Abstract

Small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) in total LDL is strongly related with the cardiovascular risk level. An optical technique using dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement is useful for point-of-care testing of sdLDL. However, the sdLDL fraction estimated from the particle size distribution in DLS data is sensitive to noise and artifacts. Therefore, we derived analytical solutions in a closed form to estimate the fraction of scatterers using the autocorrelation function of scattered light from a polydisperse solution. The effect of the undesired large particles can be eliminated by the pre-processing of the autocorrelation function. The proposed technique was verified using latex standard particles and LDL solutions. Results suggest the feasibility of this technique to estimate the sdLDL fraction using optical scattering measurements.

© 2010 OSA

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  2. S. Akita, F. M. Sacks, L. P. Svetkey, P. R. Conlin, G. Kimura, and DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group, “Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on the pressure-natriuresis relationship,” Hypertension 42(1), 8–13 (2003).
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  4. J. B. German, J. T. Smilowitz, and A. M. Zivkovic, “Lipoproteins: When size really matters,” Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 11(2–3), 171–183 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. Wang, H. M. Wang, Q. H. Jin, H. Cong, G. S. Zhuang, J. L. Zhao, C. L. Sun, H. W. Song, and W. Wang, “Microchip-based small, dense low-density lipoproteins assay for coronary heart disease risk assessment,” Electrophoresis 29(9), 1932–1941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Rasteiro, C. C. Lemos, and A. Vasquez, “Nanoparticle characterization by PCS: The analysis of bimodal distributions,” Particul. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 413–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. A. Chouinard, A. Khalil, and P. Vermette, “Method of imaging low density lipoproteins by atomic force microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(10), 904–907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

P. A. Hassan and S. K. Kulshreshtha, “Modification to the cumulant analysis of polydispersity in quasielastic light scattering data,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 300(2), 744–748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shibayama, T. Karino, and S. Okabe, “Distribution analyses of multi-modal dynamic light scattering data,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(18), 6446–6456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. German, J. T. Smilowitz, and A. M. Zivkovic, “Lipoproteins: When size really matters,” Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 11(2–3), 171–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ensign, N. Hill, and C. B. Heward, “Disparate LDL phenotypic classification among 4 different methods assessing LDL particle characteristics,” Clin. Chem. 52(9), 1722–1727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Rizzo and K. Berneis, “Low-density lipoprotein size and cardiovascular risk assessment,” QJM 99(1), 1–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Y. Hirowatari, H. Yoshida, H. Kurosawa, K. I. Doumitu, and N. Tada, “Measurement of cholesterol of major serum lipoprotein classes by anion-exchange HPLC with perchlorate ion-containing eluent,” J. Lipid Res. 44(7), 1404–1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akita, F. M. Sacks, L. P. Svetkey, P. R. Conlin, G. Kimura, and DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group, “Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on the pressure-natriuresis relationship,” Hypertension 42(1), 8–13 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Sacks and H. Campos, “Clinical review 163: Cardiovascular endocrinology: Low-density lipoprotein size and cardiovascular disease: a reappraisal,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88(10), 4525–4532 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hirano, Y. Ito, H. Saegusa, and G. Yoshino, “A novel and simple method for quantification of small, dense LDL,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2193–2201 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Vega, L. M. Gugliotta, V. D. G. Gonzalez, and G. R. Meira, “Latex particle size distribution by dynamic light scattering: novel data processing for multiangle measurements,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 261(1), 74–81 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Frantzen, L. Ingebrigtsen, M. Skar, and M. Brandl, “Assessing the accuracy of routine photon correlation spectroscopy analysis of heterogeneous size distributions,” AAPS PharmSciTech 4(3), 62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Gun’ko, A. V. Klyueva, Y. N. Levchuk, and R. Leboda, “Photon correlation spectroscopy investigations of proteins,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 105(1-3), 201–328 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Schneider and T. F. McKenna, “Comparative study of methods for the measurement of particle size and size distribution of polymeric emulsions,” Part. Part. Syst. Char. 19(1), 28–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Lomakin, G. B. Benedek, and D. B. Teplow, “Monitoring protein assembly using quasielastic light scattering spectroscopy,” Methods Enzymol. 309, 429–459 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

D. O’Neal, P. Harrip, G. Dragicevic, D. Rae, and J. D. Best, “A comparison of LDL size determination using gradient gel electrophoresis and light-scattering methods,” J. Lipid Res. 39(10), 2086–2090 (1998).
[PubMed]

H. Ruf and B. J. Gould, “Size distributions of chylomicrons from human lymph from dynamic light scattering measurements,” Eur. Biophys. J. Biophy. 28(1), 1–11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

F. Gonzalez, J. M. Saiz, F. Moreno, and P. J. Valle, “Application of a Laplace Transform Method to Binary-Mixtures of Spherical-Particles in Solution for Low Scattered Intensity,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 357–361 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Campos, E. Blijlevens, J. R. McNamara, J. M. Ordovas, B. M. Posner, P. W. Wilson, W. P. Castelli, and E. J. Schaefer, “LDL particle size distribution. Results from the Framingham Offspring Study,” Arterioscler. Thromb. 12(12), 1410–1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

R. S. Stock and W. H. Ray, “Interpretation of photon correlation spectroscopy data: A comparison of analysis methods,” J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 23(7), 1393–1447 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

Akita, S.

S. Akita, F. M. Sacks, L. P. Svetkey, P. R. Conlin, G. Kimura, and DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group, “Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on the pressure-natriuresis relationship,” Hypertension 42(1), 8–13 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedek, G. B.

A. Lomakin, G. B. Benedek, and D. B. Teplow, “Monitoring protein assembly using quasielastic light scattering spectroscopy,” Methods Enzymol. 309, 429–459 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berneis, K.

M. Rizzo and K. Berneis, “Low-density lipoprotein size and cardiovascular risk assessment,” QJM 99(1), 1–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best, J. D.

D. O’Neal, P. Harrip, G. Dragicevic, D. Rae, and J. D. Best, “A comparison of LDL size determination using gradient gel electrophoresis and light-scattering methods,” J. Lipid Res. 39(10), 2086–2090 (1998).
[PubMed]

Blijlevens, E.

H. Campos, E. Blijlevens, J. R. McNamara, J. M. Ordovas, B. M. Posner, P. W. Wilson, W. P. Castelli, and E. J. Schaefer, “LDL particle size distribution. Results from the Framingham Offspring Study,” Arterioscler. Thromb. 12(12), 1410–1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandl, M.

C. B. Frantzen, L. Ingebrigtsen, M. Skar, and M. Brandl, “Assessing the accuracy of routine photon correlation spectroscopy analysis of heterogeneous size distributions,” AAPS PharmSciTech 4(3), 62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cagigal, M. P.

Campos, H.

F. M. Sacks and H. Campos, “Clinical review 163: Cardiovascular endocrinology: Low-density lipoprotein size and cardiovascular disease: a reappraisal,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88(10), 4525–4532 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Campos, E. Blijlevens, J. R. McNamara, J. M. Ordovas, B. M. Posner, P. W. Wilson, W. P. Castelli, and E. J. Schaefer, “LDL particle size distribution. Results from the Framingham Offspring Study,” Arterioscler. Thromb. 12(12), 1410–1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castelli, W. P.

H. Campos, E. Blijlevens, J. R. McNamara, J. M. Ordovas, B. M. Posner, P. W. Wilson, W. P. Castelli, and E. J. Schaefer, “LDL particle size distribution. Results from the Framingham Offspring Study,” Arterioscler. Thromb. 12(12), 1410–1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chouinard, J. A.

J. A. Chouinard, A. Khalil, and P. Vermette, “Method of imaging low density lipoproteins by atomic force microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(10), 904–907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cong, H.

H. Wang, H. M. Wang, Q. H. Jin, H. Cong, G. S. Zhuang, J. L. Zhao, C. L. Sun, H. W. Song, and W. Wang, “Microchip-based small, dense low-density lipoproteins assay for coronary heart disease risk assessment,” Electrophoresis 29(9), 1932–1941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conlin, P. R.

S. Akita, F. M. Sacks, L. P. Svetkey, P. R. Conlin, G. Kimura, and DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group, “Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on the pressure-natriuresis relationship,” Hypertension 42(1), 8–13 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doumitu, K. I.

Y. Hirowatari, H. Yoshida, H. Kurosawa, K. I. Doumitu, and N. Tada, “Measurement of cholesterol of major serum lipoprotein classes by anion-exchange HPLC with perchlorate ion-containing eluent,” J. Lipid Res. 44(7), 1404–1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dragicevic, G.

D. O’Neal, P. Harrip, G. Dragicevic, D. Rae, and J. D. Best, “A comparison of LDL size determination using gradient gel electrophoresis and light-scattering methods,” J. Lipid Res. 39(10), 2086–2090 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ensign, W.

W. Ensign, N. Hill, and C. B. Heward, “Disparate LDL phenotypic classification among 4 different methods assessing LDL particle characteristics,” Clin. Chem. 52(9), 1722–1727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flamberg, A.

A. Flamberg and R. Pecora, “Dynamic Light-Scattering Study of Micelles in a High Ionic-Strength Solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 88(14), 3026–3033 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Frantzen, C. B.

C. B. Frantzen, L. Ingebrigtsen, M. Skar, and M. Brandl, “Assessing the accuracy of routine photon correlation spectroscopy analysis of heterogeneous size distributions,” AAPS PharmSciTech 4(3), 62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

German, J. B.

J. B. German, J. T. Smilowitz, and A. M. Zivkovic, “Lipoproteins: When size really matters,” Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 11(2–3), 171–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, F.

F. Gonzalez, J. M. Saiz, F. Moreno, and P. J. Valle, “Application of a Laplace Transform Method to Binary-Mixtures of Spherical-Particles in Solution for Low Scattered Intensity,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 357–361 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, V. D. G.

J. R. Vega, L. M. Gugliotta, V. D. G. Gonzalez, and G. R. Meira, “Latex particle size distribution by dynamic light scattering: novel data processing for multiangle measurements,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 261(1), 74–81 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, B. J.

H. Ruf and B. J. Gould, “Size distributions of chylomicrons from human lymph from dynamic light scattering measurements,” Eur. Biophys. J. Biophy. 28(1), 1–11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gugliotta, L. M.

J. R. Vega, L. M. Gugliotta, V. D. G. Gonzalez, and G. R. Meira, “Latex particle size distribution by dynamic light scattering: novel data processing for multiangle measurements,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 261(1), 74–81 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gun’ko, V. M.

V. M. Gun’ko, A. V. Klyueva, Y. N. Levchuk, and R. Leboda, “Photon correlation spectroscopy investigations of proteins,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 105(1-3), 201–328 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrip, P.

D. O’Neal, P. Harrip, G. Dragicevic, D. Rae, and J. D. Best, “A comparison of LDL size determination using gradient gel electrophoresis and light-scattering methods,” J. Lipid Res. 39(10), 2086–2090 (1998).
[PubMed]

Hassan, P. A.

P. A. Hassan and S. K. Kulshreshtha, “Modification to the cumulant analysis of polydispersity in quasielastic light scattering data,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 300(2), 744–748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heward, C. B.

W. Ensign, N. Hill, and C. B. Heward, “Disparate LDL phenotypic classification among 4 different methods assessing LDL particle characteristics,” Clin. Chem. 52(9), 1722–1727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, N.

W. Ensign, N. Hill, and C. B. Heward, “Disparate LDL phenotypic classification among 4 different methods assessing LDL particle characteristics,” Clin. Chem. 52(9), 1722–1727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirano, T.

T. Hirano, Y. Ito, H. Saegusa, and G. Yoshino, “A novel and simple method for quantification of small, dense LDL,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2193–2201 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirowatari, Y.

Y. Hirowatari, H. Yoshida, H. Kurosawa, K. I. Doumitu, and N. Tada, “Measurement of cholesterol of major serum lipoprotein classes by anion-exchange HPLC with perchlorate ion-containing eluent,” J. Lipid Res. 44(7), 1404–1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingebrigtsen, L.

C. B. Frantzen, L. Ingebrigtsen, M. Skar, and M. Brandl, “Assessing the accuracy of routine photon correlation spectroscopy analysis of heterogeneous size distributions,” AAPS PharmSciTech 4(3), 62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ito, Y.

T. Hirano, Y. Ito, H. Saegusa, and G. Yoshino, “A novel and simple method for quantification of small, dense LDL,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2193–2201 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, Q. H.

H. Wang, H. M. Wang, Q. H. Jin, H. Cong, G. S. Zhuang, J. L. Zhao, C. L. Sun, H. W. Song, and W. Wang, “Microchip-based small, dense low-density lipoproteins assay for coronary heart disease risk assessment,” Electrophoresis 29(9), 1932–1941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karino, T.

M. Shibayama, T. Karino, and S. Okabe, “Distribution analyses of multi-modal dynamic light scattering data,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(18), 6446–6456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khalil, A.

J. A. Chouinard, A. Khalil, and P. Vermette, “Method of imaging low density lipoproteins by atomic force microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(10), 904–907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, G.

S. Akita, F. M. Sacks, L. P. Svetkey, P. R. Conlin, G. Kimura, and DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group, “Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on the pressure-natriuresis relationship,” Hypertension 42(1), 8–13 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klyueva, A. V.

V. M. Gun’ko, A. V. Klyueva, Y. N. Levchuk, and R. Leboda, “Photon correlation spectroscopy investigations of proteins,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 105(1-3), 201–328 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulshreshtha, S. K.

P. A. Hassan and S. K. Kulshreshtha, “Modification to the cumulant analysis of polydispersity in quasielastic light scattering data,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 300(2), 744–748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurosawa, H.

Y. Hirowatari, H. Yoshida, H. Kurosawa, K. I. Doumitu, and N. Tada, “Measurement of cholesterol of major serum lipoprotein classes by anion-exchange HPLC with perchlorate ion-containing eluent,” J. Lipid Res. 44(7), 1404–1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leboda, R.

V. M. Gun’ko, A. V. Klyueva, Y. N. Levchuk, and R. Leboda, “Photon correlation spectroscopy investigations of proteins,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 105(1-3), 201–328 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemos, C. C.

M. G. Rasteiro, C. C. Lemos, and A. Vasquez, “Nanoparticle characterization by PCS: The analysis of bimodal distributions,” Particul. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 413–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Levchuk, Y. N.

V. M. Gun’ko, A. V. Klyueva, Y. N. Levchuk, and R. Leboda, “Photon correlation spectroscopy investigations of proteins,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 105(1-3), 201–328 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomakin, A.

A. Lomakin, G. B. Benedek, and D. B. Teplow, “Monitoring protein assembly using quasielastic light scattering spectroscopy,” Methods Enzymol. 309, 429–459 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKenna, T. F.

M. Schneider and T. F. McKenna, “Comparative study of methods for the measurement of particle size and size distribution of polymeric emulsions,” Part. Part. Syst. Char. 19(1), 28–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McNamara, J. R.

H. Campos, E. Blijlevens, J. R. McNamara, J. M. Ordovas, B. M. Posner, P. W. Wilson, W. P. Castelli, and E. J. Schaefer, “LDL particle size distribution. Results from the Framingham Offspring Study,” Arterioscler. Thromb. 12(12), 1410–1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meira, G. R.

J. R. Vega, L. M. Gugliotta, V. D. G. Gonzalez, and G. R. Meira, “Latex particle size distribution by dynamic light scattering: novel data processing for multiangle measurements,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 261(1), 74–81 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, F.

F. Gonzalez, J. M. Saiz, F. Moreno, and P. J. Valle, “Application of a Laplace Transform Method to Binary-Mixtures of Spherical-Particles in Solution for Low Scattered Intensity,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 357–361 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Cagigal, M. A. Rebolledo, and F. Moreno, “Determination of the radii and the concentration ratio in binary mixtures of spherical macromolecules from the measurement of n(2)(T),” Appl. Opt. 23(13), 2091–2096 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Neal, D.

D. O’Neal, P. Harrip, G. Dragicevic, D. Rae, and J. D. Best, “A comparison of LDL size determination using gradient gel electrophoresis and light-scattering methods,” J. Lipid Res. 39(10), 2086–2090 (1998).
[PubMed]

Okabe, S.

M. Shibayama, T. Karino, and S. Okabe, “Distribution analyses of multi-modal dynamic light scattering data,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(18), 6446–6456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ordovas, J. M.

H. Campos, E. Blijlevens, J. R. McNamara, J. M. Ordovas, B. M. Posner, P. W. Wilson, W. P. Castelli, and E. J. Schaefer, “LDL particle size distribution. Results from the Framingham Offspring Study,” Arterioscler. Thromb. 12(12), 1410–1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pecora, R.

A. Flamberg and R. Pecora, “Dynamic Light-Scattering Study of Micelles in a High Ionic-Strength Solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 88(14), 3026–3033 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Posner, B. M.

H. Campos, E. Blijlevens, J. R. McNamara, J. M. Ordovas, B. M. Posner, P. W. Wilson, W. P. Castelli, and E. J. Schaefer, “LDL particle size distribution. Results from the Framingham Offspring Study,” Arterioscler. Thromb. 12(12), 1410–1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rae, D.

D. O’Neal, P. Harrip, G. Dragicevic, D. Rae, and J. D. Best, “A comparison of LDL size determination using gradient gel electrophoresis and light-scattering methods,” J. Lipid Res. 39(10), 2086–2090 (1998).
[PubMed]

Rasteiro, M. G.

M. G. Rasteiro, C. C. Lemos, and A. Vasquez, “Nanoparticle characterization by PCS: The analysis of bimodal distributions,” Particul. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 413–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ray, W. H.

R. S. Stock and W. H. Ray, “Interpretation of photon correlation spectroscopy data: A comparison of analysis methods,” J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 23(7), 1393–1447 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rebolledo, M. A.

Rizzo, M.

M. Rizzo and K. Berneis, “Low-density lipoprotein size and cardiovascular risk assessment,” QJM 99(1), 1–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruf, H.

H. Ruf and B. J. Gould, “Size distributions of chylomicrons from human lymph from dynamic light scattering measurements,” Eur. Biophys. J. Biophy. 28(1), 1–11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sacks, F. M.

S. Akita, F. M. Sacks, L. P. Svetkey, P. R. Conlin, G. Kimura, and DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group, “Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on the pressure-natriuresis relationship,” Hypertension 42(1), 8–13 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Sacks and H. Campos, “Clinical review 163: Cardiovascular endocrinology: Low-density lipoprotein size and cardiovascular disease: a reappraisal,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88(10), 4525–4532 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saegusa, H.

T. Hirano, Y. Ito, H. Saegusa, and G. Yoshino, “A novel and simple method for quantification of small, dense LDL,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2193–2201 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saiz, J. M.

F. Gonzalez, J. M. Saiz, F. Moreno, and P. J. Valle, “Application of a Laplace Transform Method to Binary-Mixtures of Spherical-Particles in Solution for Low Scattered Intensity,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 357–361 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, E. J.

H. Campos, E. Blijlevens, J. R. McNamara, J. M. Ordovas, B. M. Posner, P. W. Wilson, W. P. Castelli, and E. J. Schaefer, “LDL particle size distribution. Results from the Framingham Offspring Study,” Arterioscler. Thromb. 12(12), 1410–1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, M.

M. Schneider and T. F. McKenna, “Comparative study of methods for the measurement of particle size and size distribution of polymeric emulsions,” Part. Part. Syst. Char. 19(1), 28–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shibayama, M.

M. Shibayama, T. Karino, and S. Okabe, “Distribution analyses of multi-modal dynamic light scattering data,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(18), 6446–6456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skar, M.

C. B. Frantzen, L. Ingebrigtsen, M. Skar, and M. Brandl, “Assessing the accuracy of routine photon correlation spectroscopy analysis of heterogeneous size distributions,” AAPS PharmSciTech 4(3), 62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smilowitz, J. T.

J. B. German, J. T. Smilowitz, and A. M. Zivkovic, “Lipoproteins: When size really matters,” Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 11(2–3), 171–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H. W.

H. Wang, H. M. Wang, Q. H. Jin, H. Cong, G. S. Zhuang, J. L. Zhao, C. L. Sun, H. W. Song, and W. Wang, “Microchip-based small, dense low-density lipoproteins assay for coronary heart disease risk assessment,” Electrophoresis 29(9), 1932–1941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stock, R. S.

R. S. Stock and W. H. Ray, “Interpretation of photon correlation spectroscopy data: A comparison of analysis methods,” J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 23(7), 1393–1447 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. L.

H. Wang, H. M. Wang, Q. H. Jin, H. Cong, G. S. Zhuang, J. L. Zhao, C. L. Sun, H. W. Song, and W. Wang, “Microchip-based small, dense low-density lipoproteins assay for coronary heart disease risk assessment,” Electrophoresis 29(9), 1932–1941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svetkey, L. P.

S. Akita, F. M. Sacks, L. P. Svetkey, P. R. Conlin, G. Kimura, and DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group, “Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on the pressure-natriuresis relationship,” Hypertension 42(1), 8–13 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tada, N.

Y. Hirowatari, H. Yoshida, H. Kurosawa, K. I. Doumitu, and N. Tada, “Measurement of cholesterol of major serum lipoprotein classes by anion-exchange HPLC with perchlorate ion-containing eluent,” J. Lipid Res. 44(7), 1404–1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teplow, D. B.

A. Lomakin, G. B. Benedek, and D. B. Teplow, “Monitoring protein assembly using quasielastic light scattering spectroscopy,” Methods Enzymol. 309, 429–459 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valle, P. J.

F. Gonzalez, J. M. Saiz, F. Moreno, and P. J. Valle, “Application of a Laplace Transform Method to Binary-Mixtures of Spherical-Particles in Solution for Low Scattered Intensity,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 357–361 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vasquez, A.

M. G. Rasteiro, C. C. Lemos, and A. Vasquez, “Nanoparticle characterization by PCS: The analysis of bimodal distributions,” Particul. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 413–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vega, J. R.

J. R. Vega, L. M. Gugliotta, V. D. G. Gonzalez, and G. R. Meira, “Latex particle size distribution by dynamic light scattering: novel data processing for multiangle measurements,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 261(1), 74–81 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vermette, P.

J. A. Chouinard, A. Khalil, and P. Vermette, “Method of imaging low density lipoproteins by atomic force microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(10), 904–907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, H. M. Wang, Q. H. Jin, H. Cong, G. S. Zhuang, J. L. Zhao, C. L. Sun, H. W. Song, and W. Wang, “Microchip-based small, dense low-density lipoproteins assay for coronary heart disease risk assessment,” Electrophoresis 29(9), 1932–1941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. M.

H. Wang, H. M. Wang, Q. H. Jin, H. Cong, G. S. Zhuang, J. L. Zhao, C. L. Sun, H. W. Song, and W. Wang, “Microchip-based small, dense low-density lipoproteins assay for coronary heart disease risk assessment,” Electrophoresis 29(9), 1932–1941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

H. Wang, H. M. Wang, Q. H. Jin, H. Cong, G. S. Zhuang, J. L. Zhao, C. L. Sun, H. W. Song, and W. Wang, “Microchip-based small, dense low-density lipoproteins assay for coronary heart disease risk assessment,” Electrophoresis 29(9), 1932–1941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, P. W.

H. Campos, E. Blijlevens, J. R. McNamara, J. M. Ordovas, B. M. Posner, P. W. Wilson, W. P. Castelli, and E. J. Schaefer, “LDL particle size distribution. Results from the Framingham Offspring Study,” Arterioscler. Thromb. 12(12), 1410–1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, H.

Y. Hirowatari, H. Yoshida, H. Kurosawa, K. I. Doumitu, and N. Tada, “Measurement of cholesterol of major serum lipoprotein classes by anion-exchange HPLC with perchlorate ion-containing eluent,” J. Lipid Res. 44(7), 1404–1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, G.

T. Hirano, Y. Ito, H. Saegusa, and G. Yoshino, “A novel and simple method for quantification of small, dense LDL,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2193–2201 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J. L.

H. Wang, H. M. Wang, Q. H. Jin, H. Cong, G. S. Zhuang, J. L. Zhao, C. L. Sun, H. W. Song, and W. Wang, “Microchip-based small, dense low-density lipoproteins assay for coronary heart disease risk assessment,” Electrophoresis 29(9), 1932–1941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, G. S.

H. Wang, H. M. Wang, Q. H. Jin, H. Cong, G. S. Zhuang, J. L. Zhao, C. L. Sun, H. W. Song, and W. Wang, “Microchip-based small, dense low-density lipoproteins assay for coronary heart disease risk assessment,” Electrophoresis 29(9), 1932–1941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zivkovic, A. M.

J. B. German, J. T. Smilowitz, and A. M. Zivkovic, “Lipoproteins: When size really matters,” Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 11(2–3), 171–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AAPS PharmSciTech

C. B. Frantzen, L. Ingebrigtsen, M. Skar, and M. Brandl, “Assessing the accuracy of routine photon correlation spectroscopy analysis of heterogeneous size distributions,” AAPS PharmSciTech 4(3), 62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.

V. M. Gun’ko, A. V. Klyueva, Y. N. Levchuk, and R. Leboda, “Photon correlation spectroscopy investigations of proteins,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 105(1-3), 201–328 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Arterioscler. Thromb.

H. Campos, E. Blijlevens, J. R. McNamara, J. M. Ordovas, B. M. Posner, P. W. Wilson, W. P. Castelli, and E. J. Schaefer, “LDL particle size distribution. Results from the Framingham Offspring Study,” Arterioscler. Thromb. 12(12), 1410–1419 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Chem.

W. Ensign, N. Hill, and C. B. Heward, “Disparate LDL phenotypic classification among 4 different methods assessing LDL particle characteristics,” Clin. Chem. 52(9), 1722–1727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci.

J. B. German, J. T. Smilowitz, and A. M. Zivkovic, “Lipoproteins: When size really matters,” Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 11(2–3), 171–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electrophoresis

H. Wang, H. M. Wang, Q. H. Jin, H. Cong, G. S. Zhuang, J. L. Zhao, C. L. Sun, H. W. Song, and W. Wang, “Microchip-based small, dense low-density lipoproteins assay for coronary heart disease risk assessment,” Electrophoresis 29(9), 1932–1941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Biophys. J. Biophy.

H. Ruf and B. J. Gould, “Size distributions of chylomicrons from human lymph from dynamic light scattering measurements,” Eur. Biophys. J. Biophy. 28(1), 1–11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hypertension

S. Akita, F. M. Sacks, L. P. Svetkey, P. R. Conlin, G. Kimura, and DASH-Sodium Trial Collaborative Research Group, “Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on the pressure-natriuresis relationship,” Hypertension 42(1), 8–13 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.

F. M. Sacks and H. Campos, “Clinical review 163: Cardiovascular endocrinology: Low-density lipoprotein size and cardiovascular disease: a reappraisal,” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88(10), 4525–4532 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

J. R. Vega, L. M. Gugliotta, V. D. G. Gonzalez, and G. R. Meira, “Latex particle size distribution by dynamic light scattering: novel data processing for multiangle measurements,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 261(1), 74–81 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Hassan and S. K. Kulshreshtha, “Modification to the cumulant analysis of polydispersity in quasielastic light scattering data,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 300(2), 744–748 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lipid Res.

D. O’Neal, P. Harrip, G. Dragicevic, D. Rae, and J. D. Best, “A comparison of LDL size determination using gradient gel electrophoresis and light-scattering methods,” J. Lipid Res. 39(10), 2086–2090 (1998).
[PubMed]

Y. Hirowatari, H. Yoshida, H. Kurosawa, K. I. Doumitu, and N. Tada, “Measurement of cholesterol of major serum lipoprotein classes by anion-exchange HPLC with perchlorate ion-containing eluent,” J. Lipid Res. 44(7), 1404–1412 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hirano, Y. Ito, H. Saegusa, and G. Yoshino, “A novel and simple method for quantification of small, dense LDL,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2193–2201 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem.

A. Flamberg and R. Pecora, “Dynamic Light-Scattering Study of Micelles in a High Ionic-Strength Solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 88(14), 3026–3033 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

F. Gonzalez, J. M. Saiz, F. Moreno, and P. J. Valle, “Application of a Laplace Transform Method to Binary-Mixtures of Spherical-Particles in Solution for Low Scattered Intensity,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 357–361 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed.

R. S. Stock and W. H. Ray, “Interpretation of photon correlation spectroscopy data: A comparison of analysis methods,” J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 23(7), 1393–1447 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Methods Enzymol.

A. Lomakin, G. B. Benedek, and D. B. Teplow, “Monitoring protein assembly using quasielastic light scattering spectroscopy,” Methods Enzymol. 309, 429–459 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microsc. Res. Tech.

J. A. Chouinard, A. Khalil, and P. Vermette, “Method of imaging low density lipoproteins by atomic force microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(10), 904–907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Part. Part. Syst. Char.

M. Schneider and T. F. McKenna, “Comparative study of methods for the measurement of particle size and size distribution of polymeric emulsions,” Part. Part. Syst. Char. 19(1), 28–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Particul. Sci. Technol.

M. G. Rasteiro, C. C. Lemos, and A. Vasquez, “Nanoparticle characterization by PCS: The analysis of bimodal distributions,” Particul. Sci. Technol. 26(5), 413–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (Guildf.)

M. Shibayama, T. Karino, and S. Okabe, “Distribution analyses of multi-modal dynamic light scattering data,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(18), 6446–6456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

QJM

M. Rizzo and K. Berneis, “Low-density lipoprotein size and cardiovascular risk assessment,” QJM 99(1), 1–14 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. J. Berne, and R. Pecora, Dynamic light scattering: with applications to chemistry, biology, and physics, Dover ed. (Dover Publications, Mineola, N.Y., 2000).

A. Milat, MATLAB: an introduction with applications, 3rd ed. (Wiley Publications, N.Y., 2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Elimination of large particles effect from measured normalized autocorrelation function gm (1)(τ) by subtracting one exponential component in two-exponential fitting.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of curve fitting with two normal distributions: fest (2r), size distribution estimated by DLS; fn (m, σ), normal distribution with mean m and standard deviation σ; Is , Il , respective intensity weights for small and large components.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Estimated results of 21 nm particles fraction in 21 nm and 28 nm mixed solution using size distribution estimation (○) and using the proposed technique (●), n = 6.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between two proposed methods for 21 nm particles fraction in 21 nm and 28 nm mixed solution: Method#1 (○) and Method#2 (●), n = 6.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Estimation of sdLDL fraction in total LDL using Method#1 (○) and using Method#2 (●), n = 8.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean sizes estimated in DLS with the elimination process of large scatterer effect

Equations (23)

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g ( 1 ) ( τ ) = E ( t ) E ( t + τ ) = exp ( Γ τ ) ,
d h = k T 3 π η D = k T q 2 3 π η Γ ,
g ( 2 ) ( τ ) = I ( t ) I ( t + τ ) .
g ( 1 ) ( τ ) = g ( 2 ) ( τ ) 1 .
g ( 1 ) ( τ ) = 0 i ( r ) g ( 1 ) ( τ , r ) d r 0 i ( r ) d r = 0 i ( r ) exp ( α τ / r ) d r 0 i ( r ) d r ,
i ( r ) = I s δ ( r r s ) + I l δ ( r r l ) ,
g s l ( 1 ) ( τ ) = 0 i ( r ) e α r τ d r 0 i ( r ) d r = I s e α r s τ + I l e α r l τ I s + I l .
g s l ( 1 ) ( τ ) = X I e α r s τ + ( 1 X I ) e α r l τ ,
X I = g s l ( 1 ) ( τ ) e α r l τ e α r s τ e α r l τ .
X I 1 r s l 1 r l 1 r s 1 r l .
X W = X I r l 3 X I ( r l 3 r s 3 ) + r s 3 .
X W = X I m l 3 X I ( m l 3 m s 3 ) + m s 3 ,
w ( r ) = W s [ u ( r a ) u ( r b ) ] + W l [ u ( r c ) u ( r d ) ] ,
g ( 1 ) ( τ ) = 0 i ( r ) g ( 1 ) ( τ , r ) d r 0 i ( r ) d r = 0 w ( r ) r 3 g ( 1 ) ( τ , r ) d r 0 w ( r ) r 3 d r = 0 n ( r ) r 6 g ( 1 ) ( τ , r ) d r 0 n ( r ) r 6 d r ,
g s l ( 1 ) ( τ ) = W s a b r 3 e α τ r d r + W l c d r 3 e α τ r d r W s a b r 3 d r + W l c d r 3 d r .
a b r 3 e α τ r d r = f ( b ) f ( a ) ,
f ( r ) = e α τ r ( r 4 4 α τ r 3 12 + α 2 τ 2 r 2 24 α 3 τ 3 r 24 ) + α 4 τ 4 24 Γ ( 0 , α τ r ) .
Γ ( 0 , z ) = z e x x d x = e z z + 1 1 z + 3 4 z + 5 9 z + 7 .
g s l ( 1 ) ( τ ) = W s [ f ( b ) f ( a ) ] + W l [ f ( d ) f ( c ) ] W s ( b 4 a 4 ) 4 + W l ( d 4 c 4 ) 4 .
X W = W s ( b a ) W s ( b a ) + W l ( d c ) .
X W = { 4 [ f ( d ) f ( c ) ] ( d 4 c 4 ) g s l ( 1 ) ( τ ) } (     b a ) { 4 [ f ( d ) f ( c ) ] ( d 4 c 4 ) g s l ( 1 ) ( τ ) } (     b a ) { 4 [ f ( b ) f ( a ) ] ( b 4 a 4 ) g s l ( 1 ) ( τ ) } (     d c ) ,
g m ( 1 ) ( τ ) = I S g S ( 1 ) ( τ ) + I N g N ( 1 ) ( τ ) I S + I N ,
f e s t ( r ) = I s 1 2 π σ s 2 exp [ ( ( r m s ) 2 2 σ s 2 ) ] + I l 1 2 π σ l 2 exp [ ( ( r m l ) 2 2 σ l 2 ) ] ,

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