Abstract

Measurement of tissue optical absorption and (transport) reduced scattering coefficients (μa and μs', respectively) is fundamental to many applications of light in medicine and biology. We report a handheld fiberoptic probe to determine these coefficients by measuring the diffuse reflectance at multiple source-collector distances, which allows for a larger dynamic range than a single source-collector separation. Diffusion theory and a priori knowledge of the spectral shape of μa and μs' are used in a forward model of the diffuse reflectance. The dynamic range and accuracy of this method were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations, phantom experiments and tissues in vivo.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009

2008

M. Roy and B. C. Wilson, “An accurate homogenized tissue phantom for broad spectrum autofluorescence studies: a tool for optimizing quantum dot-based contrast agents,” Proc. SPIE 6870, 68700E (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Reif, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, “Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 46(29), 7317–7328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Chin, A. E. Worthington, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media using relative interstitial radiance measurements: Monte Carlo study, experimental validation, and sensitivity analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064027 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, D. Yessayan, G. Zacharakis, and V. Ntziachristos, “Experimental determination of photon propagation in highly absorbing and scattering media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(3), 546–551 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

L. C. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Models and measurements of light intensity changes during laser interstitial thermal therapy: implications for optical monitoring of the coagulation boundary location,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(4), 543–559 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 26–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

S. L. Jacques, “Light distributions from point, line and plane sources for photochemical reactions and fluorescence in turbid biological tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(1), 23–32 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

1993

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, and D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650-950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(4), 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

1990

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(9), 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

A’Amar, O.

Aalders, M. C.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bargo, P.

Bargo, P. R.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berndt, K. W.

Bevilacqua, F.

Bigio, I. J.

Blair, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaards, A.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosch, J. J. T.

Butler, J.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 26–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 26–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, E.

Chin, L. C.

L. C. Chin, A. E. Worthington, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media using relative interstitial radiance measurements: Monte Carlo study, experimental validation, and sensitivity analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064027 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Models and measurements of light intensity changes during laser interstitial thermal therapy: implications for optical monitoring of the coagulation boundary location,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(4), 543–559 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cross, F. W.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D. J.

Davidson, S. R.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, and D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650-950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(4), 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doornbos, R. M.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

Durkin, A.

Durkin, A. J.

Espinoza, J.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 26–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Essenpreis, M.

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, and D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650-950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(4), 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferwerda, H. A.

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, and D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650-950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(4), 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, G. L.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(9), 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, K.

Gertner, M.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodell, T. T.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groenhuis, R. A. J.

Hibst, R.

Hiraoka, M.

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, and D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650-950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(4), 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingvar, C.

T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, “Light distributions from point, line and plane sources for photochemical reactions and fluorescence in turbid biological tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(1), 23–32 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

Kollias, N.

Koval, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

Lang, R.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanning, R.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 26–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lilge, L.

Lin, A. W. H.

Lindblom, P.

T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menovsky, T.

Moulton, J. D.

Netchev, G.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

Patterson, M. S.

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, “Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35(13), 2304–2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, J. D. Moulton, B. C. Wilson, K. W. Berndt, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Frequency-domain reflectance for the determination of the scattering and absorption properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt. 30(31), 4474–4476 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(9), 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, V. G.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(9), 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pham, T.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 26–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, R.

Ripoll, J.

Roy, M.

M. Roy and B. C. Wilson, “An accurate homogenized tissue phantom for broad spectrum autofluorescence studies: a tool for optimizing quantum dot-based contrast agents,” Proc. SPIE 6870, 68700E (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schober, R.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulze, P. C.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarzmaier, H. J.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, N.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 26–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sleven, R. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Star, W. M.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, R.

Sterenborg, H. J.

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

Svaasand, L.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 26–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svensson, T.

T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartling, J.

T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trachtenberg, J.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1354–1356 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 26–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, S.-H.

Ulrich, F.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

L. C. Chin, A. E. Worthington, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media using relative interstitial radiance measurements: Monte Carlo study, experimental validation, and sensitivity analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064027 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Models and measurements of light intensity changes during laser interstitial thermal therapy: implications for optical monitoring of the coagulation boundary location,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(4), 543–559 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

Weersink, R. A.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

Whelan, W. M.

L. C. Chin, A. E. Worthington, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media using relative interstitial radiance measurements: Monte Carlo study, experimental validation, and sensitivity analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064027 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Models and measurements of light intensity changes during laser interstitial thermal therapy: implications for optical monitoring of the coagulation boundary location,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(4), 543–559 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

M. Roy and B. C. Wilson, “An accurate homogenized tissue phantom for broad spectrum autofluorescence studies: a tool for optimizing quantum dot-based contrast agents,” Proc. SPIE 6870, 68700E (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, “Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35(13), 2304–2314 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, J. D. Moulton, B. C. Wilson, K. W. Berndt, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Frequency-domain reflectance for the determination of the scattering and absorption properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt. 30(31), 4474–4476 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worthington, A. E.

L. C. Chin, A. E. Worthington, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media using relative interstitial radiance measurements: Monte Carlo study, experimental validation, and sensitivity analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064027 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wyman, D. R.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(9), 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaroslavsky, I. V.

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yessayan, D.

Zacharakis, G.

Zhang, K.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Biomed. Opt.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, “In vivo determination of optical properties of normal and tumor tissue with white light reflectance and an empirical light transport model during endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(3), 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Chin, A. E. Worthington, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Determination of the optical properties of turbid media using relative interstitial radiance measurements: Monte Carlo study, experimental validation, and sensitivity analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064027 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasia

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 26–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photochem. Photobiol.

S. L. Jacques, “Light distributions from point, line and plane sources for photochemical reactions and fluorescence in turbid biological tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(1), 23–32 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

V. G. Peters, D. R. Wyman, M. S. Patterson, and G. L. Frank, “Optical properties of normal and diseased human breast tissues in the visible and near infrared,” Phys. Med. Biol. 35(9), 1317–1334 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, and D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650-950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38(4), 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, “Models and measurements of light intensity changes during laser interstitial thermal therapy: implications for optical monitoring of the coagulation boundary location,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(4), 543–559 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(4), 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, J. Swartling, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, P. Lindblom, C. Ingvar, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Characterization of normal breast tissue heterogeneity using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2559–2571 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, and H. J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selected native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2059–2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

M. Roy and B. C. Wilson, “An accurate homogenized tissue phantom for broad spectrum autofluorescence studies: a tool for optimizing quantum dot-based contrast agents,” Proc. SPIE 6870, 68700E (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Kim, and B. C. Wilson, “Measurement of ex vivo and in vivo tissue optical properties: Methods and theories,” in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A.J. Welch and M.J.C. van Gemert eds., (Springer SBM, in press 2010), Chap. 8.

A. Kim, U. Kasthuri, B. C. Wilson, A. White, and A. L. Martel, “Preliminary clinical results for the in vivo detection of breast cancer using interstitial diffuse optical spectroscopy,” in Proc. MICCAI-Biophotonics, 75–82 (2006).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Source-collector pair for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectrum. A broadband white light source is used to illuminate the tissue. A collector fiber connected to a spectrometer records the diffuse reflectance spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffuse reflectance varying with μs' as per the diffusion theory model equation (Eq. (3)), with r = 500 μm and μa = 0.01 cm1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Reflectance as a function of µ s ' for r = 520 µm, with µ a = 0.1 cm−1 and a range of g. The line-connected symbols are Monte Carlo values; the thick solid line is the diffusion theory graph. b) RMS errors of the Monte Carlo data compared to diffusion theory (g = 0.6-0.95) as a function of μ s ', for the three source-collector separations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Range of μ s ' within which the diffusion theory model can be used to solve for μ a and μ s ' using spectral constraint, for each r. The bars shaded in gray are for the r values that are used in the fiberoptic probe; the white bars are for larger r distances than currently used in the probe to graphically display the trend with increasing r.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Geometry of the probe tip, (b) the reflectance probe, (c) complete system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Experimental diffuse reflectance measurements (□’s) of diluted Intralipid concentrations measured at 600 nm and r = 520µm. Here, the absolute value of μ s ' for each dilution is unknown; however, the relative scatterer concentration of each dilution is known, and the uncalibrated result is graphed with the diffusion theory curve. (b) The μ s ' value at the peak reflectance is used to scale the data to match that of diffusion theory curve. Although the data shown are at 600 nm, the calibration was done at every wavelength and source-collector distance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diffuse reflectance derived from the diffusion theory model versus measured reflectance values using the probe in the nine Intralipid-NG phantoms for the three r values (providing that the reflectances measured are within the range of validity). Here, the form of the diffusion theory model shown is with the exponential line source and D = (3μ s ')−1, with R 2 = 0.984. Representative error bars at the maximum value and in the mid-range are displayed, with y-axis error bars representing the uncertainty in the reflectance model due to uncertainty in the μ s ' value as measured by the integrating sphere; x-axis error bars represent standard deviation in the reflectance measurements.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Absorption and reduced scattering coefficient spectra as measured by the probe and integrating sphere, for 50% dilution of the Intralipid-NG phantom. (b) Probe reflectance measurement (r = 520 µm) compared to the diffusion theory model fit, with R 2 = 0.992.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Representative in vivo absorption and scattering spectra as measured by the probe in (a) brain cortical tissue and (c) muscle. The corresponding reflectance measurements and fits to the diffusion theory model are shown in (b) and (d), with R 2 values of 0.963 and 0.971, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Effective sampling depth of the probe as a function of μ a and μ s '. The r distance used for these depth calculations depends on the range of validity for each µ s ', i.e. for the µ s ' = 5 and 10 cm−1 data points, r = 780µm; for µ s ' = 15 cm−1, r = 520 µm; for µ s ' = 20 cm−1, r = 260 µm. Representative error bars are shown at the highest and lowest data points. Error bars represent standard deviation in the Monte Carlo simulations with five repetitions of the simulations.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 μ s ' values at the maximum of the diffuse reflectance curve and at 90% of the maximum, for each of the three source-collector separations

Tables Icon

Table 2 μ s ' values (cm−1) below which there is >10% RMS error between Monte Carlo and diffusion theory (g = 0.6-0.95) for the three r distances

Tables Icon

Table 3 R 2 and NRMS error quantifying the goodness-of-fit of the four different forms of the diffusion theory model compared with phantom measurements

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ a ( λ ) = f H b [ S t O 2 μ a o x y H b ( λ ) + ( 1 S t O 2 ) μ a d e o x y H b ( λ ) ]
μ s ' ( λ ) = A λ k
R D T ( λ )     = a ' 4 π [ z 0 ( μ eff + 1 r 1 ) e μ eff r 1 r 1 2 + ( z 0 + 2 z b ) ( μ eff + 1 r 2 ) e μ eff r 2 r 2 2 ]
S c a l e ( λ , r ) = R D T ( μ s ' V ) R m e a s ( μ s ' V )

Metrics