Abstract

Spin-coating of chalcogenide glass is a low-cost, scalable method to create optical grade thin films, which are ideal for visible and infrared applications. In this paper, we study the influence of annealing on optical parameters of As2S3 films by examining UV-visible and infrared spectroscopy and correlating the results to changes in the physical properties associated with solvent removal. Evaporation of excess solvent results in a more highly coordinated, denser glass network with higher index and lower absorption. Depending on the annealing temperature and time, index values ranging from n = 2.1 to the bulk value (n = 2.4) can be obtained, enabling a pathway to materials optimization.

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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photo-induced structural and physico-chemical changes in amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors,” Philos. Mag. B 52(3), 347–362 (1985).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  7. S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. C. B. Arnold and A. Pique, “Laser direct write processing,” MRS Bull. 32, 9 (2007).
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  14. C. Tsay, E. Mujagic, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Integrated chalcogenide waveguides with quantum cascade lasers for on-chip mid-infrared photonic circuits,” submitted (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. B. Arnold and A. Pique, “Laser direct write processing,” MRS Bull. 32, 9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Arnold, P. Serra, and A. Pique, “Laser direct-write techniques for printing of complex materials,” MRS Bull. 32, 23 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. L. C. Smith, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan, and Y. H. Lee, “Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1277–1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. M. Gonzá-Leal, M. Stuchlik, M. Vlcek, R. Jiménez-Garay, and E. Márquez, “Influence of the deposition technique on the structural and optical properties of amorphous As-S films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 246(4), 348–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 875 (2004).

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 748–750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

K. Petkov and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249(2-3), 150–159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. K. Sudoh, Y. Nakano, and K. Tada, “Wavelength trimming technology for multiple-wavelength distributed-feedback laser arrays by photo-induced refractive index change,” Electron. Lett. 33(3), 216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Shtutina, M. Klebanov, S. R. V. Lyubin, and V. Volterra, “Photoinduced phenomena in spin-coated vitreous As2S3 and AsSe films,” Thin Solid Films 261(1-2), 263–265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin-film optical wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. Marquez, J. Ramirez-Malo, P. Villarest, R. Jimenez-Garay, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, “Calculation of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous arsenic sulfide films from their transmission spectra,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 535–541 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. J. Santiago, M. Sano, M. Hamman, and N. Chen, “Growth and optical characterization of spin-coated As2S3 multilayer thin films,” Thin Solid Films 147(3), 275–284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photo-induced structural and physico-chemical changes in amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors,” Philos. Mag. B 52(3), 347–362 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi, and T. Miyashita, “Chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-Infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(5), 607–613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. Singh, G. C. Chern, and I. Luaks, “Application of spin-coated As2S3 thin films in a high resolution trilayer resist system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(1), 74 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constans of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16(12), 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chern, I. Lauks, and A. R. McGhie, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Thermal properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(8), 4596 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 6979 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

S. Wemple, “Refractive-index behavior of amorphous semiconductors and glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 7(8), 3767–3777 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

S. Wemple and M. DiDomenico, “Behavior of electronic dielectric constant in covalent and ionic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 3(4), 1338–1351 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. Tauc, “Absorption edge and internal electric fields in amorphous semiconductors,” Mater. Res. Bull. 5(8), 721–729 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Arnold, C. B.

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Arnold and A. Pique, “Laser direct write processing,” MRS Bull. 32, 9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Arnold, P. Serra, and A. Pique, “Laser direct-write techniques for printing of complex materials,” MRS Bull. 32, 23 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balan, V.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 875 (2004).

Boudies, J.

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.

J. J. Santiago, M. Sano, M. Hamman, and N. Chen, “Growth and optical characterization of spin-coated As2S3 multilayer thin films,” Thin Solid Films 147(3), 275–284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chern, G. C.

B. Singh, G. C. Chern, and I. Luaks, “Application of spin-coated As2S3 thin films in a high resolution trilayer resist system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(1), 74 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chern, I. Lauks, and A. R. McGhie, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Thermal properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(8), 4596 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 6979 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Deol, R. S.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin-film optical wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DiDomenico, M.

S. Wemple and M. DiDomenico, “Behavior of electronic dielectric constant in covalent and ionic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 3(4), 1338–1351 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Dirisu, A. O.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin-film optical wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Ewen, P. J. S.

K. Petkov and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249(2-3), 150–159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Marquez, J. Ramirez-Malo, P. Villarest, R. Jimenez-Garay, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, “Calculation of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous arsenic sulfide films from their transmission spectra,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 535–541 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photo-induced structural and physico-chemical changes in amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors,” Philos. Mag. B 52(3), 347–362 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Firth, A. P.

A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photo-induced structural and physico-chemical changes in amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors,” Philos. Mag. B 52(3), 347–362 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, D.

Gmachl, C. F.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gonzá-Leal, J. M.

J. M. Gonzá-Leal, M. Stuchlik, M. Vlcek, R. Jiménez-Garay, and E. Márquez, “Influence of the deposition technique on the structural and optical properties of amorphous As-S films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 246(4), 348–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grevatt, T.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin-film optical wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Hamman, M.

J. J. Santiago, M. Sano, M. Hamman, and N. Chen, “Growth and optical characterization of spin-coated As2S3 multilayer thin films,” Thin Solid Films 147(3), 275–284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Harbold, J. M.

Hô, N.

Howard, S. S.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. O.

Jimenez-Garay, R.

E. Marquez, J. Ramirez-Malo, P. Villarest, R. Jimenez-Garay, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, “Calculation of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous arsenic sulfide films from their transmission spectra,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 535–541 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez-Garay, R.

J. M. Gonzá-Leal, M. Stuchlik, M. Vlcek, R. Jiménez-Garay, and E. Márquez, “Influence of the deposition technique on the structural and optical properties of amorphous As-S films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 246(4), 348–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi, and T. Miyashita, “Chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-Infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(5), 607–613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Klebanov, M.

S. Shtutina, M. Klebanov, S. R. V. Lyubin, and V. Volterra, “Photoinduced phenomena in spin-coated vitreous As2S3 and AsSe films,” Thin Solid Films 261(1-2), 263–265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lauks, I.

G. C. Chern, I. Lauks, and A. R. McGhie, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Thermal properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(8), 4596 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 6979 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. W.

Lee, Y. H.

Liu, Z.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

Luaks, I.

B. Singh, G. C. Chern, and I. Luaks, “Application of spin-coated As2S3 thin films in a high resolution trilayer resist system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(1), 74 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Lyubin, S. R. V.

S. Shtutina, M. Klebanov, S. R. V. Lyubin, and V. Volterra, “Photoinduced phenomena in spin-coated vitreous As2S3 and AsSe films,” Thin Solid Films 261(1-2), 263–265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

Marquez, E.

E. Marquez, J. Ramirez-Malo, P. Villarest, R. Jimenez-Garay, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, “Calculation of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous arsenic sulfide films from their transmission spectra,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 535–541 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Márquez, E.

J. M. Gonzá-Leal, M. Stuchlik, M. Vlcek, R. Jiménez-Garay, and E. Márquez, “Influence of the deposition technique on the structural and optical properties of amorphous As-S films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 246(4), 348–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McGhie, A. R.

G. C. Chern, I. Lauks, and A. R. McGhie, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Thermal properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(8), 4596 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, T.

T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi, and T. Miyashita, “Chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-Infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(5), 607–613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

Nakano, Y.

T. K. Sudoh, Y. Nakano, and K. Tada, “Wavelength trimming technology for multiple-wavelength distributed-feedback laser arrays by photo-induced refractive index change,” Electron. Lett. 33(3), 216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

Owen, A. E.

E. Marquez, J. Ramirez-Malo, P. Villarest, R. Jimenez-Garay, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, “Calculation of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous arsenic sulfide films from their transmission spectra,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 535–541 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photo-induced structural and physico-chemical changes in amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors,” Philos. Mag. B 52(3), 347–362 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Petit, L.

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petkov, K.

K. Petkov and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249(2-3), 150–159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pique, A.

C. B. Arnold and A. Pique, “Laser direct write processing,” MRS Bull. 32, 9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Arnold, P. Serra, and A. Pique, “Laser direct-write techniques for printing of complex materials,” MRS Bull. 32, 23 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pradel, A.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 875 (2004).

Ramirez-Malo, J.

E. Marquez, J. Ramirez-Malo, P. Villarest, R. Jimenez-Garay, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, “Calculation of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous arsenic sulfide films from their transmission spectra,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 535–541 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 748–750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, M.

Rivero, C.

Rode, A.

Ruan, Y.

Rutt, H. N.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin-film optical wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, M.

Sanghera, J. S.

Sano, M.

J. J. Santiago, M. Sano, M. Hamman, and N. Chen, “Growth and optical characterization of spin-coated As2S3 multilayer thin films,” Thin Solid Films 147(3), 275–284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Santiago, J. J.

J. J. Santiago, M. Sano, M. Hamman, and N. Chen, “Growth and optical characterization of spin-coated As2S3 multilayer thin films,” Thin Solid Films 147(3), 275–284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

Serra, P.

C. B. Arnold, P. Serra, and A. Pique, “Laser direct-write techniques for printing of complex materials,” MRS Bull. 32, 23 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

Shtutina, S.

S. Shtutina, M. Klebanov, S. R. V. Lyubin, and V. Volterra, “Photoinduced phenomena in spin-coated vitreous As2S3 and AsSe films,” Thin Solid Films 261(1-2), 263–265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Singh, B.

B. Singh, G. C. Chern, and I. Luaks, “Application of spin-coated As2S3 thin films in a high resolution trilayer resist system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(1), 74 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L. C.

Song, S.

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stuchlik, M.

J. M. Gonzá-Leal, M. Stuchlik, M. Vlcek, R. Jiménez-Garay, and E. Márquez, “Influence of the deposition technique on the structural and optical properties of amorphous As-S films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 246(4), 348–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sudoh, T. K.

T. K. Sudoh, Y. Nakano, and K. Tada, “Wavelength trimming technology for multiple-wavelength distributed-feedback laser arrays by photo-induced refractive index change,” Electron. Lett. 33(3), 216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constans of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16(12), 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tada, K.

T. K. Sudoh, Y. Nakano, and K. Tada, “Wavelength trimming technology for multiple-wavelength distributed-feedback laser arrays by photo-induced refractive index change,” Electron. Lett. 33(3), 216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi, and T. Miyashita, “Chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-Infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(5), 607–613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc, “Absorption edge and internal electric fields in amorphous semiconductors,” Mater. Res. Bull. 5(8), 721–729 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Terunuma, Y.

T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi, and T. Miyashita, “Chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-Infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(5), 607–613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

Vigreux, C.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 875 (2004).

Villarest, P.

E. Marquez, J. Ramirez-Malo, P. Villarest, R. Jimenez-Garay, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, “Calculation of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous arsenic sulfide films from their transmission spectra,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 535–541 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vlcek, M.

J. M. Gonzá-Leal, M. Stuchlik, M. Vlcek, R. Jiménez-Garay, and E. Márquez, “Influence of the deposition technique on the structural and optical properties of amorphous As-S films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 246(4), 348–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volterra, V.

S. Shtutina, M. Klebanov, S. R. V. Lyubin, and V. Volterra, “Photoinduced phenomena in spin-coated vitreous As2S3 and AsSe films,” Thin Solid Films 261(1-2), 263–265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wemple, S.

S. Wemple, “Refractive-index behavior of amorphous semiconductors and glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 7(8), 3767–3777 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. Wemple and M. DiDomenico, “Behavior of electronic dielectric constant in covalent and ionic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 3(4), 1338–1351 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

Wylangowski, G.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin-film optical wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Youden, K. E.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin-film optical wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zakery, A.

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-laser deposition of Ga-La-S chalcogenide glass thin-film optical wave-guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Singh, G. C. Chern, and I. Luaks, “Application of spin-coated As2S3 thin films in a high resolution trilayer resist system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(1), 74 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. M. Gonzá-Leal, M. Stuchlik, M. Vlcek, R. Jiménez-Garay, and E. Márquez, “Influence of the deposition technique on the structural and optical properties of amorphous As-S films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 246(4), 348–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. K. Sudoh, Y. Nakano, and K. Tada, “Wavelength trimming technology for multiple-wavelength distributed-feedback laser arrays by photo-induced refractive index change,” Electron. Lett. 33(3), 216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 6979 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chern, I. Lauks, and A. R. McGhie, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Thermal properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(8), 4596 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi, and T. Miyashita, “Chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-Infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(5), 607–613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

K. Petkov and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249(2-3), 150–159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-coating of Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (1)

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 875 (2004).

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Marquez, J. Ramirez-Malo, P. Villarest, R. Jimenez-Garay, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, “Calculation of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous arsenic sulfide films from their transmission spectra,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 535–541 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constans of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16(12), 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

J. Tauc, “Absorption edge and internal electric fields in amorphous semiconductors,” Mater. Res. Bull. 5(8), 721–729 (1970).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (2)

C. B. Arnold and A. Pique, “Laser direct write processing,” MRS Bull. 32, 9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Arnold, P. Serra, and A. Pique, “Laser direct-write techniques for printing of complex materials,” MRS Bull. 32, 23 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Philos. Mag. B (1)

A. E. Owen, A. P. Firth, and P. J. S. Ewen, “Photo-induced structural and physico-chemical changes in amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors,” Philos. Mag. B 52(3), 347–362 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Wemple and M. DiDomenico, “Behavior of electronic dielectric constant in covalent and ionic materials,” Phys. Rev. B 3(4), 1338–1351 (1971).
[CrossRef]

S. Wemple, “Refractive-index behavior of amorphous semiconductors and glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 7(8), 3767–3777 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

J. J. Santiago, M. Sano, M. Hamman, and N. Chen, “Growth and optical characterization of spin-coated As2S3 multilayer thin films,” Thin Solid Films 147(3), 275–284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Shtutina, M. Klebanov, S. R. V. Lyubin, and V. Volterra, “Photoinduced phenomena in spin-coated vitreous As2S3 and AsSe films,” Thin Solid Films 261(1-2), 263–265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. Tsay, E. Mujagic, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Integrated chalcogenide waveguides with quantum cascade lasers for on-chip mid-infrared photonic circuits,” submitted (2010).

Material Safety Data Sheet for Arsenic (III) sulfide, Fisher Scientific.

S. R. Elliott, Physics of Amorphous Materials (Longman, London, 1990).

G. C. Chern, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films, Ph.D. dissertation,” University of Pennsylvania (1984).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Determination of optical band gap E g o p t for As2S3 films spin-coated from n-propylamine solutions and annealed at different temperatures for 1 hour: (a) Tauc’s extrapolation, the optical band gap is defined as the intercept of the plot of (αhν)1/2 against ;(b) E g o p t as a function of annealing temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The refractive index dispersion for the films spin-coated from n-propylamine solutions and treated with different annealing conditions; (b) refractive indices at 900 nm wavelength as a function of annealing temperature and time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Infrared transmission spectra of films spin-coated from solutions of As2S3 in n-propylamine with different heat treatment: (a) Soft bake at 60 °C for 1 hour, and then thermal anneal at 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 °C. (b) A close-up view of the spectra emphasizing the bands related to n-propylamine residue.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thermogravimetric analysis of As2S3 spin-coated from n-propylamine solution. Sample pre-baked at 45°C for 20 hours.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of refractive index factor (n2-1)−1 vs. ()2 for As2S3 films prepared by spin-coating and different heat treatment. As expected, the experimental dispersion of the refractive index departs from the linear behavior given by Eq. (1) for photon energies outside the transparent region [23,24].

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Density of spin-coated As2S3 films annealed at different annealing conditions after soft-baking

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of static refractive indices, n(0), WDD dispersion parameters, Eo and Ed, and As effective coordination number, Nc, for As2S3 films prepared by spin-coating and different heat treatment

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 2 ( h ν ) = 1 + E o E d E o 2 ( h ν ) 2
E d ( eV ) = β N c Z a N e
n 2 1 n 2 + 2 = K ρ
Δ n n = 6 n ( n 2 1 ) ( n 2 + 2 ) Δ ρ ρ

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