Abstract

A wavelength switchable all-fiber comb filter with flat-top spectral response based on a double-loop Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed flat-top filter consists of a rotatable polarizer and a double-loop M-Z interferometer composed of two fiber couplers with a polarization controller (PC) in the first loop. In the theoretical analysis, when the second coupler of the M-Z interferometer is a non-3dB one, with proper settings of the polarization state of the input light and the PC, the wavelength switchable comb filter with flat-top passband can be obtained. Theoretical prediction was verified by experimental demonstration. The measured 1 dB bandwidth was 0.51 nm with a channel spacing of 0.98 nm, indicating that the flat-top passband of 1 dB bandwidth extends to about 50% of the comb spacing.

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  1. Y. W. Lee, K. J. Han, B. Lee, and J. Jung, “Polarization-independent all-fiber multiwavelength-switchable filter based on a polarization-diversity loop configuration,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3359–3364 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, “Flat-top interleavers using two Gires-Tournois etalons as phase dispersive mirrors in a Michelson interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 242–244 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon Nitride-based compact double-ring resonator comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2156–2158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Derevyanko, “Design of a flat-top fiber Bragg filter via quasi-random modulation of the refractive index,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2404–2406 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

Q. Wu, P. L. Chu, H. P. Chan, and B. P. Pal, “Polymer-based compact comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2619–2621 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Lee, H. T. Kim, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Wavelength-switchable flat-top fiber comb filter based on a Solc type birefringence combination,” Opt. Express 13(3), 1039–1048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, “Flat-top interleavers using two Gires-Tournois etalons as phase dispersive mirrors in a Michelson interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 242–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Lee, K. J. Han, B. Lee, and J. Jung, “Polarization-independent all-fiber multiwavelength-switchable filter based on a polarization-diversity loop configuration,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3359–3364 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelengthswitched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F-P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lai, W. Zhang, and J. A. R. Williams, “All-fibre multichannel flattop filter based on coherent fibre delay line structure,” Electron. Lett. 38(10), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. P.

Q. Wu, P. L. Chu, H. P. Chan, and B. P. Pal, “Polymer-based compact comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2619–2621 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. H.

C. W. Lee, R. Wang, P. Yeh, and W. H. Cheng, “Sagnac interferometer based flat-top birefringent interleaver,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4636–4643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, “Flat-top interleavers using two Gires-Tournois etalons as phase dispersive mirrors in a Michelson interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 242–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

Q. Wu, P. L. Chu, H. P. Chan, and B. P. Pal, “Polymer-based compact comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2619–2621 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Derevyanko, S.

Dong, X.

S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelengthswitched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F-P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon Nitride-based compact double-ring resonator comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2156–2158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fok, M. P.

Han, K. J.

Hsieh, C. H.

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, “Flat-top interleavers using two Gires-Tournois etalons as phase dispersive mirrors in a Michelson interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 242–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.

Kai, G.

S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelengthswitched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F-P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. T.

Kwong, D. L.

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon Nitride-based compact double-ring resonator comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2156–2158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

Y. Lai, W. Zhang, and J. A. R. Williams, “All-fibre multichannel flattop filter based on coherent fibre delay line structure,” Electron. Lett. 38(10), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, C. W.

C. W. Lee, R. Wang, P. Yeh, and W. H. Cheng, “Sagnac interferometer based flat-top birefringent interleaver,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4636–4643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, “Flat-top interleavers using two Gires-Tournois etalons as phase dispersive mirrors in a Michelson interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 242–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. L.

Lee, Y. W.

Li, Z.

S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelengthswitched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F-P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lit, J. W. Y.

Lo, G. Q.

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon Nitride-based compact double-ring resonator comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2156–2158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z. C.

McMichael, I.

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, “Flat-top interleavers using two Gires-Tournois etalons as phase dispersive mirrors in a Michelson interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 242–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pal, B. P.

Q. Wu, P. L. Chu, H. P. Chan, and B. P. Pal, “Polymer-based compact comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2619–2621 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shu, C.

Song, J. F.

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon Nitride-based compact double-ring resonator comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2156–2158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tao, S. H.

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon Nitride-based compact double-ring resonator comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2156–2158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wan, S. M.

Wang, R.

C. W. Lee, R. Wang, P. Yeh, and W. H. Cheng, “Sagnac interferometer based flat-top birefringent interleaver,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4636–4643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, “Flat-top interleavers using two Gires-Tournois etalons as phase dispersive mirrors in a Michelson interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 242–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

Wen, Z.

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, “Flat-top interleavers using two Gires-Tournois etalons as phase dispersive mirrors in a Michelson interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 242–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. A. R.

Y. Lai, W. Zhang, and J. A. R. Williams, “All-fibre multichannel flattop filter based on coherent fibre delay line structure,” Electron. Lett. 38(10), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, P. L. Chu, H. P. Chan, and B. P. Pal, “Polymer-based compact comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2619–2621 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W. C.

Yang, S.

S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelengthswitched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F-P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

C. W. Lee, R. Wang, P. Yeh, and W. H. Cheng, “Sagnac interferometer based flat-top birefringent interleaver,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4636–4643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, “Flat-top interleavers using two Gires-Tournois etalons as phase dispersive mirrors in a Michelson interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 242–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon Nitride-based compact double-ring resonator comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2156–2158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S.

S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelengthswitched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F-P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Y. Lai, W. Zhang, and J. A. R. Williams, “All-fibre multichannel flattop filter based on coherent fibre delay line structure,” Electron. Lett. 38(10), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelengthswitched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F-P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Lai, W. Zhang, and J. A. R. Williams, “All-fibre multichannel flattop filter based on coherent fibre delay line structure,” Electron. Lett. 38(10), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

Q. Wu, P. L. Chu, H. P. Chan, and B. P. Pal, “Polymer-based compact comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2619–2621 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Yang, Z. Li, X. Dong, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and Q. Zhao, “Generation of wavelengthswitched optical pulse from a fiber ring laser with an F-P semiconductor modulator and a HiBi fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 774–776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon Nitride-based compact double-ring resonator comb filter with flat-top response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2156–2158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, “Flat-top interleavers using two Gires-Tournois etalons as phase dispersive mirrors in a Michelson interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 242–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the proposed flat-top comb filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Calculated transmission spectra of T 1 (red), T 2 (blue) and combined output T 1 + T 2 (black). (b) Wavelength switching (interleaving) operation with flat-top spectral response.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of passband with different θ settings when c 1 = 0.5 , c 2 = 0.2 , α = 0.15 π .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated wavelength tunable operation with flat-top passband using two non-3dB fiber couplers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimentally measured wavelength switchable flat-top operation by using two couplers with coupling ratios 50:50 and 20:80.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimentally measured wavelength tunable flat-top operation of the proposed filter with a 30:70 and a 20:80 coupler.

Equations (8)

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[ [ E 1 o u t ] [ E 2 o u t ] ] = [ C 1 ] [ [ P ] [ F 1 ] 0 0 [ F 2 ] ] [ C 2 ] [ 0 [ I ] [ I ] 0 ] [ C 2 ] [ [ F 1 ] [ P ] 0 0 [ F 2 ] ] [ C 1 ] [ [ E 1 i n ] [ E 2 i n ] ]
[ C m ] = [ 1 c m [ I ] j c m [ I ] j c m [ I ] 1 c m [ I ] ] , [ P ] = [ cos θ sin θ sin θ cos θ ] ,
[ F 1 ] = [ e j k n x L 0 0 e j k n y L ] , [ F 2 ] = [ e j ( k n x L + φ x ) 0 0 e j ( k n y L + φ y ) ] ,
T = | E 2 o u t | 2 | E 1 i n | 2 = [ 8 c 1 c 2 ( 1 c 1 ) ( 1 c 2 ) + ( 1 2 c 1 ) 2 ( 1 2 c 2 ) 2 + 4 c 1 ( 1 c 1 ) ( 1 2 c 2 ) 2 sin 2 θ sin 2 δ 2 ] + 8 c 1 c 2 ( 1 c 1 ) ( 1 c 2 ) [ ( cos 2 θ sin 2 θ cos δ ) cos 2 φ +sin θ sin(2 α + θ )sin δ sin 2 φ ] +4(1 2c 2 ) c 1 c 2 ( 1 c 1 ) ( 1 c 2 ) × { [ c 1 sin 2 α ( 1 c 1 ) sin 2 ( α + θ ) ] sin θ sin δ sin φ + 2 ( 2 c 1 1 ) cos θ cos φ }
T 1 = 8 c 1 c 2 ( 1 c 1 ) ( 1 c 2 ) [ ( cos 2 θ sin 2 θ cos δ ) cos 2 φ +sin θ sin(2 α + θ )sin δ sin 2 φ ]
T 2 = 4(1 2c 2 ) c 1 c 2 ( 1 c 1 ) ( 1 c 2 )   × { [ c 1 sin 2 α ( 1 c 1 ) sin 2 ( α + θ ) ] sin θ sin δ sin φ + 2 ( 2 c 1 1 ) cos θ cos φ }
T 1 = 2 c 2 ( 1 c 2 ) [ ( cos 2 θ sin 2 θ cos δ ) cos 2 φ +sin θ sin(2 α + θ )sin δ sin 2 φ ]
T 2 = 2 (1 2c 2 ) c 2 ( 1 c 2 ) sin 2 θ cos ( 2 α + θ ) sin δ sin φ

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