Abstract

The authors report a metamaterial (MM) consisting of cut-wire structures which shows near-perfect absorption at microwave frequencies. Experimental results show slight lower performance than simulation. The analysis of the spectra and retrieved electromagnetic parameters demonstrate that the mismatch is attributed to the considerable influence of the dielectric loss on the strength of the electric and magnetic resonances, which largely determines the ability of the MM absorber. Such dependence on dielectric loss provides an important clue for the design of MM absorber aiming at specific applications where high efficiency energy collection in dielectric is needed.

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  1. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the therahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Hu, Z. Zhao, X. Chen, and X. Luo, “Realizing near-perfect absorption at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11039–11044 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Hu, L. Liu, Z. Zhao, X. Chen, and X. Luo, “Mixed plasmons coupling for expanding the bandwidth of near-perfect absorption at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16745–16749 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M Lee, and R. D Averitt, “Dynamical Electric and Magnetic Metamaterial Response at Terahertz Frequencies ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. V. Teperik, F. J Garcia de abajo, A. G Borisov, M Abdelsalam,, P. N Bartlett, Y Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nano-structured metal surfaces,” Nature Lett. 2, 299–301 (2008).

2009 (4)

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the therahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, Z. Zhao, X. Chen, and X. Luo, “Realizing near-perfect absorption at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11039–11044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hu, L. Liu, Z. Zhao, X. Chen, and X. Luo, “Mixed plasmons coupling for expanding the bandwidth of near-perfect absorption at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16745–16749 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Teperik, F. J Garcia de abajo, A. G Borisov, M Abdelsalam,, P. N Bartlett, Y Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nano-structured metal surfaces,” Nature Lett. 2, 299–301 (2008).

2006 (2)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M Lee, and R. D Averitt, “Dynamical Electric and Magnetic Metamaterial Response at Terahertz Frequencies ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

Abdelsalam,, M

T. V. Teperik, F. J Garcia de abajo, A. G Borisov, M Abdelsalam,, P. N Bartlett, Y Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nano-structured metal surfaces,” Nature Lett. 2, 299–301 (2008).

Averitt, R. D

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M Lee, and R. D Averitt, “Dynamical Electric and Magnetic Metamaterial Response at Terahertz Frequencies ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartlett, P. N

T. V. Teperik, F. J Garcia de abajo, A. G Borisov, M Abdelsalam,, P. N Bartlett, Y Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nano-structured metal surfaces,” Nature Lett. 2, 299–301 (2008).

Baumberg, J. J.

T. V. Teperik, F. J Garcia de abajo, A. G Borisov, M Abdelsalam,, P. N Bartlett, Y Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nano-structured metal surfaces,” Nature Lett. 2, 299–301 (2008).

Bingham, C. M.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, A. G

T. V. Teperik, F. J Garcia de abajo, A. G Borisov, M Abdelsalam,, P. N Bartlett, Y Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nano-structured metal surfaces,” Nature Lett. 2, 299–301 (2008).

Cai, W.

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Chettiar, U. K.

Diem, M.

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the therahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Enkrich, C.

Fan, K.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garcia de abajo, F. J

T. V. Teperik, F. J Garcia de abajo, A. G Borisov, M Abdelsalam,, P. N Bartlett, Y Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nano-structured metal surfaces,” Nature Lett. 2, 299–301 (2008).

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M Lee, and R. D Averitt, “Dynamical Electric and Magnetic Metamaterial Response at Terahertz Frequencies ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, C.

Jokerst, N.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Koschny, T.

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the therahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M Lee, and R. D Averitt, “Dynamical Electric and Magnetic Metamaterial Response at Terahertz Frequencies ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

Liu, L.

Luo, X.

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M Lee, and R. D Averitt, “Dynamical Electric and Magnetic Metamaterial Response at Terahertz Frequencies ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilon, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

Shalaev, V. M.

Shrekenhamer, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, Y

T. V. Teperik, F. J Garcia de abajo, A. G Borisov, M Abdelsalam,, P. N Bartlett, Y Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nano-structured metal surfaces,” Nature Lett. 2, 299–301 (2008).

Tao, H.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M Lee, and R. D Averitt, “Dynamical Electric and Magnetic Metamaterial Response at Terahertz Frequencies ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teperik, T. V.

T. V. Teperik, F. J Garcia de abajo, A. G Borisov, M Abdelsalam,, P. N Bartlett, Y Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nano-structured metal surfaces,” Nature Lett. 2, 299–301 (2008).

Tyler, T.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Yuan, H.-K.

Zhang, X.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

Zhou, J. F.

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Lett. (1)

T. V. Teperik, F. J Garcia de abajo, A. G Borisov, M Abdelsalam,, P. N Bartlett, Y Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nano-structured metal surfaces,” Nature Lett. 2, 299–301 (2008).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the therahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 241103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M Lee, and R. D Averitt, “Dynamical Electric and Magnetic Metamaterial Response at Terahertz Frequencies ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) Schematic drawing of the unit cell, the inset shows the polarization direction of the incident wave. Different incident directions are realized by tuning the angle (θ). (b) and (c) Top and bottom structures of the sample used in experiments, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Measured and simulated spectra of the MM absorber. Standing waves are observed in the spectra. (b) Absorption with different incident angles. The solid curve and the discrete red dots represent the simulated and measured results, respectively. The inset demonstrates the method used in the reflection measurement. The normal R(ω) is approximated by the oblique R(ω) with a small angle (θ = 5 degree).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color Online) (a) Absorption with different Im(ε d) of the dielectric. The inset shows the amplified picture marked by the blue rectangle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Variations of Re(μ) and Re(ε) of the MM absorber with increasing Im(ε d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) (a) Transmission and (b) Reflection spectra with increasing Im(ε d).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Absorption spectra when Im(ε d) equals to 0.03 and zero. About 77% energy is consumed in dielectric.

Metrics