Abstract

Operation of an all-reflection, broadband, spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) is reported. This Mark 2 SHS is constructed using a custom diffraction grating and other standard optical components. The custom grating is coarse (18 grooves/mm), with a symmetric blaze that allows its simultaneous use as dispersing element and beam splitter and combiner. The grating is combined with a plane mirror and a roof mirror to form a very stable ring interferometer which has been used successfully in earlier narrowband SHS designs. Fringes from the extra grating orders in the main blaze envelope are unexpectedly found to combine constructively with the desired primary fringes of the interferometer. Elimination of ambiguity between wavelengths above and below blaze in a given order, and order separation are demonstrated using a small tilt of the plane mirror about an axis in the plane of the figure. Coverage of a factor of four in wavelength in a single CCD frame is demonstrated.

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009

2008

1992

J. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy for the Exploration of Diffuse Interstellar Emission Lines at Far Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

F. L. Roesler and J. Harlander, “Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy: Interferometric performance at any wavelength without scanning,” Proc. SPIE 1318, 234–243 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

1971

Barnes, T. H.

Dawson, O. R.

Dohi, T.

Eiju, T.

Harlander, J.

J. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy for the Exploration of Diffuse Interstellar Emission Lines at Far Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Roesler and J. Harlander, “Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy: Interferometric performance at any wavelength without scanning,” Proc. SPIE 1318, 234–243 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harlander, J. M.

Harris, W. M.

Labby, Z. E.

Lawler, J. E.

Matsuda, K.

Reynolds, R. J.

J. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy for the Exploration of Diffuse Interstellar Emission Lines at Far Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F. L.

J. E. Lawler, Z. E. Labby, J. M. Harlander, and F. L. Roesler, “Broadband, high-resolution spatial heterodyne spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 47(34), 6371–6384 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy for the Exploration of Diffuse Interstellar Emission Lines at Far Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Roesler and J. Harlander, “Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy: Interferometric performance at any wavelength without scanning,” Proc. SPIE 1318, 234–243 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

J. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, and F. L. Roesler, “Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy for the Exploration of Diffuse Interstellar Emission Lines at Far Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

F. L. Roesler and J. Harlander, “Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy: Interferometric performance at any wavelength without scanning,” Proc. SPIE 1318, 234–243 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. M. Harlander, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: interferometric performance at any wavelength without scanning,” Thesis, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison (1991).

A. Offner, “Unit power imaging catoptric anastigmat,” U.S. Patent 3,748,015 (1973).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an all-reflection SHS system. Mirror M1 collimates light which enters the interferometer on the top half (i.e., out of the page) of the grating. The roof mirror displaces the diffracted beams into the plane of the figure so the beam combine is on the lower half of the grating. Mirror M2 images the fringe localization plane onto the imaging detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of Mark 2 instrument with superposed rays. The colored lines represent rays along the optical axis for the input (yellow), clockwise arm (red), counter-clockwise arm (blue) and exit (green) of the instrument. The holes in the optical table are on 1-inch centers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum from the 2D Fourier transform of an Hg interferogram. Each circled bright spot corresponds to an emission line of the Hg germicidal lamp. The wavelengths of the lines labeled a through g along with their grating order and pixel location are indicated in Table 2. The pixel locations indicated on the horizontal and vertical scales are the number of interferogram fringes in the high-resolution (within an order) and low-resolution (different orders) directions, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Line shapes for Hg emissions. The intensity scale is normalized to 0.8 at the peak of each line. The wavenumber scale is set to zero at the peak of each line.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mark 2 SHS parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Hg germicidal lamp wavelengths, order numbers and pixel locations

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