Abstract

Edge emitting, terahertz quantum cascade photonic-wire lasers, based on a third order Bragg grating are presented. Devices with a power consumption as low as 300mW, with a single frequency output power of more than 1.5mW are demonstrated. Their maximum operating temperature in continuous-wave mode operation is 110K and the emission is concentrated in a narrow beam (~30° divergence). Larger structure based on the same design show more than 10mW output power and more than 200mW/A slope efficiency at 10K continuous-wave operation.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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  6. S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. D. Martin, S. Forouhar, S. Kea, R. J. Lang, R. G. Hunsperger, R. Tiberio, and P. F. Chapman, “CW performance of an InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) ridge laser diode,” Photonn Technoln Lett IEEE 7(3), 244–246 (1995).
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2010

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Graded photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. Aitchison, R. D. L. Rue, and M. Gnan, “A Photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lin_eld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic crystal terahertz semiconductor lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” N. J. Phys. 11(12), 125022b (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Tuning a terahertz wire laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 732–737 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Photonic Wire Waveguide Devices,” Sel. Top. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1371–1379 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2002

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3060–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Martin, S. Forouhar, S. Kea, R. J. Lang, R. G. Hunsperger, R. Tiberio, and P. F. Chapman, “CW performance of an InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) ridge laser diode,” Photonn Technoln Lett IEEE 7(3), 244–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aitchison, J.

A. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. Aitchison, R. D. L. Rue, and M. Gnan, “A Photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Amanti, M. I.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” N. J. Phys. 11(12), 125022b (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Photonic Wire Waveguide Devices,” Sel. Top. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1371–1379 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Graded photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lin_eld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic crystal terahertz semiconductor lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” N. J. Phys. 11(12), 125022b (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lin_eld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic crystal terahertz semiconductor lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkin, M. A.

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bi, W. G.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3242–3248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3060–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, P. F.

R. D. Martin, S. Forouhar, S. Kea, R. J. Lang, R. G. Hunsperger, R. Tiberio, and P. F. Chapman, “CW performance of an InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) ridge laser diode,” Photonn Technoln Lett IEEE 7(3), 244–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chassagneux, Y.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Graded photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lin_eld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic crystal terahertz semiconductor lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3060–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, D. Y.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, T.

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Photonic Wire Waveguide Devices,” Sel. Top. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1371–1379 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Graded photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lin_eld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic crystal terahertz semiconductor lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3060–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Graded photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3242–3248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, G. A.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lin_eld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic crystal terahertz semiconductor lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dou, J.

A. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. Aitchison, R. D. L. Rue, and M. Gnan, “A Photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” N. J. Phys. 11(12), 125022b (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. A.

Fischer, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” N. J. Phys. 11(12), 125022b (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Forouhar, S.

R. D. Martin, S. Forouhar, S. Kea, R. J. Lang, R. G. Hunsperger, R. Tiberio, and P. F. Chapman, “CW performance of an InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) ridge laser diode,” Photonn Technoln Lett IEEE 7(3), 244–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gallo, P.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” N. J. Phys. 11(12), 125022b (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3060–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gnan, M.

A. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. Aitchison, R. D. L. Rue, and M. Gnan, “A Photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hormoz, S.

Hovenier, J. N.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Q.

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Tuning a terahertz wire laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 732–737 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2909–2911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huand, Q.

Hunsperger, R. G.

R. D. Martin, S. Forouhar, S. Kea, R. J. Lang, R. G. Hunsperger, R. Tiberio, and P. F. Chapman, “CW performance of an InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) ridge laser diode,” Photonn Technoln Lett IEEE 7(3), 244–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. Y.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3060–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishida, S.

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Photonic Wire Waveguide Devices,” Sel. Top. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1371–1379 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jugessur, A.

A. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. Aitchison, R. D. L. Rue, and M. Gnan, “A Photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kapon, E.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” N. J. Phys. 11(12), 125022b (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasalynas, I.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kea, S.

R. D. Martin, S. Forouhar, S. Kea, R. J. Lang, R. G. Hunsperger, R. Tiberio, and P. F. Chapman, “CW performance of an InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) ridge laser diode,” Photonn Technoln Lett IEEE 7(3), 244–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. P.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Graded photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lin_eld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic crystal terahertz semiconductor lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3242–3248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klaassen, T. O.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klapwijk, T. M.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

Lachab, M.

Lang, R. J.

R. D. Martin, S. Forouhar, S. Kea, R. J. Lang, R. G. Hunsperger, R. Tiberio, and P. F. Chapman, “CW performance of an InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) ridge laser diode,” Photonn Technoln Lett IEEE 7(3), 244–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. W.

Lin_eld, E. H.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lin_eld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic crystal terahertz semiconductor lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Graded photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, S. Hormoz, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with copper metal-metal waveguides operating up to 178 K,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3242–3248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maineult, W.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Graded photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lin_eld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic crystal terahertz semiconductor lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, R. D.

R. D. Martin, S. Forouhar, S. Kea, R. J. Lang, R. G. Hunsperger, R. Tiberio, and P. F. Chapman, “CW performance of an InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) ridge laser diode,” Photonn Technoln Lett IEEE 7(3), 244–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Orlova, E. E.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, Q.

Reno, J. L.

Ritchie, D.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lin_eld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic crystal terahertz semiconductor lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudra, A.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” N. J. Phys. 11(12), 125022b (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rue, R. D. L.

A. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. Aitchison, R. D. L. Rue, and M. Gnan, “A Photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” N. J. Phys. 11(12), 125022b (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sergent, A. M.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3060–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3060–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terazzi, R.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” N. J. Phys. 11(12), 125022b (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tiberio, R.

R. D. Martin, S. Forouhar, S. Kea, R. J. Lang, R. G. Hunsperger, R. Tiberio, and P. F. Chapman, “CW performance of an InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) ridge laser diode,” Photonn Technoln Lett IEEE 7(3), 244–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tiberio, R. C.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, C. W.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterrainer, K.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3060–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walther, C.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

Wu, S. L.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Photonic Wire Waveguide Devices,” Sel. Top. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1371–1379 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. P.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Graded photonic crystal terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3060–3062 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

G. Scalari, C. Walther, M. Fischer, R. Terazzi, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and J. Faist, “THz and sub-THz quantum cascade lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 45–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

A. Jugessur, J. Dou, J. Aitchison, R. D. L. Rue, and M. Gnan, “A Photonic nano-Bragg grating device integrated with microfluidic channels for bio-sensing applications,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 1488–1490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” N. J. Phys. 11(12), 125022b (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Tuning a terahertz wire laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 732–737 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lin_eld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic crystal terahertz semiconductor lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photonn Technoln Lett IEEE

R. D. Martin, S. Forouhar, S. Kea, R. J. Lang, R. G. Hunsperger, R. Tiberio, and P. F. Chapman, “CW performance of an InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) ridge laser diode,” Photonn Technoln Lett IEEE 7(3), 244–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sel. Top. IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. Yamada, T. Chu, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Si Photonic Wire Waveguide Devices,” Sel. Top. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1371–1379 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory (Wiley – Interscience, 2005)

S. J. Orfanidis, Electromagnetic waves and antennas http://www.ece.rutgers.edu/ ~orfanidi/ewa/, (2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of waveguides emitting from the facet and from the surface along the arrows direction. Calculated beam divergence in the case of the emission along the blue arrows (diffraction limit) and along the red arrow (phased array).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) SEM photo of the device. Light-Voltage-Current characteristic in pulsed (a) and continous-wave operation (b) for a waveguide 15μm/5μm for the wide/narrow part.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between calculated (left side) and measured (right side) beam pattern for different waveguide widths and lengths. First line: 15μm/5μm wide, 10 periods long waveguide. Second line: 15μm/5μm wide, 15 periods long waveguide. Third line: 50μm/16μm wide, 15 periods long waveguide. Inset: schematic of the angles notation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) SEM photo of the device b) Light-Voltage-Current characteristic in continuous-wave operation for a waveguide of 50μm/15μm for the wide/narrow part. c) Tuning of the laser frequency with the grating period going from 35μm to 43μm.

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