Abstract

Dynamics of fluorescent diamond nanoparticles in HeLa cells has been studied with two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Fluorescent nanodiamond (FND) is an excellent fluorescent probe for bioimaging application, but they are often trapped in endosomes after cellular uptake. The entrapment prohibits FCS from being performed in a time frame of 60 s. Herein, we show that the encapsulation of FNDs within a lipid layer enhances the diffusion of the particles in the cytoplasm by more than one order of magnitude, and particles as small as 40 nm can be probed individually with high image contrast by two-photon excited luminescence. The development of the technique together with single particle tracking through one-photon excitation allows probing of both short-term and long-term dynamics of single FNDs in living cells.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (9)

P. Didier, G. Ulrich, Y. Mély, and R. Ziessel, "Improved push-pull-push E-Bodipy fluorophores for two photon cell-imaging," Org. Biomol. Chem. 7, 3639-3642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-L. Wee, Y.-W. Mau, C.-Y. Fang, H.-L. Hsu, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, "Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications," Diamond Relat. Mater. 18, 567 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Comparison of the photoluminescence properties of semiconductor quantum dots and non-blinking diamond nanoparticles. Observation of the diffusion of diamond nanoparticles in living cells," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09032 (2009).

V. Vaijayanthimala, Y.-K. Tzeng, H.-C. Chang, and C.-L. Li, "The biocompatibility of fluorescent nanodiamonds and their mechanism of cellular uptake," Nanotech. 20, 425103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Mohan, Y.-K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y.-Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C.-Y. Fang, and H.-C. Chang, "Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors," Adv. Mater. 21,1-5 (2009). DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901596.

Y. Y. Hui, Y.-R. Chang, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Lee, W. Fann, and H.-C. Chang, "Quantifying the number of color centers in single fluorescent nanodiamonds by photon correlation spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Prakash, H. Zhu, C. J. Jones, D. N. Benoit, A. Z. Ellsworth, E. L. Bryant, and V. L. Colvin, "Bilayers as phase transfer agents for nanocrystals prepared in nonpolar solvents," ACS Nano 3, 2139-2146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pallavicini, Y. A. Diaz-Fernandez, and L. Pasotti, "Micelles as nanosized containers for the self-assembly of multicomponent fluorescent sensors," Coord. Chem. Rev. 253, 2226-2240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Zhang and N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, "Mechanisms of quantum dot nanoparticle cellular uptake," Toxicol. Sci. 110,138-155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (8)

V. Dudu, M. Ramcharan, M. L. Gilchrist, E. C. Holland, and M. Vazquez, "Liposome delivery of quantum dots to the cytosol of live cells," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 2293-2300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-F. Chang, C.-Y. Chen, F.-H. Chang, S.-P. Tai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yu, Y.-B. Tseng, T.-H. Tsai, I.-S. Liu, W.-F. Su, and C.-K. Sun, "Cell tracking and detection of molecular expression in live cells using lipid enclosed CdSe quantum dots as contrast agents for epi-third harmonic generation microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 9534-9548 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Depalo, A. Mallardi, R. Comparelli, M. Striccoli, A. Agostiano, and M. L. Curri, "Luminescent nanocrystals in phospholipid micelles for bioconjugation: An optical and structural investigation," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 325, 558-566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Murcia, D. E. Minner, G. -M. Mustata, K. Ritchie, and C. A. Naumann, "Design of quantum dot conjugated lipids for long-term, high-speed tracking experiments on cell surfaces," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 15054-15062 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Petrasek, C. Hoege, A. Mashaghi, T. Ohrt, A. A. Hyman, and P. Schwille, "Characterization of protein dynamics in asymmetric cell division by scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 95, 5476-5486 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Briandet, P. Lacroix-Gueu, M. Renault, S. Lecart, T. Meylheuc, E. Bidnenko, K. Steenkeste, M.-N. Bellon-Fontaine, and M.-P. Fontaine-Aupar, "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study diffusion and reaction of bacteriophages inside biofilms," Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 2135-2143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-R. Chang, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, C.-C. Chang, D.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Fu, T.-S. Lim, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-Y. Fang, C.-C. Han, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotech. 3, 284-288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway," Small 4, 2236-2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 727-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neugart, A. Zappe, F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, J.-P. Boudou, A. Krueger, and J. Wrachtrup, "Dynamics of diamond nanoparticles in solution and cells," Nano Lett. 7, 3588-3591 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Levi and E. Gratton, "Exploring dynamics in living cells by tracking single particles," Cell Biochem. Biophys. 48, 1-15 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Heuff, J. L. Swift, and D. T. Cramb, "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy using quantum dots: advances, challenges and opportunities," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 1870-1880 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Schroeder, I. Shweky, H. Shmeeda, U. Banin, and A. Gabizon, "Folate-mediated tumor cell uptake of quantum dots entrapped in lipid nanoparticles," J. Control. Release 124, 28-34 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Smith, M. Niebert, T. Plakhotnik, and A. V. Zvyagin, "Transfection and imaging of diamond nanocrystals as scattering optical labels," J. Lumin. 127260-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wee, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Two photon excited fluorescence of nitrogen-vacancy centers in proton-irradiated type Ib diamond," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 9379-9386 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

A. Krueger, Y. J. Liang, G. Jarre, and J. Stegk, "Surface functionalisation of detonation diamonds suitable for biological applications," J. Mater. Chem. 16, 2322-2328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Bakalova, Z. Zhelev, I. Aoki, H. Ohba, Y. Imai, and I. Kanno, "Silica-shelled single quantum dot micelles as imaging probes with dual or multimodality," Anal. Chem. 78, 5925-5932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Pohl, H. Hellmuth, M. Hilbert, J. Seibel, and P. J. Walla, "A two-photon fluorescence-correlation study of lectins interacting with carbohydrated 20 nm beads," ChemBioChem 7, 268-274 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Chen, J. Yao, and R. A. Durst, "Liposome encapsulation of fluorescent nanoparticles: Quantum dots and silica nanoparticles," J. Nanoparticle Res. 8, 1033-1038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Danelon, P. Izewska, M. Prummer, P.-Y. Bolinger, I. Geissbühler, D. Demurtas, J. Dubochet, and H. Vogel, "Multifunctional lipid/quantum dot hybrid nanocontainers for controlled targeting of live cells," Angew Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 5478-5483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

V. P. Torchilin, "Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers," Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 4, 145-160 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: No photobleaching and low cytotoxicity," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 17604-17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fan, E. W. Leve, C. Scullin, J. Gabaldon, D. Tallant, T. Bunge, M. C. Wilson, and C. J. Brinker, "Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot micelles," Nano Lett. 5, 645-648 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

L.-C. L. Huang and H.-C. Chang, "Adsorption and immobilization of cytochrome c on nanodiamonds," Langmuir 20, 5879-5884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. Roch, and P. Grangier, "Photo-induced creation of nitrogen-related color centers in diamond nanocrystals under femtosecond illumination," J. Lumin. 109, 61-67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Derfus, W. C. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, "Intracellular delivery of quantum dots for live cell labeling and organelle tracking," Adv. Mater. 16, 961-966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. M. Derfus, W. C. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, "Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots," Nano Lett. 4, 11-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, "Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo," Science 300, 1434-1436 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

Q. Ruan, Y. Chen, E. Gratton, M. Glaser, and W. W. Mantulin, "Cellular characterization of adenylate kinase and its isoform: Two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 83, 3177-3187 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, "In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles," Science 298, 1759-1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and Z. Rosenzweig, "Luminescent CdSe quantum dot doped stabilized micelles," Nano Lett. 2, 1299-1302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, and W. W. Webb, "Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one- and two-photon excitation," Biophys. J. 77, 2251-2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, "Two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: method and application to the intracellular environment," Biophys. J. 68, 694-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostiano, A.

N. Depalo, A. Mallardi, R. Comparelli, M. Striccoli, A. Agostiano, and M. L. Curri, "Luminescent nanocrystals in phospholipid micelles for bioconjugation: An optical and structural investigation," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 325, 558-566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alleaume, R.

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. Roch, and P. Grangier, "Photo-induced creation of nitrogen-related color centers in diamond nanocrystals under femtosecond illumination," J. Lumin. 109, 61-67 (2004).
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R. Bakalova, Z. Zhelev, I. Aoki, H. Ohba, Y. Imai, and I. Kanno, "Silica-shelled single quantum dot micelles as imaging probes with dual or multimodality," Anal. Chem. 78, 5925-5932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Bakalova, Z. Zhelev, I. Aoki, H. Ohba, Y. Imai, and I. Kanno, "Silica-shelled single quantum dot micelles as imaging probes with dual or multimodality," Anal. Chem. 78, 5925-5932 (2006).
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J. E. Schroeder, I. Shweky, H. Shmeeda, U. Banin, and A. Gabizon, "Folate-mediated tumor cell uptake of quantum dots entrapped in lipid nanoparticles," J. Control. Release 124, 28-34 (2007).
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R. Briandet, P. Lacroix-Gueu, M. Renault, S. Lecart, T. Meylheuc, E. Bidnenko, K. Steenkeste, M.-N. Bellon-Fontaine, and M.-P. Fontaine-Aupar, "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study diffusion and reaction of bacteriophages inside biofilms," Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 2135-2143 (2008).
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A. Prakash, H. Zhu, C. J. Jones, D. N. Benoit, A. Z. Ellsworth, E. L. Bryant, and V. L. Colvin, "Bilayers as phase transfer agents for nanocrystals prepared in nonpolar solvents," ACS Nano 3, 2139-2146 (2009).
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K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, "Two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: method and application to the intracellular environment," Biophys. J. 68, 694-701 (1995).
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A. M. Derfus, W. C. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, "Intracellular delivery of quantum dots for live cell labeling and organelle tracking," Adv. Mater. 16, 961-966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Derfus, W. C. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, "Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots," Nano Lett. 4, 11-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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R. Briandet, P. Lacroix-Gueu, M. Renault, S. Lecart, T. Meylheuc, E. Bidnenko, K. Steenkeste, M.-N. Bellon-Fontaine, and M.-P. Fontaine-Aupar, "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study diffusion and reaction of bacteriophages inside biofilms," Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 2135-2143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolinger, P.-Y.

G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Danelon, P. Izewska, M. Prummer, P.-Y. Bolinger, I. Geissbühler, D. Demurtas, J. Dubochet, and H. Vogel, "Multifunctional lipid/quantum dot hybrid nanocontainers for controlled targeting of live cells," Angew Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 5478-5483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Comparison of the photoluminescence properties of semiconductor quantum dots and non-blinking diamond nanoparticles. Observation of the diffusion of diamond nanoparticles in living cells," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09032 (2009).

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway," Small 4, 2236-2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neugart, A. Zappe, F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, J.-P. Boudou, A. Krueger, and J. Wrachtrup, "Dynamics of diamond nanoparticles in solution and cells," Nano Lett. 7, 3588-3591 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Briandet, P. Lacroix-Gueu, M. Renault, S. Lecart, T. Meylheuc, E. Bidnenko, K. Steenkeste, M.-N. Bellon-Fontaine, and M.-P. Fontaine-Aupar, "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study diffusion and reaction of bacteriophages inside biofilms," Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 2135-2143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brinker, C. J.

H. Fan, E. W. Leve, C. Scullin, J. Gabaldon, D. Tallant, T. Bunge, M. C. Wilson, and C. J. Brinker, "Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot micelles," Nano Lett. 5, 645-648 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brivanlou, A. H.

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, "In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles," Science 298, 1759-1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bruchez, M. P.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, "Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo," Science 300, 1434-1436 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, E. L.

A. Prakash, H. Zhu, C. J. Jones, D. N. Benoit, A. Z. Ellsworth, E. L. Bryant, and V. L. Colvin, "Bilayers as phase transfer agents for nanocrystals prepared in nonpolar solvents," ACS Nano 3, 2139-2146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunge, T.

H. Fan, E. W. Leve, C. Scullin, J. Gabaldon, D. Tallant, T. Bunge, M. C. Wilson, and C. J. Brinker, "Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot micelles," Nano Lett. 5, 645-648 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, W. C.

A. M. Derfus, W. C. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, "Intracellular delivery of quantum dots for live cell labeling and organelle tracking," Adv. Mater. 16, 961-966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Derfus, W. C. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, "Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots," Nano Lett. 4, 11-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-C.

Y.-R. Chang, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, C.-C. Chang, D.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Fu, T.-S. Lim, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-Y. Fang, C.-C. Han, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotech. 3, 284-288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-F.

Chang, F.-H.

Chang, H. C.

T.-L. Wee, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Two photon excited fluorescence of nitrogen-vacancy centers in proton-irradiated type Ib diamond," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 9379-9386 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H.-C.

N. Mohan, Y.-K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y.-Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C.-Y. Fang, and H.-C. Chang, "Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors," Adv. Mater. 21,1-5 (2009). DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901596.

T.-L. Wee, Y.-W. Mau, C.-Y. Fang, H.-L. Hsu, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, "Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications," Diamond Relat. Mater. 18, 567 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Vaijayanthimala, Y.-K. Tzeng, H.-C. Chang, and C.-L. Li, "The biocompatibility of fluorescent nanodiamonds and their mechanism of cellular uptake," Nanotech. 20, 425103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Hui, Y.-R. Chang, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Lee, W. Fann, and H.-C. Chang, "Quantifying the number of color centers in single fluorescent nanodiamonds by photon correlation spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-R. Chang, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, C.-C. Chang, D.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Fu, T.-S. Lim, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-Y. Fang, C.-C. Han, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotech. 3, 284-288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 727-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: No photobleaching and low cytotoxicity," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 17604-17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-C. L. Huang and H.-C. Chang, "Adsorption and immobilization of cytochrome c on nanodiamonds," Langmuir 20, 5879-5884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-R.

Y. Y. Hui, Y.-R. Chang, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Lee, W. Fann, and H.-C. Chang, "Quantifying the number of color centers in single fluorescent nanodiamonds by photon correlation spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-R. Chang, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, C.-C. Chang, D.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Fu, T.-S. Lim, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-Y. Fang, C.-C. Han, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotech. 3, 284-288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-S.

C.-S. Chen, J. Yao, and R. A. Durst, "Liposome encapsulation of fluorescent nanoparticles: Quantum dots and silica nanoparticles," J. Nanoparticle Res. 8, 1033-1038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

Chen, K.

Y.-R. Chang, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, C.-C. Chang, D.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Fu, T.-S. Lim, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-Y. Fang, C.-C. Han, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotech. 3, 284-288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 727-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-M.

T.-L. Wee, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Two photon excited fluorescence of nitrogen-vacancy centers in proton-irradiated type Ib diamond," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 9379-9386 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: No photobleaching and low cytotoxicity," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 17604-17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen and Z. Rosenzweig, "Luminescent CdSe quantum dot doped stabilized micelles," Nano Lett. 2, 1299-1302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ruan, Y. Chen, E. Gratton, M. Glaser, and W. W. Mantulin, "Cellular characterization of adenylate kinase and its isoform: Two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 83, 3177-3187 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-Y.

N. Mohan, Y.-K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y.-Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C.-Y. Fang, and H.-C. Chang, "Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors," Adv. Mater. 21,1-5 (2009). DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901596.

Cheng, J.-X.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
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Chung, L. W.

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, S. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, "Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo," Science 300, 1434-1436 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, V. L.

A. Prakash, H. Zhu, C. J. Jones, D. N. Benoit, A. Z. Ellsworth, E. L. Bryant, and V. L. Colvin, "Bilayers as phase transfer agents for nanocrystals prepared in nonpolar solvents," ACS Nano 3, 2139-2146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comparelli, R.

N. Depalo, A. Mallardi, R. Comparelli, M. Striccoli, A. Agostiano, and M. L. Curri, "Luminescent nanocrystals in phospholipid micelles for bioconjugation: An optical and structural investigation," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 325, 558-566 (2008).
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Cramb, D. T.

R. F. Heuff, J. L. Swift, and D. T. Cramb, "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy using quantum dots: advances, challenges and opportunities," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 1870-1880 (2007).
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Cui, Y.

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curmi, P. A.

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Comparison of the photoluminescence properties of semiconductor quantum dots and non-blinking diamond nanoparticles. Observation of the diffusion of diamond nanoparticles in living cells," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09032 (2009).

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway," Small 4, 2236-2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curri, M. L.

N. Depalo, A. Mallardi, R. Comparelli, M. Striccoli, A. Agostiano, and M. L. Curri, "Luminescent nanocrystals in phospholipid micelles for bioconjugation: An optical and structural investigation," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 325, 558-566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Danelon, C.

G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Danelon, P. Izewska, M. Prummer, P.-Y. Bolinger, I. Geissbühler, D. Demurtas, J. Dubochet, and H. Vogel, "Multifunctional lipid/quantum dot hybrid nanocontainers for controlled targeting of live cells," Angew Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 5478-5483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Demurtas, D.

G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Danelon, P. Izewska, M. Prummer, P.-Y. Bolinger, I. Geissbühler, D. Demurtas, J. Dubochet, and H. Vogel, "Multifunctional lipid/quantum dot hybrid nanocontainers for controlled targeting of live cells," Angew Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 5478-5483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Depalo, N.

N. Depalo, A. Mallardi, R. Comparelli, M. Striccoli, A. Agostiano, and M. L. Curri, "Luminescent nanocrystals in phospholipid micelles for bioconjugation: An optical and structural investigation," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 325, 558-566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Derfus, A. M.

A. M. Derfus, W. C. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, "Intracellular delivery of quantum dots for live cell labeling and organelle tracking," Adv. Mater. 16, 961-966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Derfus, W. C. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, "Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots," Nano Lett. 4, 11-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Fernandez, Y. A.

P. Pallavicini, Y. A. Diaz-Fernandez, and L. Pasotti, "Micelles as nanosized containers for the self-assembly of multicomponent fluorescent sensors," Coord. Chem. Rev. 253, 2226-2240 (2009).
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Didier, P.

P. Didier, G. Ulrich, Y. Mély, and R. Ziessel, "Improved push-pull-push E-Bodipy fluorophores for two photon cell-imaging," Org. Biomol. Chem. 7, 3639-3642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Druon, F.

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway," Small 4, 2236-2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubertret, B.

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, "In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles," Science 298, 1759-1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dubochet, J.

G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Danelon, P. Izewska, M. Prummer, P.-Y. Bolinger, I. Geissbühler, D. Demurtas, J. Dubochet, and H. Vogel, "Multifunctional lipid/quantum dot hybrid nanocontainers for controlled targeting of live cells," Angew Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 5478-5483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dudu, V.

V. Dudu, M. Ramcharan, M. L. Gilchrist, E. C. Holland, and M. Vazquez, "Liposome delivery of quantum dots to the cytosol of live cells," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 2293-2300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumeige, Y.

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. Roch, and P. Grangier, "Photo-induced creation of nitrogen-related color centers in diamond nanocrystals under femtosecond illumination," J. Lumin. 109, 61-67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durst, R. A.

C.-S. Chen, J. Yao, and R. A. Durst, "Liposome encapsulation of fluorescent nanoparticles: Quantum dots and silica nanoparticles," J. Nanoparticle Res. 8, 1033-1038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellsworth, A. Z.

A. Prakash, H. Zhu, C. J. Jones, D. N. Benoit, A. Z. Ellsworth, E. L. Bryant, and V. L. Colvin, "Bilayers as phase transfer agents for nanocrystals prepared in nonpolar solvents," ACS Nano 3, 2139-2146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faklaris, O.

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Comparison of the photoluminescence properties of semiconductor quantum dots and non-blinking diamond nanoparticles. Observation of the diffusion of diamond nanoparticles in living cells," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09032 (2009).

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway," Small 4, 2236-2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, H.

H. Fan, E. W. Leve, C. Scullin, J. Gabaldon, D. Tallant, T. Bunge, M. C. Wilson, and C. J. Brinker, "Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot micelles," Nano Lett. 5, 645-648 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, C.-Y.

N. Mohan, Y.-K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y.-Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C.-Y. Fang, and H.-C. Chang, "Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors," Adv. Mater. 21,1-5 (2009). DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901596.

T.-L. Wee, Y.-W. Mau, C.-Y. Fang, H.-L. Hsu, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, "Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications," Diamond Relat. Mater. 18, 567 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-R. Chang, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, C.-C. Chang, D.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Fu, T.-S. Lim, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-Y. Fang, C.-C. Han, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotech. 3, 284-288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fann, W.

Y. Y. Hui, Y.-R. Chang, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Lee, W. Fann, and H.-C. Chang, "Quantifying the number of color centers in single fluorescent nanodiamonds by photon correlation spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-R. Chang, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, C.-C. Chang, D.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Fu, T.-S. Lim, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-Y. Fang, C.-C. Han, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotech. 3, 284-288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 727-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-L. Wee, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Two photon excited fluorescence of nitrogen-vacancy centers in proton-irradiated type Ib diamond," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 9379-9386 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontaine-Aupar, M.-P.

R. Briandet, P. Lacroix-Gueu, M. Renault, S. Lecart, T. Meylheuc, E. Bidnenko, K. Steenkeste, M.-N. Bellon-Fontaine, and M.-P. Fontaine-Aupar, "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study diffusion and reaction of bacteriophages inside biofilms," Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 2135-2143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, C.-C.

Y.-R. Chang, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, C.-C. Chang, D.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Fu, T.-S. Lim, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-Y. Fang, C.-C. Han, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotech. 3, 284-288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 727-732 (2007).
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Gabaldon, J.

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O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway," Small 4, 2236-2239 (2008).
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V. Dudu, M. Ramcharan, M. L. Gilchrist, E. C. Holland, and M. Vazquez, "Liposome delivery of quantum dots to the cytosol of live cells," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 2293-2300 (2008).
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T.-L. Wee, Y.-W. Mau, C.-Y. Fang, H.-L. Hsu, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, "Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications," Diamond Relat. Mater. 18, 567 (2009).
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Y. Y. Hui, Y.-R. Chang, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Lee, W. Fann, and H.-C. Chang, "Quantifying the number of color centers in single fluorescent nanodiamonds by photon correlation spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013104 (2009).
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Z. Petrasek, C. Hoege, A. Mashaghi, T. Ohrt, A. A. Hyman, and P. Schwille, "Characterization of protein dynamics in asymmetric cell division by scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 95, 5476-5486 (2008).
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O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway," Small 4, 2236-2239 (2008).
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F. Neugart, A. Zappe, F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, J.-P. Boudou, A. Krueger, and J. Wrachtrup, "Dynamics of diamond nanoparticles in solution and cells," Nano Lett. 7, 3588-3591 (2007).
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Lee, H.-Y.

Y. Y. Hui, Y.-R. Chang, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Lee, W. Fann, and H.-C. Chang, "Quantifying the number of color centers in single fluorescent nanodiamonds by photon correlation spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013104 (2009).
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Y.-R. Chang, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, C.-C. Chang, D.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Fu, T.-S. Lim, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-Y. Fang, C.-C. Han, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotech. 3, 284-288 (2008).
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H. Fan, E. W. Leve, C. Scullin, J. Gabaldon, D. Tallant, T. Bunge, M. C. Wilson, and C. J. Brinker, "Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot micelles," Nano Lett. 5, 645-648 (2005).
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X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 969-976 (2004).
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V. Levi and E. Gratton, "Exploring dynamics in living cells by tracking single particles," Cell Biochem. Biophys. 48, 1-15 (2007).
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V. Vaijayanthimala, Y.-K. Tzeng, H.-C. Chang, and C.-L. Li, "The biocompatibility of fluorescent nanodiamonds and their mechanism of cellular uptake," Nanotech. 20, 425103 (2009).
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A. Krueger, Y. J. Liang, G. Jarre, and J. Stegk, "Surface functionalisation of detonation diamonds suitable for biological applications," J. Mater. Chem. 16, 2322-2328 (2006).
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B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, "In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles," Science 298, 1759-1762 (2002).
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Y. Y. Hui, Y.-R. Chang, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Lee, W. Fann, and H.-C. Chang, "Quantifying the number of color centers in single fluorescent nanodiamonds by photon correlation spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013104 (2009).
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Y.-R. Chang, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, C.-C. Chang, D.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Fu, T.-S. Lim, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-Y. Fang, C.-C. Han, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotech. 3, 284-288 (2008).
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C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 727-732 (2007).
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C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 727-732 (2007).
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Low, P. S.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
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P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, and W. W. Webb, "Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one- and two-photon excitation," Biophys. J. 77, 2251-2265 (1999).
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Q. Ruan, Y. Chen, E. Gratton, M. Glaser, and W. W. Mantulin, "Cellular characterization of adenylate kinase and its isoform: Two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 83, 3177-3187 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. Petrasek, C. Hoege, A. Mashaghi, T. Ohrt, A. A. Hyman, and P. Schwille, "Characterization of protein dynamics in asymmetric cell division by scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 95, 5476-5486 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mau, Y.-W.

T.-L. Wee, Y.-W. Mau, C.-Y. Fang, H.-L. Hsu, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, "Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications," Diamond Relat. Mater. 18, 567 (2009).
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R. Briandet, P. Lacroix-Gueu, M. Renault, S. Lecart, T. Meylheuc, E. Bidnenko, K. Steenkeste, M.-N. Bellon-Fontaine, and M.-P. Fontaine-Aupar, "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study diffusion and reaction of bacteriophages inside biofilms," Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 2135-2143 (2008).
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M. J. Murcia, D. E. Minner, G. -M. Mustata, K. Ritchie, and C. A. Naumann, "Design of quantum dot conjugated lipids for long-term, high-speed tracking experiments on cell surfaces," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 15054-15062 (2008).
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N. Mohan, Y.-K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y.-Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C.-Y. Fang, and H.-C. Chang, "Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors," Adv. Mater. 21,1-5 (2009). DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901596.

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M. J. Murcia, D. E. Minner, G. -M. Mustata, K. Ritchie, and C. A. Naumann, "Design of quantum dot conjugated lipids for long-term, high-speed tracking experiments on cell surfaces," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 15054-15062 (2008).
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M. J. Murcia, D. E. Minner, G. -M. Mustata, K. Ritchie, and C. A. Naumann, "Design of quantum dot conjugated lipids for long-term, high-speed tracking experiments on cell surfaces," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 15054-15062 (2008).
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F. Neugart, A. Zappe, F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, J.-P. Boudou, A. Krueger, and J. Wrachtrup, "Dynamics of diamond nanoparticles in solution and cells," Nano Lett. 7, 3588-3591 (2007).
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X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 969-976 (2004).
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B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, "In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles," Science 298, 1759-1762 (2002).
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B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, "In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles," Science 298, 1759-1762 (2002).
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R. Bakalova, Z. Zhelev, I. Aoki, H. Ohba, Y. Imai, and I. Kanno, "Silica-shelled single quantum dot micelles as imaging probes with dual or multimodality," Anal. Chem. 78, 5925-5932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. Petrasek, C. Hoege, A. Mashaghi, T. Ohrt, A. A. Hyman, and P. Schwille, "Characterization of protein dynamics in asymmetric cell division by scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 95, 5476-5486 (2008).
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Z. Petrasek, C. Hoege, A. Mashaghi, T. Ohrt, A. A. Hyman, and P. Schwille, "Characterization of protein dynamics in asymmetric cell division by scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 95, 5476-5486 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plakhotnik, T.

B. R. Smith, M. Niebert, T. Plakhotnik, and A. V. Zvyagin, "Transfection and imaging of diamond nanocrystals as scattering optical labels," J. Lumin. 127260-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, W. H.

W. H. Pohl, H. Hellmuth, M. Hilbert, J. Seibel, and P. J. Walla, "A two-photon fluorescence-correlation study of lectins interacting with carbohydrated 20 nm beads," ChemBioChem 7, 268-274 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prakash, A.

A. Prakash, H. Zhu, C. J. Jones, D. N. Benoit, A. Z. Ellsworth, E. L. Bryant, and V. L. Colvin, "Bilayers as phase transfer agents for nanocrystals prepared in nonpolar solvents," ACS Nano 3, 2139-2146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prummer, M.

G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Danelon, P. Izewska, M. Prummer, P.-Y. Bolinger, I. Geissbühler, D. Demurtas, J. Dubochet, and H. Vogel, "Multifunctional lipid/quantum dot hybrid nanocontainers for controlled targeting of live cells," Angew Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 5478-5483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramcharan, M.

V. Dudu, M. Ramcharan, M. L. Gilchrist, E. C. Holland, and M. Vazquez, "Liposome delivery of quantum dots to the cytosol of live cells," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 2293-2300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renault, M.

R. Briandet, P. Lacroix-Gueu, M. Renault, S. Lecart, T. Meylheuc, E. Bidnenko, K. Steenkeste, M.-N. Bellon-Fontaine, and M.-P. Fontaine-Aupar, "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study diffusion and reaction of bacteriophages inside biofilms," Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 2135-2143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritchie, K.

M. J. Murcia, D. E. Minner, G. -M. Mustata, K. Ritchie, and C. A. Naumann, "Design of quantum dot conjugated lipids for long-term, high-speed tracking experiments on cell surfaces," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 15054-15062 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roch, J.

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. Roch, and P. Grangier, "Photo-induced creation of nitrogen-related color centers in diamond nanocrystals under femtosecond illumination," J. Lumin. 109, 61-67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosenzweig, Z.

Y. Chen and Z. Rosenzweig, "Luminescent CdSe quantum dot doped stabilized micelles," Nano Lett. 2, 1299-1302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Q.

Q. Ruan, Y. Chen, E. Gratton, M. Glaser, and W. W. Mantulin, "Cellular characterization of adenylate kinase and its isoform: Two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 83, 3177-3187 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauvage, T.

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Comparison of the photoluminescence properties of semiconductor quantum dots and non-blinking diamond nanoparticles. Observation of the diffusion of diamond nanoparticles in living cells," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09032 (2009).

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway," Small 4, 2236-2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, J. E.

J. E. Schroeder, I. Shweky, H. Shmeeda, U. Banin, and A. Gabizon, "Folate-mediated tumor cell uptake of quantum dots entrapped in lipid nanoparticles," J. Control. Release 124, 28-34 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwille, P.

Z. Petrasek, C. Hoege, A. Mashaghi, T. Ohrt, A. A. Hyman, and P. Schwille, "Characterization of protein dynamics in asymmetric cell division by scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 95, 5476-5486 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, and W. W. Webb, "Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one- and two-photon excitation," Biophys. J. 77, 2251-2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scullin, C.

H. Fan, E. W. Leve, C. Scullin, J. Gabaldon, D. Tallant, T. Bunge, M. C. Wilson, and C. J. Brinker, "Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot micelles," Nano Lett. 5, 645-648 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibel, J.

W. H. Pohl, H. Hellmuth, M. Hilbert, J. Seibel, and P. J. Walla, "A two-photon fluorescence-correlation study of lectins interacting with carbohydrated 20 nm beads," ChemBioChem 7, 268-274 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shmeeda, H.

J. E. Schroeder, I. Shweky, H. Shmeeda, U. Banin, and A. Gabizon, "Folate-mediated tumor cell uptake of quantum dots entrapped in lipid nanoparticles," J. Control. Release 124, 28-34 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shweky, I.

J. E. Schroeder, I. Shweky, H. Shmeeda, U. Banin, and A. Gabizon, "Folate-mediated tumor cell uptake of quantum dots entrapped in lipid nanoparticles," J. Control. Release 124, 28-34 (2007).
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Skourides, P.

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, "In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles," Science 298, 1759-1762 (2002).
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Smith, B. R.

B. R. Smith, M. Niebert, T. Plakhotnik, and A. V. Zvyagin, "Transfection and imaging of diamond nanocrystals as scattering optical labels," J. Lumin. 127260-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

So, P. T. C.

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, "Two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: method and application to the intracellular environment," Biophys. J. 68, 694-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steenkeste, K.

R. Briandet, P. Lacroix-Gueu, M. Renault, S. Lecart, T. Meylheuc, E. Bidnenko, K. Steenkeste, M.-N. Bellon-Fontaine, and M.-P. Fontaine-Aupar, "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study diffusion and reaction of bacteriophages inside biofilms," Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 2135-2143 (2008).
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Stegk, J.

A. Krueger, Y. J. Liang, G. Jarre, and J. Stegk, "Surface functionalisation of detonation diamonds suitable for biological applications," J. Mater. Chem. 16, 2322-2328 (2006).
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N. Depalo, A. Mallardi, R. Comparelli, M. Striccoli, A. Agostiano, and M. L. Curri, "Luminescent nanocrystals in phospholipid micelles for bioconjugation: An optical and structural investigation," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 325, 558-566 (2008).
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Sun, C.-K.

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R. F. Heuff, J. L. Swift, and D. T. Cramb, "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy using quantum dots: advances, challenges and opportunities," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 1870-1880 (2007).
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Tai, S.-P.

Tallant, D.

H. Fan, E. W. Leve, C. Scullin, J. Gabaldon, D. Tallant, T. Bunge, M. C. Wilson, and C. J. Brinker, "Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot micelles," Nano Lett. 5, 645-648 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tietz, C.

F. Neugart, A. Zappe, F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, J.-P. Boudou, A. Krueger, and J. Wrachtrup, "Dynamics of diamond nanoparticles in solution and cells," Nano Lett. 7, 3588-3591 (2007).
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Torchilin, V. P.

V. P. Torchilin, "Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers," Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 4, 145-160 (2005).
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Treussart, F.

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Comparison of the photoluminescence properties of semiconductor quantum dots and non-blinking diamond nanoparticles. Observation of the diffusion of diamond nanoparticles in living cells," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09032 (2009).

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway," Small 4, 2236-2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. Roch, and P. Grangier, "Photo-induced creation of nitrogen-related color centers in diamond nanocrystals under femtosecond illumination," J. Lumin. 109, 61-67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D.-S.

Y.-R. Chang, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, C.-C. Chang, D.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Fu, T.-S. Lim, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-Y. Fang, C.-C. Han, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotech. 3, 284-288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T.-H.

Tsao, P.-H.

C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 727-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, Y.-B.

Tzeng, Y.-K.

N. Mohan, Y.-K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y.-Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C.-Y. Fang, and H.-C. Chang, "Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors," Adv. Mater. 21,1-5 (2009). DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901596.

V. Vaijayanthimala, Y.-K. Tzeng, H.-C. Chang, and C.-L. Li, "The biocompatibility of fluorescent nanodiamonds and their mechanism of cellular uptake," Nanotech. 20, 425103 (2009).
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Y.-R. Chang, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, C.-C. Chang, D.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Fu, T.-S. Lim, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-Y. Fang, C.-C. Han, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotech. 3, 284-288 (2008).
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T.-L. Wee, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Two photon excited fluorescence of nitrogen-vacancy centers in proton-irradiated type Ib diamond," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 9379-9386 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulrich, G.

P. Didier, G. Ulrich, Y. Mély, and R. Ziessel, "Improved push-pull-push E-Bodipy fluorophores for two photon cell-imaging," Org. Biomol. Chem. 7, 3639-3642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaijayanthimala, V.

V. Vaijayanthimala, Y.-K. Tzeng, H.-C. Chang, and C.-L. Li, "The biocompatibility of fluorescent nanodiamonds and their mechanism of cellular uptake," Nanotech. 20, 425103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez, M.

V. Dudu, M. Ramcharan, M. L. Gilchrist, E. C. Holland, and M. Vazquez, "Liposome delivery of quantum dots to the cytosol of live cells," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 2293-2300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, H.

G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Danelon, P. Izewska, M. Prummer, P.-Y. Bolinger, I. Geissbühler, D. Demurtas, J. Dubochet, and H. Vogel, "Multifunctional lipid/quantum dot hybrid nanocontainers for controlled targeting of live cells," Angew Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 5478-5483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walla, P. J.

W. H. Pohl, H. Hellmuth, M. Hilbert, J. Seibel, and P. J. Walla, "A two-photon fluorescence-correlation study of lectins interacting with carbohydrated 20 nm beads," ChemBioChem 7, 268-274 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, "Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo," Science 300, 1434-1436 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, and W. W. Webb, "Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one- and two-photon excitation," Biophys. J. 77, 2251-2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wee, T.-L.

T.-L. Wee, Y.-W. Mau, C.-Y. Fang, H.-L. Hsu, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, "Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications," Diamond Relat. Mater. 18, 567 (2009).
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T.-L. Wee, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Two photon excited fluorescence of nitrogen-vacancy centers in proton-irradiated type Ib diamond," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 9379-9386 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, A.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, P.-K.

C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 727-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, "Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo," Science 300, 1434-1436 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, M. C.

H. Fan, E. W. Leve, C. Scullin, J. Gabaldon, D. Tallant, T. Bunge, M. C. Wilson, and C. J. Brinker, "Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot micelles," Nano Lett. 5, 645-648 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, "Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo," Science 300, 1434-1436 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wrachtrup, J.

F. Neugart, A. Zappe, F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, J.-P. Boudou, A. Krueger, and J. Wrachtrup, "Dynamics of diamond nanoparticles in solution and cells," Nano Lett. 7, 3588-3591 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-Y.

C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 727-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

N. Mohan, Y.-K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y.-Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C.-Y. Fang, and H.-C. Chang, "Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors," Adv. Mater. 21,1-5 (2009). DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901596.

Yao, J.

C.-S. Chen, J. Yao, and R. A. Durst, "Liposome encapsulation of fluorescent nanoparticles: Quantum dots and silica nanoparticles," J. Nanoparticle Res. 8, 1033-1038 (2006).
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Yu, C.-H.

Yu, S.-J.

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: No photobleaching and low cytotoxicity," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 17604-17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.-C.

T.-L. Wee, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Two photon excited fluorescence of nitrogen-vacancy centers in proton-irradiated type Ib diamond," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 9379-9386 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: No photobleaching and low cytotoxicity," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 17604-17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zappe, A.

F. Neugart, A. Zappe, F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, J.-P. Boudou, A. Krueger, and J. Wrachtrup, "Dynamics of diamond nanoparticles in solution and cells," Nano Lett. 7, 3588-3591 (2007).
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Zhang, L. W.

L. W. Zhang and N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, "Mechanisms of quantum dot nanoparticle cellular uptake," Toxicol. Sci. 110,138-155 (2009).
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Zhelev, Z.

R. Bakalova, Z. Zhelev, I. Aoki, H. Ohba, Y. Imai, and I. Kanno, "Silica-shelled single quantum dot micelles as imaging probes with dual or multimodality," Anal. Chem. 78, 5925-5932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

A. Prakash, H. Zhu, C. J. Jones, D. N. Benoit, A. Z. Ellsworth, E. L. Bryant, and V. L. Colvin, "Bilayers as phase transfer agents for nanocrystals prepared in nonpolar solvents," ACS Nano 3, 2139-2146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziessel, R.

P. Didier, G. Ulrich, Y. Mély, and R. Ziessel, "Improved push-pull-push E-Bodipy fluorophores for two photon cell-imaging," Org. Biomol. Chem. 7, 3639-3642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, "Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo," Science 300, 1434-1436 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zvyagin, A. V.

B. R. Smith, M. Niebert, T. Plakhotnik, and A. V. Zvyagin, "Transfection and imaging of diamond nanocrystals as scattering optical labels," J. Lumin. 127260-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zweifel, D. A.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

A. Prakash, H. Zhu, C. J. Jones, D. N. Benoit, A. Z. Ellsworth, E. L. Bryant, and V. L. Colvin, "Bilayers as phase transfer agents for nanocrystals prepared in nonpolar solvents," ACS Nano 3, 2139-2146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

N. Mohan, Y.-K. Tzeng, L. Yang, Y.-Y. Chen, Y. Y. Hui, C.-Y. Fang, and H.-C. Chang, "Sub-20-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds as photostable biolabels and fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors," Adv. Mater. 21,1-5 (2009). DOI: 10.1002/adma.200901596.

A. M. Derfus, W. C. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, "Intracellular delivery of quantum dots for live cell labeling and organelle tracking," Adv. Mater. 16, 961-966 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

R. Bakalova, Z. Zhelev, I. Aoki, H. Ohba, Y. Imai, and I. Kanno, "Silica-shelled single quantum dot micelles as imaging probes with dual or multimodality," Anal. Chem. 78, 5925-5932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Danelon, P. Izewska, M. Prummer, P.-Y. Bolinger, I. Geissbühler, D. Demurtas, J. Dubochet, and H. Vogel, "Multifunctional lipid/quantum dot hybrid nanocontainers for controlled targeting of live cells," Angew Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 5478-5483 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1)

R. Briandet, P. Lacroix-Gueu, M. Renault, S. Lecart, T. Meylheuc, E. Bidnenko, K. Steenkeste, M.-N. Bellon-Fontaine, and M.-P. Fontaine-Aupar, "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to study diffusion and reaction of bacteriophages inside biofilms," Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 2135-2143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Y. Hui, Y.-R. Chang, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Lee, W. Fann, and H.-C. Chang, "Quantifying the number of color centers in single fluorescent nanodiamonds by photon correlation spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (4)

Z. Petrasek, C. Hoege, A. Mashaghi, T. Ohrt, A. A. Hyman, and P. Schwille, "Characterization of protein dynamics in asymmetric cell division by scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 95, 5476-5486 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Ruan, Y. Chen, E. Gratton, M. Glaser, and W. W. Mantulin, "Cellular characterization of adenylate kinase and its isoform: Two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 83, 3177-3187 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Berland, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, "Two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: method and application to the intracellular environment," Biophys. J. 68, 694-701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, and W. W. Webb, "Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one- and two-photon excitation," Biophys. J. 77, 2251-2265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cell Biochem. Biophys. (1)

V. Levi and E. Gratton, "Exploring dynamics in living cells by tracking single particles," Cell Biochem. Biophys. 48, 1-15 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ChemBioChem (1)

W. H. Pohl, H. Hellmuth, M. Hilbert, J. Seibel, and P. J. Walla, "A two-photon fluorescence-correlation study of lectins interacting with carbohydrated 20 nm beads," ChemBioChem 7, 268-274 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coord. Chem. Rev. (1)

P. Pallavicini, Y. A. Diaz-Fernandez, and L. Pasotti, "Micelles as nanosized containers for the self-assembly of multicomponent fluorescent sensors," Coord. Chem. Rev. 253, 2226-2240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diamond Relat. Mater. (1)

T.-L. Wee, Y.-W. Mau, C.-Y. Fang, H.-L. Hsu, C.-C. Han, and H.-C. Chang, "Preparation and characterization of green fluorescent nanodiamonds for biological applications," Diamond Relat. Mater. 18, 567 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

S.-J. Yu, M.-W. Kang, H.-C. Chang, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Bright fluorescent nanodiamonds: No photobleaching and low cytotoxicity," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 17604-17605 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Murcia, D. E. Minner, G. -M. Mustata, K. Ritchie, and C. A. Naumann, "Design of quantum dot conjugated lipids for long-term, high-speed tracking experiments on cell surfaces," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 15054-15062 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

N. Depalo, A. Mallardi, R. Comparelli, M. Striccoli, A. Agostiano, and M. L. Curri, "Luminescent nanocrystals in phospholipid micelles for bioconjugation: An optical and structural investigation," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 325, 558-566 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Control. Release (1)

J. E. Schroeder, I. Shweky, H. Shmeeda, U. Banin, and A. Gabizon, "Folate-mediated tumor cell uptake of quantum dots entrapped in lipid nanoparticles," J. Control. Release 124, 28-34 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. (1)

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Comparison of the photoluminescence properties of semiconductor quantum dots and non-blinking diamond nanoparticles. Observation of the diffusion of diamond nanoparticles in living cells," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Public. 4, 09032 (2009).

J. Lumin. (2)

B. R. Smith, M. Niebert, T. Plakhotnik, and A. V. Zvyagin, "Transfection and imaging of diamond nanocrystals as scattering optical labels," J. Lumin. 127260-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dumeige, F. Treussart, R. Alleaume, T. Gacoin, J. Roch, and P. Grangier, "Photo-induced creation of nitrogen-related color centers in diamond nanocrystals under femtosecond illumination," J. Lumin. 109, 61-67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

A. Krueger, Y. J. Liang, G. Jarre, and J. Stegk, "Surface functionalisation of detonation diamonds suitable for biological applications," J. Mater. Chem. 16, 2322-2328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanoparticle Res. (1)

C.-S. Chen, J. Yao, and R. A. Durst, "Liposome encapsulation of fluorescent nanoparticles: Quantum dots and silica nanoparticles," J. Nanoparticle Res. 8, 1033-1038 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

V. Dudu, M. Ramcharan, M. L. Gilchrist, E. C. Holland, and M. Vazquez, "Liposome delivery of quantum dots to the cytosol of live cells," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 2293-2300 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

T.-L. Wee, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K.-M. Chen, and Y.-C. Yu, "Two photon excited fluorescence of nitrogen-vacancy centers in proton-irradiated type Ib diamond," J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 9379-9386 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

L.-C. L. Huang and H.-C. Chang, "Adsorption and immobilization of cytochrome c on nanodiamonds," Langmuir 20, 5879-5884 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

Y. Chen and Z. Rosenzweig, "Luminescent CdSe quantum dot doped stabilized micelles," Nano Lett. 2, 1299-1302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Fan, E. W. Leve, C. Scullin, J. Gabaldon, D. Tallant, T. Bunge, M. C. Wilson, and C. J. Brinker, "Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot micelles," Nano Lett. 5, 645-648 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neugart, A. Zappe, F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, J.-P. Boudou, A. Krueger, and J. Wrachtrup, "Dynamics of diamond nanoparticles in solution and cells," Nano Lett. 7, 3588-3591 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Derfus, W. C. Chan, and S. N. Bhatia, "Probing the cytotoxicity of semiconductor quantum dots," Nano Lett. 4, 11-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nanotech. (1)

V. Vaijayanthimala, Y.-K. Tzeng, H.-C. Chang, and C.-L. Li, "The biocompatibility of fluorescent nanodiamonds and their mechanism of cellular uptake," Nanotech. 20, 425103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotech. (1)

Y.-R. Chang, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, C.-C. Chang, D.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Fu, T.-S. Lim, Y.-K. Tzeng, C.-Y. Fang, C.-C. Han, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotech. 3, 284-288 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. (1)

V. P. Torchilin, "Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers," Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 4, 145-160 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Org. Biomol. Chem. (1)

P. Didier, G. Ulrich, Y. Mély, and R. Ziessel, "Improved push-pull-push E-Bodipy fluorophores for two photon cell-imaging," Org. Biomol. Chem. 7, 3639-3642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. F. Heuff, J. L. Swift, and D. T. Cramb, "Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy using quantum dots: advances, challenges and opportunities," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 1870-1880 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2)

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, D. A. Zweifel, W. He, P. S. Low, A. Wei, and J.-X. Cheng, "In vitro and in vivo two photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15752-15756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-C. Fu, H.-Y. Lee, K. Chen, T.-S. Lim, H.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, P.-K. Wei, P.-H. Tsao, H.-C. Chang, and W. Fann, "Characterization and application of single fluorescent nanodiamonds as cellular biomarkers," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 727-732 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, "Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo," Science 300, 1434-1436 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Dubertret, P. Skourides, D. J. Norris, V. Noireaux, A. H. Brivanlou, and A. Libchaber, "In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles," Science 298, 1759-1762 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

O. Faklaris, D. Garrot, V. Joshi, F. Druon, J.-P. Boudou, T. Sauvage, P. Georges, P. A. Curmi, and F. Treussart, "Detection of single photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles in cells and study of the internalization pathway," Small 4, 2236-2239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toxicol. Sci. (1)

L. W. Zhang and N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, "Mechanisms of quantum dot nanoparticle cellular uptake," Toxicol. Sci. 110,138-155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) One-photon and (b) two-photon excited luminescence images of 40-nm FNDs on glass slides (left) and in HeLa cells (right). The power of the green laser used to excite FND particles in HeLa cells (or on glass slides) is 70 μW (or 700 μW), while the infrared laser power is 5 mW (or 10 mW). The unit of the fluorescence intensity is 100 counts per second.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of one-photon and two-photon excited luminescence spectra of bare 40-nm FNDs with 532, 875, and 1060 nm lasers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Two-photon FCS of bare and lipid-encapsulated 40-nm FNDs in live HeLa cells. The solid line is the fit of experimental data using Eq. (1).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Synthesis of lipid-encapsulated FNDs by reduction, silanization, and liposomization (lipid encapsulation) reactions. (b) Photograph of 40-nm FNDs suspended in toluene/water before and after the reduction and silanization treatments described in text. (c) Fluorescence spectra of bare and lipid-encapsulated 40-nm FNDs suspended in water.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Single-particle tracking of FNDs in HeLa cells using one-photon excited luminescence in the cases of bare and lipid-encapsulated 40 nm particles.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Diffusion coefficients and particle sizes of bare and lipid-encapsulated FNDs determined by one-photon and two-photon FCS in water

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of diffusion coefficients of lipid-coated nanoparticles in cells and on cell surfaces, determined by FCS

Equations (1)

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G ( τ ) = 1 1 + τ τ D 1 1 + τ s 2 τ D

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