Abstract

We report a large nonlinear response in a 1.3mm long GaInP photonic crystal waveguide. The wide band gap of GaInP (1.9 eV) ensures that no two photon absorption takes place for photons at 1.55μm improving the nonlinear performance. The nonlinearity is enhanced by a resonance effect due to the waveguide end facet reflectivities as well as by the low group velocity exhibited by the waveguide. A low CW input pump power of ≃2mW causes a very large change in the nonlinear refractive index coefficient which manifests itself in a large, ≃π/3 phase shift in the Fabry Perot fringes. The extracted effective nonlinear coefficient γ varies from 3.4 × 105W-1m-1 at short wavelengths to 2.2 × 106W-1m-1 near the band edge. These values are several orders of magnitude larger than those obtained in reported nonlinear experiments which exploit the Kerr effect. We postulate therefore that the observed nonlinearity is due to a hybrid phenomenon which combines the Kerr effect and an index change which is induced by local heating that results from the residual linear absorption. The efficient nonlinear phase shift was also exploited in a fast dynamic experiment where we demonstrated wavelength conversion with 100ps wide pulses proving the potential for switching functionalities at multi GHz rates. The index change required for this switching experiment can not be obtained, at the power levels used here, with a γ value of a few thousands W-1m-1 which is a typical Kerr coefficient in similar waveguides. Hence, we conclude that the hybrid nonlinearity is sufficiently fast to enable switching with a time scale of at least 100ps.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Husko, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, "Non-trivial scaling of self-phase modulation and three-photon absorption in III-V photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 17,22442-22451 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021111-1-021111-3 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (7)

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, "Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 17,2944-2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, H. Oda, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, "Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in slow-light photoniccrystal slab waveguides of line-defect," Opt. Express 17,7206-7216 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Husko, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, "Non-trivial scaling of self-phase modulation and three-photon absorption in III-V photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 17,22442-22451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021111-1-021111-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, C. Husko, P. Colman, and A. De Rossi, "High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108-1-211108-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, A. Sato, H. Yokoyama, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and K. Edamatsu, "All-optical phase modulations in a silicon wire waveguide at ultralow light levels," Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 171110-1-171110-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, Y. Hamachi, and T. Baba, "Fabrication and characterization of chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 17,22393-22400 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2005 (2)

2003 (2)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425,944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Vecchi, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, L. C. Andreani, F. Romanato, L. Businaro, E. Di Fabrizio, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, "Resonant second-harmonic generation in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 68, 161306-1-161306-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

E. Inbar and A. Arie, "High-sensitivity measurements of the Kerr constant in gases using a Fabry Perot-based ellipsometer," Appl. Phys. B 70,849-852 (2000).

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, P. S. Cho, R. A. Wilson, L. G. Joneckis, and P.-T. Ho, "Wavelength conversion in GaAs micro-ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 25,554-556 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425,944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Vecchi, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, L. C. Andreani, F. Romanato, L. Businaro, E. Di Fabrizio, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, "Resonant second-harmonic generation in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 68, 161306-1-161306-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

E. Inbar and A. Arie, "High-sensitivity measurements of the Kerr constant in gases using a Fabry Perot-based ellipsometer," Appl. Phys. B 70,849-852 (2000).

Asakawa, K.

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425,944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

Barclay, P. E.

Benisty, H.

Businaro, L.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Vecchi, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, L. C. Andreani, F. Romanato, L. Businaro, E. Di Fabrizio, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, "Resonant second-harmonic generation in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 68, 161306-1-161306-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, P. S.

Colman, P.

S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, C. Husko, P. Colman, and A. De Rossi, "High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108-1-211108-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Combrié, S.

S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, C. Husko, P. Colman, and A. De Rossi, "High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108-1-211108-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021111-1-021111-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Husko, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, "Non-trivial scaling of self-phase modulation and three-photon absorption in III-V photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 17,22442-22451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Combrié, A. De Rossi, Q. N. V. Tran, and H. Benisty, "GaAs photonic crystal cavity with ultrahigh Q: microwatt nonlinearity at 1.55 ?m," Opt. Lett. 33,1908-1910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corcoran, B.

De Rossi, A.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021111-1-021111-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, C. Husko, P. Colman, and A. De Rossi, "High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108-1-211108-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Husko, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, "Non-trivial scaling of self-phase modulation and three-photon absorption in III-V photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 17,22442-22451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Combrié, A. De Rossi, Q. N. V. Tran, and H. Benisty, "GaAs photonic crystal cavity with ultrahigh Q: microwatt nonlinearity at 1.55 ?m," Opt. Lett. 33,1908-1910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Vittorio, M.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Vecchi, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, L. C. Andreani, F. Romanato, L. Businaro, E. Di Fabrizio, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, "Resonant second-harmonic generation in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 68, 161306-1-161306-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Di Fabrizio, E.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Vecchi, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, L. C. Andreani, F. Romanato, L. Businaro, E. Di Fabrizio, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, "Resonant second-harmonic generation in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 68, 161306-1-161306-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ebnali-Heidari, M.

Edamatsu, K.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, A. Sato, H. Yokoyama, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and K. Edamatsu, "All-optical phase modulations in a silicon wire waveguide at ultralow light levels," Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 171110-1-171110-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Fan, S.

Fukuda, H.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, A. Sato, H. Yokoyama, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and K. Edamatsu, "All-optical phase modulations in a silicon wire waveguide at ultralow light levels," Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 171110-1-171110-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4629-4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillet, C.

Guizzetti, G.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Vecchi, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, L. C. Andreani, F. Romanato, L. Businaro, E. Di Fabrizio, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, "Resonant second-harmonic generation in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 68, 161306-1-161306-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hamachi, Y.

Ho, P.-T.

Hryniewicz, J. V.

Husko, C.

S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, C. Husko, P. Colman, and A. De Rossi, "High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108-1-211108-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021111-1-021111-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Husko, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, "Non-trivial scaling of self-phase modulation and three-photon absorption in III-V photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 17,22442-22451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

Ikeda, N.

Inbar, E.

E. Inbar and A. Arie, "High-sensitivity measurements of the Kerr constant in gases using a Fabry Perot-based ellipsometer," Appl. Phys. B 70,849-852 (2000).

Inoue, K.

Ippen, E.

Itabashi, S.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, A. Sato, H. Yokoyama, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and K. Edamatsu, "All-optical phase modulations in a silicon wire waveguide at ultralow light levels," Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 171110-1-171110-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4629-4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Joneckis, L. G.

Kosaka, H.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, A. Sato, H. Yokoyama, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and K. Edamatsu, "All-optical phase modulations in a silicon wire waveguide at ultralow light levels," Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 171110-1-171110-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Little, B. E.

Malvezzi, A. M.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Vecchi, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, L. C. Andreani, F. Romanato, L. Businaro, E. Di Fabrizio, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, "Resonant second-harmonic generation in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 68, 161306-1-161306-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, N.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, A. Sato, H. Yokoyama, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and K. Edamatsu, "All-optical phase modulations in a silicon wire waveguide at ultralow light levels," Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 171110-1-171110-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitsumori, Y.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, A. Sato, H. Yokoyama, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and K. Edamatsu, "All-optical phase modulations in a silicon wire waveguide at ultralow light levels," Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 171110-1-171110-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425,944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

Oda, H.

Painter, O.

Passaseo, A.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Vecchi, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, L. C. Andreani, F. Romanato, L. Businaro, E. Di Fabrizio, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, "Resonant second-harmonic generation in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 68, 161306-1-161306-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patrini, M.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Vecchi, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, L. C. Andreani, F. Romanato, L. Businaro, E. Di Fabrizio, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, "Resonant second-harmonic generation in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 68, 161306-1-161306-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raineri, F.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021111-1-021111-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Husko, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, C. W. Wong, and A. De Rossi, "Non-trivial scaling of self-phase modulation and three-photon absorption in III-V photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 17,22442-22451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Romanato, F.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Vecchi, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, L. C. Andreani, F. Romanato, L. Businaro, E. Di Fabrizio, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, "Resonant second-harmonic generation in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 68, 161306-1-161306-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sato, A.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, A. Sato, H. Yokoyama, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and K. Edamatsu, "All-optical phase modulations in a silicon wire waveguide at ultralow light levels," Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 171110-1-171110-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, R.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, A. Sato, H. Yokoyama, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and K. Edamatsu, "All-optical phase modulations in a silicon wire waveguide at ultralow light levels," Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 171110-1-171110-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

Soljacic, M.

Song, B.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature (London) 425,944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

Suzuki, K.

Takahashi, J.

Takahashi, M.

Tran, Q. N. V.

Tran, Q. V.

Tsuchizawa, T.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, A. Sato, H. Yokoyama, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and K. Edamatsu, "All-optical phase modulations in a silicon wire waveguide at ultralow light levels," Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 171110-1-171110-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4629-4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vecchi, G.

A. M. Malvezzi, G. Vecchi, M. Patrini, G. Guizzetti, L. C. Andreani, F. Romanato, L. Businaro, E. Di Fabrizio, A. Passaseo, and M. De Vittorio, "Resonant second-harmonic generation in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 68, 161306-1-161306-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vy Tran, Q.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021111-1-021111-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, C. Husko, P. Colman, and A. De Rossi, "High quality GaInP nonlinear photonic crystals with minimized nonlinear absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221108-1-211108-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, A. Sato, H. Yokoyama, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and K. Edamatsu, "All-optical phase modulations in a silicon wire waveguide at ultralow light levels," Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 171110-1-171110-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,4629-4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, T. P.

Wilson, R. A.

Wong, C. W.

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021111-1-021111-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, A. Sato, H. Yokoyama, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and K. Edamatsu, "All-optical phase modulations in a silicon wire waveguide at ultralow light levels," Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 171110-1-171110-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, A. Sato, H. Yokoyama, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and K. Edamatsu, "All-optical phase modulations in a silicon wire waveguide at ultralow light levels," Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 171110-1-171110-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. Vy Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021111-1-021111-3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up for measuring the fringes phase shift. EDFA is an Erbium doped fiber amplifier, PC is a polarization controller, and SMF is a single mode fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Linear transmission of the W1 guide (TE mode). Insets correspond to close-ups of the transmission for a 0.5nm bandwidth of two different regions. (b) Wavelength dependence of calculated group index (circles). A quadratic fit is represented by the dashed line.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Typical transmission spectra of the EDFA for various pump powers Pout. (b) Phase shift as a function of pump power Pout. The pump wavelength is fixed to 1357nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Variation of the measured n2 as a function of the pump wavelength (circles). The dashed line represents a fit.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental set-up for measuring the dynamical behaviour of the GaInP based PhC waveguide.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Pump and probe transmission dynamics for a single 100ps pulse. a) Pump input. b) Probe transmission for two different probe wavelength corresponding to at fringe valley (blue) and fringe peak (green).

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