Abstract

We report the first demonstration of a solid state laser passively mode-locked through the saturable absorption of short-wavelength intersubband transitions in doped quantum wells: a continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser end-pumped Tm,Ho:YAG laser at the center wavelength of 2.091 μm utilizing intersubband transitions in narrow In0.53Ga0.47As/Al0.53As0.47Sb quantum wells. Stable passive mode-locking operation with maximum average output power of up to 160 mW for 2.9 W of the absorbed pump power could last for hours without external interruption and a mode-locked pulse with duration of 60 ps at repetition rate of 106.5 MHz was generated.

© 2010 OSA

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2010

2009

2008

2007

D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Actively mode-locked Tm-Ho:LiYF4 and Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 269–273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tunable Raman Soliton Source Using Mode-Locked Tm–Ho Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 934–936 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, M. Lei, Y. Wang, J. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Liu, “Crystal growth and spectral properties of Yb3+:KY(WO4)2,” J. Rare Earths 24(1), 125–128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. Georgiev, T. Dekorsy, F. Eichhorn, M. Helm, M. Semtsiv, and W. T. Masselink, “Short-wavelength intersubband absorption in strain compensated InGaAs/AlAs quantum well structures grown on InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 210–213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Galzerano, M. Marano, S. Longhi, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Sub-100-ps amplitude-modulation mode-locked Tm–Ho:BaY2F8 laser at 2.06 μm,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2085–2087 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 495–497 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

1996

1995

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Efficient 1.94-µm Tm:YALO laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 78–81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, and G. H. Rosenblatt, “Continuous-wave mode-locked 2- µm Tm: YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(10), 731–732 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Heine, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and K. L. Schepler, “Mode locking of room-temperature cw thulium and holmium lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1161–1163 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aguiló, M.

Akimoto, R.

Akiyama, T.

T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 495–497 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biermann, K.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, M. Priegnitz, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Inefficiency of intervalley transfer in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(1), 229–231 (2008) (c).
[CrossRef]

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T. A.

Budni, P. A.

Calvez, S.

Carvajal, J. J.

Chernov, A. I.

Chicklis, E. P.

Cho, W. B.

Choi, S. Y.

Dawson, M. D.

Dekorsy, T.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, M. Priegnitz, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Inefficiency of intervalley transfer in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(1), 229–231 (2008) (c).
[CrossRef]

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Georgiev, T. Dekorsy, F. Eichhorn, M. Helm, M. Semtsiv, and W. T. Masselink, “Short-wavelength intersubband absorption in strain compensated InGaAs/AlAs quantum well structures grown on InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 210–213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Denisov, I. A.

Dianov, E. M.

Díaz, F.

Eichhorn, F.

N. Georgiev, T. Dekorsy, F. Eichhorn, M. Helm, M. Semtsiv, and W. T. Masselink, “Short-wavelength intersubband absorption in strain compensated InGaAs/AlAs quantum well structures grown on InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 210–213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elliot, J.

Engelbrecht, M.

Esterowitz, L.

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Efficient 1.94-µm Tm:YALO laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 78–81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, and G. H. Rosenblatt, “Continuous-wave mode-locked 2- µm Tm: YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(10), 731–732 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fusari, F.

Galzerano, G.

D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Actively mode-locked Tm-Ho:LiYF4 and Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 269–273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, M. Marano, S. Longhi, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Sub-100-ps amplitude-modulation mode-locked Tm–Ho:BaY2F8 laser at 2.06 μm,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2085–2087 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaponenko, M. S.

Gatti, D.

D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Actively mode-locked Tm-Ho:LiYF4 and Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 269–273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geng, J.

Georgiev, N.

N. Georgiev, T. Dekorsy, F. Eichhorn, M. Helm, M. Semtsiv, and W. T. Masselink, “Short-wavelength intersubband absorption in strain compensated InGaAs/AlAs quantum well structures grown on InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 210–213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 495–497 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, A. V.

T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 495–497 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grenzer, J.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

Guina, M.

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tunable Raman Soliton Source Using Mode-Locked Tm–Ho Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 934–936 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, J. A.

Hakulinen, T.

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tunable Raman Soliton Source Using Mode-Locked Tm–Ho Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 934–936 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haxsen, F.

Heine, F.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and K. L. Schepler, “Mode locking of room-temperature cw thulium and holmium lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1161–1163 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, M. Priegnitz, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Inefficiency of intervalley transfer in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(1), 229–231 (2008) (c).
[CrossRef]

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Georgiev, T. Dekorsy, F. Eichhorn, M. Helm, M. Semtsiv, and W. T. Masselink, “Short-wavelength intersubband absorption in strain compensated InGaAs/AlAs quantum well structures grown on InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 210–213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heumann, E.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and K. L. Schepler, “Mode locking of room-temperature cw thulium and holmium lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1161–1163 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and K. L. Schepler, “Mode locking of room-temperature cw thulium and holmium lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1161–1163 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

Jiang, S.

Keller, U.

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Killinger, D. K.

Kisel, V. E.

Kivistö, S.

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tunable Raman Soliton Source Using Mode-Locked Tm–Ho Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 934–936 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Konov, V. I.

Kracht, D.

Kuleshov, N. V.

Künzel, H.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, M. Priegnitz, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Inefficiency of intervalley transfer in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(1), 229–231 (2008) (c).
[CrossRef]

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurilchik, S. V.

Lagatsky, A. A.

Laporta, P.

D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Actively mode-locked Tm-Ho:LiYF4 and Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 269–273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Galzerano, M. Marano, S. Longhi, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Sub-100-ps amplitude-modulation mode-locked Tm–Ho:BaY2F8 laser at 2.06 μm,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2085–2087 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

Lei, M.

L. Zhang, M. Lei, Y. Wang, J. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Liu, “Crystal growth and spectral properties of Yb3+:KY(WO4)2,” J. Rare Earths 24(1), 125–128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lemons, M. L.

Li, J.

L. Zhang, M. Lei, Y. Wang, J. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Liu, “Crystal growth and spectral properties of Yb3+:KY(WO4)2,” J. Rare Earths 24(1), 125–128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lipovskii, A. A.

Liu, J.

L. Zhang, M. Lei, Y. Wang, J. Li, Y. Wang, and J. Liu, “Crystal growth and spectral properties of Yb3+:KY(WO4)2,” J. Rare Earths 24(1), 125–128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lobach, A. S.

Longhi, S.

Luo, T.

Malyarevich, A. M.

Marano, M.

Masselink, W. T.

N. Georgiev, T. Dekorsy, F. Eichhorn, M. Helm, M. Semtsiv, and W. T. Masselink, “Short-wavelength intersubband absorption in strain compensated InGaAs/AlAs quantum well structures grown on InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 210–213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mateos, X.

Miller, C. A.

Morgner, U.

Mosto, J. R.

Mozume, T.

T. Akiyama, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, H. Yoshida, A. V. Gopal, and O. Wada, “1.55-μm picosecond all-optical switching by using intersubband absorption in InGaAs-AlAs-AlAsSb coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 495–497 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

Neuhaus, J.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, M. Priegnitz, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Inefficiency of intervalley transfer in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(1), 229–231 (2008) (c).
[CrossRef]

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Obraztsova, E. D.

Ohser, S.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, M. Priegnitz, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Inefficiency of intervalley transfer in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(1), 229–231 (2008) (c).
[CrossRef]

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Tunable Raman Soliton Source Using Mode-Locked Tm–Ho Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 934–936 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, N.

Petrov, V.

Pinto, J. F.

Pomeranz, L. A.

Priegnitz, M.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, M. Priegnitz, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Inefficiency of intervalley transfer in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(1), 229–231 (2008) (c).
[CrossRef]

Pujol, M. C.

Rosenblatt, G. H.

Rotermund, F.

Ruehl, A.

Sani, E.

Schepler, K. L.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and K. L. Schepler, “Mode locking of room-temperature cw thulium and holmium lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1161–1163 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A.

Schneider, H.

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, M. Priegnitz, S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Inefficiency of intervalley transfer in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(1), 229–231 (2008) (c).
[CrossRef]

C. V.-B. Tribuzy, S. Ohser, S. Winnerl, J. Grenzer, H. Schneider, M. Helm, J. Neuhaus, T. Dekorsy, K. Biermann, and H. Künzel, “Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy of intersubband relaxation dynamics in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semtsiv, M.

N. Georgiev, T. Dekorsy, F. Eichhorn, M. Helm, M. Semtsiv, and W. T. Masselink, “Short-wavelength intersubband absorption in strain compensated InGaAs/AlAs quantum well structures grown on InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 210–213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, R. C.

Shohda, F.

Sibbett, W.

Skoptsov, N. A.

Solodyankin, M. A.

Spock, D. E.

Steinmeyer, G.

Stoneman, R. C.

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Efficient 1.94-µm Tm:YALO laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 78–81 (1995).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Static transmission spectrum of In0.53Ga0.47As/Al0.53As0.47Sb MQWs. Inset: Growth structure of In0.53Ga0.47As/Al0.53As0.47Sb MQWs

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the passively mode-locked Tm,Ho:YAG laser. SA: saturable absorber; OC: output coupler

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The average output power versus absorbed pump power for different output couplers

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RF spectrum of continuous wave mode-locked Tm,Ho:YAG laser. RBW: resolution bandwidth.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power transfer characteristics of the mode-locked Tm,Ho:YAG laser with output coupler of T = 2%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Envelope of the collinear autocorrelation intensity trace and spectrum of continuous wave mode-locked Tm,Ho:YAG laser

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