Abstract

We have designed and grown triply doped LiNbO3:Zr,Cu,Ce crystal and investigated its characteristics of nonvolatile holographic storage. It’s observed that the photorefractive sensitivity of LiNbO3:Zr,Cu,Ce has improved to 0.099 cm/J, which is about one order of magnitude larger than that of congruent LiNbO3:Cu,Ce. And LiNbO3:Zr,Cu,Ce also has high suppression to light-induced scattering. Our results indicated that triply doped LiNbO3:Zr,Cu,Ce is an excellent candidate for nonvolatile holographic data storage.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, “Nonvolatile Holographic Storage with Two-Step Recording in Lithium Niobate using cw Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(15), 2944–2947 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Lee, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, “Quasinondestructive holographic recording in photochromic LiNbO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(5), 875–878 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Fäcke, “Holographic data storage: coming of age,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 403–405 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, “Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(12), 540–542 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(2), 79–81 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, “Multiphoton photorefractive processes for optical storage in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 155–157 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. C. Külich, “A new approach to read volume holograms at different wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 64(5), 407–411 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Psaltis, K. Buse, and A. Adibi, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393(6686), 665–668 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, and L. Xu, “Nonvolatile photorefractive holograms in LiNbO3:Cu:Ce crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(12), 908–910 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Vitova, J. Hormes, K. Peithmann, and T. Woike;, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of valence and site occupation of copper in LiNbO3:Cu,” Phys. Rev. B 77(14), 144103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, “Investigations of the charge transfer and the photosensitivity in single and double doped LiNbO3 single crystals: an optical-electron paramagnetic resonance study: I,” Proc. SPIE 3137, 63–74 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Li, Y. Kong, Y. Wang, L. Wang, F. Liu, H. Liu, Y. An, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Nonvolatile holographic storage of near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:Cu:Ce with green light,” Appl. Opt. 46(31), 7620–7624 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe,Mg crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2529, 14–17 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fast photorefractive response and high sensitivity of Zr and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Kong, F. Liu, T. Tian, S. Liu, S. Chen, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Fast responsive non-volatile holographic storage in LiNbO3 triply doped Zr, Fe, and Mn,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3896–3898 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, T. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, “Holographic light scattering in photorefractive crystals with local response,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195111 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. Q. Dong, L. Liu, D. Liu, C. Dai, and L. Ren, “Effect of dopant composition ratio on nonvolatile holographic recording in LiNbO3:Cu:Ce crystals,” Appl. Opt. 43(26), 5016–5022 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, L. Ren, and G. Li, “Nonvolatile holograms in LiNbO3:Fe:Cu by use of the bleaching effect,” Appl. Opt. 41(32), 6809–6814 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. Zheng, Q. Gui, and Y. Xu, “Defect structure and optical fixing holographic storage of Mg:Mn:Fe:LiNb3 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(5), 526–530 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, “Effect of annealing in two-center holographic recording,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(25), 3767–3769 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Liu, L. Liu, D. Liu, L. Xu, and C. Zhou, “Intensity dependence of two-center nonvolatile holographic recording in LiNbO3:Cu:Ce crystals,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 339–343 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. O. Momtahan, G. H. Cadena, and A. Adibi, “Sensitivity variation in two-center holographic recording,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2709–2711 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wohlecke, “Defects in LiNbO3-I: experimental aspects,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52(1), 185–200 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

T. Vitova, J. Hormes, K. Peithmann, and T. Woike;, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of valence and site occupation of copper in LiNbO3:Cu,” Phys. Rev. B 77(14), 144103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Fäcke, “Holographic data storage: coming of age,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 403–405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Zheng, Q. Gui, and Y. Xu, “Defect structure and optical fixing holographic storage of Mg:Mn:Fe:LiNb3 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(5), 526–530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fast photorefractive response and high sensitivity of Zr and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

D. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, L. Ren, and G. Li, “Nonvolatile holograms in LiNbO3:Fe:Cu by use of the bleaching effect,” Appl. Opt. 41(32), 6809–6814 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, T. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, “Holographic light scattering in photorefractive crystals with local response,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Liu, L. Liu, D. Liu, L. Xu, and C. Zhou, “Intensity dependence of two-center nonvolatile holographic recording in LiNbO3:Cu:Ce crystals,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 339–343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

1999 (1)

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, “Effect of annealing in two-center holographic recording,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(25), 3767–3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, K. Buse, and A. Adibi, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393(6686), 665–668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, “Investigations of the charge transfer and the photosensitivity in single and double doped LiNbO3 single crystals: an optical-electron paramagnetic resonance study: I,” Proc. SPIE 3137, 63–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, “Nonvolatile Holographic Storage with Two-Step Recording in Lithium Niobate using cw Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(15), 2944–2947 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe,Mg crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wohlecke, “Defects in LiNbO3-I: experimental aspects,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52(1), 185–200 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

H. C. Külich, “A new approach to read volume holograms at different wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 64(5), 407–411 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, “Multiphoton photorefractive processes for optical storage in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 155–157 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(2), 79–81 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, “Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(12), 540–542 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

O. Momtahan, G. H. Cadena, and A. Adibi, “Sensitivity variation in two-center holographic recording,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2709–2711 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, “Sensitivity improvement in two-center holographic recording,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 539–541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, “Effect of annealing in two-center holographic recording,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(25), 3767–3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, K. Buse, and A. Adibi, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393(6686), 665–668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, M. D.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, “Investigations of the charge transfer and the photosensitivity in single and double doped LiNbO3 single crystals: an optical-electron paramagnetic resonance study: I,” Proc. SPIE 3137, 63–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akella, A.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amodei, J. J.

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, “Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(12), 540–542 (1971).
[CrossRef]

An, Y.

Bai, Y. S.

Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, “Nonvolatile Holographic Storage with Two-Step Recording in Lithium Niobate using cw Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(15), 2944–2947 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P. P.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, “Investigations of the charge transfer and the photosensitivity in single and double doped LiNbO3 single crystals: an optical-electron paramagnetic resonance study: I,” Proc. SPIE 3137, 63–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bäumer, C.

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, T. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, “Holographic light scattering in photorefractive crystals with local response,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bismuth, G.

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(2), 79–81 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, “Sensitivity improvement in two-center holographic recording,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 539–541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, “Effect of annealing in two-center holographic recording,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(25), 3767–3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, K. Buse, and A. Adibi, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393(6686), 665–668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cadena, G. H.

Chen, S.

Choi, J.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, “Investigations of the charge transfer and the photosensitivity in single and double doped LiNbO3 single crystals: an optical-electron paramagnetic resonance study: I,” Proc. SPIE 3137, 63–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, K.

L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Fäcke, “Holographic data storage: coming of age,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 403–405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, C.

Darwish, A.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, “Investigations of the charge transfer and the photosensitivity in single and double doped LiNbO3 single crystals: an optical-electron paramagnetic resonance study: I,” Proc. SPIE 3137, 63–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, L.

L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Fäcke, “Holographic data storage: coming of age,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 403–405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Q.

Fäcke, T.

L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Fäcke, “Holographic data storage: coming of age,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 403–405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe,Mg crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, Y.

M. Lee, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, “Quasinondestructive holographic recording in photochromic LiNbO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(5), 875–878 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glass, A. M.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, “Multiphoton photorefractive processes for optical storage in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 155–157 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Goulkov, M.

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, T. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, “Holographic light scattering in photorefractive crystals with local response,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gui, Q.

W. Zheng, Q. Gui, and Y. Xu, “Defect structure and optical fixing holographic storage of Mg:Mn:Fe:LiNb3 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(5), 526–530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hatano, H.

M. Lee, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, “Quasinondestructive holographic recording in photochromic LiNbO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(5), 875–878 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesse, H.

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, T. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, “Holographic light scattering in photorefractive crystals with local response,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hormes, J.

T. Vitova, J. Hormes, K. Peithmann, and T. Woike;, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of valence and site occupation of copper in LiNbO3:Cu,” Phys. Rev. B 77(14), 144103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, T. D.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, “Investigations of the charge transfer and the photosensitivity in single and double doped LiNbO3 single crystals: an optical-electron paramagnetic resonance study: I,” Proc. SPIE 3137, 63–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Imbrock, J.

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, T. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, “Holographic light scattering in photorefractive crystals with local response,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Imlau, M.

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, T. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, “Holographic light scattering in photorefractive crystals with local response,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kachru, R.

Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, “Nonvolatile Holographic Storage with Two-Step Recording in Lithium Niobate using cw Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(15), 2944–2947 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

M. Lee, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, “Quasinondestructive holographic recording in photochromic LiNbO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(5), 875–878 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, Y.

Krätzig, E.

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, T. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, “Holographic light scattering in photorefractive crystals with local response,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Külich, H. C.

H. C. Külich, “A new approach to read volume holograms at different wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 64(5), 407–411 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lande, D.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, “Quasinondestructive holographic recording in photochromic LiNbO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(5), 875–878 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

Li, X.

Liu, A.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

Liu, F.

Liu, H.

Liu, L.

Liu, S.

Y. Kong, F. Liu, T. Tian, S. Liu, S. Chen, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Fast responsive non-volatile holographic storage in LiNbO3 triply doped Zr, Fe, and Mn,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3896–3898 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Wu, S. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fast photorefractive response and high sensitivity of Zr and Fe codoped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe,Mg crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. Liu, D. Liu, L. Xu, and C. Zhou, “Intensity dependence of two-center nonvolatile holographic recording in LiNbO3:Cu:Ce crystals,” Opt. Commun. 190(1-6), 339–343 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Liu, C. Zhou, and L. Xu, “Nonvolatile photorefractive holograms in LiNbO3:Cu:Ce crystals,” Opt. Lett. 25(12), 908–910 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ma, C.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe,Mg crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, D.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, “Investigations of the charge transfer and the photosensitivity in single and double doped LiNbO3 single crystals: an optical-electron paramagnetic resonance study: I,” Proc. SPIE 3137, 63–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Micheron, F.

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(2), 79–81 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Momtahan, O.

Mortis, J.

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, “Investigations of the charge transfer and the photosensitivity in single and double doped LiNbO3 single crystals: an optical-electron paramagnetic resonance study: I,” Proc. SPIE 3137, 63–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odoulov, S.

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, T. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, “Holographic light scattering in photorefractive crystals with local response,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Orlov, S. S.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peithmann, K.

T. Vitova, J. Hormes, K. Peithmann, and T. Woike;, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of valence and site occupation of copper in LiNbO3:Cu,” Phys. Rev. B 77(14), 144103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, “Sensitivity improvement in two-center holographic recording,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 539–541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Adibi, K. Buse, and D. Psaltis, “Effect of annealing in two-center holographic recording,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(25), 3767–3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, K. Buse, and A. Adibi, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393(6686), 665–668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, L.

Rodgers, K. F.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rodgers, “Multiphoton photorefractive processes for optical storage in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(3), 155–157 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, R.

Schirmer, O. F.

O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wohlecke, “Defects in LiNbO3-I: experimental aspects,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52(1), 185–200 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Staebler, D. L.

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, “Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(12), 540–542 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe,Mg crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takekawa, S.

M. Lee, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, “Quasinondestructive holographic recording in photochromic LiNbO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(5), 875–878 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiemann, O.

O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wohlecke, “Defects in LiNbO3-I: experimental aspects,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52(1), 185–200 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tian, T.

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Appl. Opt. (3)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

W. Zheng, Q. Gui, and Y. Xu, “Defect structure and optical fixing holographic storage of Mg:Mn:Fe:LiNb3 crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(5), 526–530 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

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L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Fäcke, “Holographic data storage: coming of age,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 403–405 (2008).
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Nature (1)

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Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Goulkov, S. Odoulov, T. Woike, J. Imbrock, M. Imlau, E. Krätzig, C. Bäumer, and H. Hesse, “Holographic light scattering in photorefractive crystals with local response,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Vitova, J. Hormes, K. Peithmann, and T. Woike;, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of valence and site occupation of copper in LiNbO3:Cu,” Phys. Rev. B 77(14), 144103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, “Nonvolatile Holographic Storage with Two-Step Recording in Lithium Niobate using cw Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(15), 2944–2947 (1997).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Darwish, M. D. Aggarwal, J. Mortis, J. Choi, J. C. Wang, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Willimas, P. P. Banerjee, D. McMillen, and T. D. Hudson, “Investigations of the charge transfer and the photosensitivity in single and double doped LiNbO3 single crystals: an optical-electron paramagnetic resonance study: I,” Proc. SPIE 3137, 63–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Liu, Q. Sun, G. Zhang, Q. Fang, and C. Ma, “Study of resistance against photorefractive light-induced scattering in LiNbO3:Fe,Mg crystals,” Proc. SPIE 2529, 14–17 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282(5391), 1089–1094 (1998).
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P. Günter, and J.-P. Huignard, Photorefractive materials and their applications 1: Basic Effects, (Springer, Berlin, 2005).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nonvolatile holographic recording and readout characteristics of LiNbO3:Zr,Cu,Ce with UV(intensity 40 mW/cm2)-green(intensity 400 mW/cm2) light scheme. 1: Recording process; 2: Readout process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement for measuring light-induced scattering. BS, Beam Splitter; S, Screen; D1,D2, Detector; C, Crystal; NF, Neutral density Filter; R, Reference beam; P, Pump beam; PC, Personal Computer

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical time dependence of the 532 nm transmitted light through LiNbO3:Zr,Cu,Ce.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The light intensity dependence of the measured light-induced scattering in the samples of triply doped LiNbO3 crystals. The lines are guides to the eyes.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The sensitivity of several LiNbO3 doped with different impurities for nonvolatile holographic storage.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Two-color holographic recording results with different Oxidation Times (OT) and green light intensities. 13h, 24h means oxidized in air for 13 h, 24 h respectively.

Equations (2)

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S = 1 I r e c L η t | t = 0
S ' = β S = β 1 I r e c L η t | t = 0

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