Abstract

Materials showing birefringence and polarization selective absorption (dichroism) affect the polarization state of incoming light in a peculiar way, quite different from the one exhibited by phase retarders like waveplates. In this paper, we report on the characterization of a Polymer LIquid CRYstal Polymer Slices (POLICRYPS) diffraction grating used as a dichroic phase retarder; the dichroic behaviour of the grating is due to the polarization-dependent diffraction efficiency. Experimental data are validated with a theoretical model based on the Jones matrix formalism, while the grating behavior is modeled by means of the dichroic matrix. In this way, the birefringence of the analyzed structure is easily obtained. For comparison purposes, also two systems different from POLICRYPS have been fabricated and tested.

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References

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  1. E. Bartholinus, Experimenta crystalli islandici disdiaclastici quibus mira & insolita refractio detegitur, (Hafniæ, Denmark 1669).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid-crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1261–1263 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, P. F. Lloyd, and T. J. Bunning, “Droplet deformation and alignment for high-efficiency polarization-dependent holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal reflection gratings,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1890–1892 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2004

2000

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, “Formation of a Grating of Submicron Nematic Layers by Photopolymerization of Nematic-Containing Mixtures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 91(6), 1190–1197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1981

1969

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969).

1941

Bunning, T. J.

Caputo, R.

De Sio, L.

Gaylord, T. K.

Jones, R. C.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969).

Lloyd, P. F.

Moharam, M. G.

Natarajan, L. V.

Sukhov, A. V.

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, “Development of a new kind of switchable holographic grating made of liquid-crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1261–1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, “Formation of a Grating of Submicron Nematic Layers by Photopolymerization of Nematic-Containing Mixtures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 91(6), 1190–1197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

Tabyrian, N. V.

Tondiglia, V. P.

Umeton, C.

Ushakov, R. F.

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, “Formation of a Grating of Submicron Nematic Layers by Photopolymerization of Nematic-Containing Mixtures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 91(6), 1190–1197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Veltri, A.

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969).

J. Exp. Theor. Phys.

R. Caputo, A. V. Sukhov, C. Umeton, and R. F. Ushakov, “Formation of a Grating of Submicron Nematic Layers by Photopolymerization of Nematic-Containing Mixtures,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 91(6), 1190–1197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

E. Bartholinus, Experimenta crystalli islandici disdiaclastici quibus mira & insolita refractio detegitur, (Hafniæ, Denmark 1669).

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Interpolation of the experimental behavior of the diffraction efficiency of a POLICRYPS grating as a function of the angle between the NLC director and the electric field direction in the linearly polarized wave impinging on the sample at the Bragg angle. Experimental error is of the order of the thickness of the line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental geometry utilized for measuring the intensity transmitted by the system composed of a birefringent/dichroic sample put between two polarizers. P polarizer, A analyzer, Iinc total incident intensity, Iout output intensity, I0T and I ± 1T zeroth and first order transmitted intensities, respectively. θ is the angle between the light polarization direction (y axis) and the grating optical axis (laying in the xy plane), PD Photo-detector, OSC oscilloscope. The probe beam is from a He-Ne laser at the wavelength λ = 632.8 nm. S is the POLICRYPS sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical morphology of a POLICRYPS grating, observed at the optical microscope between crossed polarizers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Behaviour of the intensity transmitted by the analyzer put after a POLICRYPS grating as a function of the angle β between the electric field of the impinging wave and the axis of the analyzer itself. Two segments in the graph evidence output intensity values for the analyzer positions β=0 and β=π/2 respectively. Experimental error is of the order of the dimension of crosses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scanning Electron Microscope comparison between (a) a typical HPDLC and (b) a POLICRYPS morphology.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Behavior of the intensity transmitted by the analyzer put after a HPDLC grating as a function of the angle β between the electric field of the impinging wave and the axis of the analyzer itself. Two segments in the graph evidence output intensity values for the analyzer positions β=0 and β=π/2 respectively. Experimental error is of the order of the dimension of crosses.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Behavior of the intensity transmitted by the analyzer put after a thin film of NLC as a function of the angle β between the electric field of the impinging wave and the axis of the analyzer itself. Two segments in the graph evidence output intensity values for the analyzer positions β=0 and β=π/2 respectively. Experimental error is of the order of the dimension of crosses.

Equations (11)

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L = ( H 0 0 V )
A ( β ) = ( cos β sin β sin β cos β ) ( 0 0 0 1 ) ( cos β sin β sin β cos β ) = ( sin 2 β sin β cos β sin β cos β cos 2 β )
M = ( e i δ 2 0 0 e i δ 2 )
E ˜ o u t = ( sin 2 β sin β cos β sin β cos β cos 2 β ) [ ( H 0 0 V ) ( e i δ 2 0 0 e i δ 2 ) ] 2 2 I i n c ( 1 1 ) = = 2 2 I i n c ( H e i δ 2 sin 2 β V e i δ 2 sin β cos β H e i δ 2 sin β cos β + V e i δ 2 cos 2 β )
I o u t ( β ) = E ˜ o u t ( β ) E ˜ o u t * ( β ) = I i n c 2 [ H 2 sin 2 β + V 2 cos 2 β + H V sin 2 β cos δ ]
I o u t ( β = π 2 ) = I i n c H 2 2
I o u t ( β = 0 ) = I i n c V 2 2
H = 2 I o u t ( β = π 2 ) I i n c
V = 2 I o u t ( β = 0 ) I i n c
cos δ = 1 H V [ 2 I o u t ( β = π / 4 ) I i n c H 2 + V 2 2 ]
H 2 V 2 = I o u t ( β = π 2 ) I o u t ( β = 0 )

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