle of incidence of periodic (1) and depth-graded (2-4) Mo/Si multilayer mirrors for naturally polarized radiation at λ = 13.5 nm. The design of depth-graded mirrors was optimized to obtain the constant reflectivity R 0 in the [0, 18°] range of angle of incidence, the aimed value of R0 being equal to 57% (2), 61% (3), and 70% (4). Calculations were performed for ideal multilayer structures without interlayers. The uppermost layer was silicon covered with naturally formed SiO2 layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketch of reflection of EUV radiation from a multilayer mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The calculated phase of the amplitude reflectivity (s-polarized radiation) versus the angle of incidence for the multilayer mirrors in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The mean reflectivity <R> of depth-graded multilayer mirrors in the [0, 18°] range of angle of incidence versus the aimed reflectivity plateau R 0. The curve number in the figure corresponds to the number of a structure in Table 1. The dashed straight line corresponds to the ideal case <R> = R 0.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The relative dispersion of reflectivity of depth-graded multilayer mirrors in the [0, 18°] range of angle of incidence versus the mean reflectivity value. The curve number in the figure corresponds to the structure number in Table 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The reflectivity of the studied depth-graded multilayer mirrors at about the same relative dispersion of the reflectivity RD ~0.6–0.7%. Curve number in the figures corresponds to the structure number in Table 1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The depth-distribution of the period (beginning from the top) (1) as well as the thickness of the Si (2) and Mo (3) layers for the Mo/Si multilayer mirror (sample 1 in Table 1) optimized for the constant reflectivity R 0 = 61% at λ = 13.5 nm in the [0, 18°] range of the angle of incidence.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The depth-distribution of the layer thickness for a Mo2C/Si multilayer structure (sample 5 in Table 1), optimized for the average reflectivity R 0 = 56% in the [0, 18°] range of angle of incidence (filled symbols) and for a similar multilayer mirror with a limitation imposed on the thickness so that it is not less than 1.5 nm (unfilled symbols). Both designs result in virtually the same reflectivity profile.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The relative dispersion of the reflectivity versus the minimum possible layer thickness of the Mo2C/Si multilayer mirror optimized for the average reflectivity R 0 = 56% in the [0, 18°] range of the angle of incidence.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The effect of layer density on depth-graded Mo/MoSi2/Si/MoSi2 multilayer mirror reflectivity (sample 2 in Table 1). Curve 1 is the result of optimization targeting R 0 = 54% and taking the density of all the layers to be the same as that of the bulk materials. Curve 2 is the reflectivity for the same layer thickness distribution but taking the density of Mo layers to be 0.9 of the bulk material density. Curve 3 was calculated taking the absorption of Si layers to be 1.5 times higher compared to the literature data.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The effect of interfacial roughness on the depth-graded Mo/MoSi2/Si/MoSi2 multilayer mirror reflectivity (sample 2 in Table 1). Curve 1 was calculated for R 0 = 54% with the assumption of perfectly smooth interfaces. Curves 2-3 were calculated for the same structure as curve 1 assuming 0.3 nm interfacial roughness. When calculating curve 2, the roughness of the different interfaces was supposed to be conformal and the correlation length large. In contrary, when calculating curve 3, the roughness was assumed to be nonconformal and the correlation length small.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) The reflectivity of a Mo2C/Si multilayer mirror (sample 5 in Table 1) aimed at the constant reflectivity R 0 = 54% (black curve) as well as the reflectivity of the same multilayers with random layer thickness fluctuations evenly distributed in the ± 0.05 nm range (colored curves). Calculations were performed for five sequences of random layer fluctuations. (b) The same for the Mo/MoSi2/Si/MoSi2 multilayer mirror (sample 2 in Table 1).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The designed layer thickness distribution (filled symbols) of the Mo/Si multilayer structure (N = 49.5) targeting the constant reflectivity R 0 = 60% in the [0, 16°] range of the angle of incidence at λ = 13.5 nm. To account for the naturally formed interlayers 0.8 nm thick interlayers were introduced at every boundary between Mo and Si that are not shown at the graph. Unfilled symbols show the result of fitting to the experimental reflectivity curve.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

The aimed (green curve) and the measured (red circles) reflectivity curve versus the angle of incidence (at λ = 13.5 nm) of the Mo/Si multilayer mirror aimed at the constant reflectivity in the [0, 16°] range of angle of incidence. Blue curve is the result of fitting allowing thickness fluctuations during deposition.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the depth-graded EUV multilayer mirrors a

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M F = 1 φ max φ min φ min φ max [ R 0 ( φ ) R ( φ ) ] 2 d φ
R = 1 φ max φ min φ min φ max R ( φ ) d φ
R D = 1 < R > 1 φ max φ min φ min φ max [ R ( φ ) < R > ] 2 d φ 100 %

Metrics