Abstract

We present a method of increasing light output power and suppressing efficiency droop in vertical-structure InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs without modifying their epitaxial layers. These improvements are achieved by reducing the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) by reducing piezoelectric polarization that results from compressive stress in the GaN epilayer. This compressive stress is relaxed due to the external stress induced by an electro-plated Ni metal substrate. In simulations, the severe band bending in the InGaN quantum well is reduced and subsequently internal quantum efficiency increases as the piezoelectric polarization is reduced.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. S. Nakamura, “Current status of GaN-based solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 34, 101–107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21835 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34, 304 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. N. Fellow, F. Wu, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency blue light emitting diode on freestanding semipolar (10-1-1) bulk GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. G. Zhao, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Yong, and H. Yang, “Stress and its effect on optical properties of GaN epilayers grown on Si(111), 6H-SiC(0001), and c-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(4), 677 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. F. LeBoeuf, M. E. Aumer, and S. M. Bedair, “Exploring the effects of tensile and compressive strain on two-dimensional electron gas properties within InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(1), 97 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. E. Aumer, S. F. LeBoeuf, S. M. Bedair, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Effects of tensile and compressive strain on the luminescence properties of AlInGaN/InGaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 821 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Dadgar, C. Hums, A. Diez, J. Bläsing, and A. Krost, “Growth of blue GaN LED structures on 50-mm Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 297(2), 279–282 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Krost, A. Dadgar, F. Schulze, J. Bläsing, G. Strassburger, R. Clos, A. Diez, P. Veit, T. Hempel, and J. Christen, “In situ monitoring of the stress evolution in growing group-III-nitride layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 209–216 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. SiLENse Physics Summary, http://www.semitech.us/products/SiLENse/
  17. X. Shao, H. Lu, D. Chen, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Efficiency droop behavior of direct current aged GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 163504 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (5)

S. Nakamura, “Current status of GaN-based solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 34, 101–107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34, 304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Shao, H. Lu, D. Chen, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Efficiency droop behavior of direct current aged GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 163504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21835 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. N. Fellow, F. Wu, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency blue light emitting diode on freestanding semipolar (10-1-1) bulk GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Dadgar, C. Hums, A. Diez, J. Bläsing, and A. Krost, “Growth of blue GaN LED structures on 50-mm Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 297(2), 279–282 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Krost, A. Dadgar, F. Schulze, J. Bläsing, G. Strassburger, R. Clos, A. Diez, P. Veit, T. Hempel, and J. Christen, “In situ monitoring of the stress evolution in growing group-III-nitride layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 209–216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. G. Zhao, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Yong, and H. Yang, “Stress and its effect on optical properties of GaN epilayers grown on Si(111), 6H-SiC(0001), and c-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(4), 677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. F. LeBoeuf, M. E. Aumer, and S. M. Bedair, “Exploring the effects of tensile and compressive strain on two-dimensional electron gas properties within InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(1), 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Aumer, S. F. LeBoeuf, S. M. Bedair, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Effects of tensile and compressive strain on the luminescence properties of AlInGaN/InGaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aumer, M. E.

S. F. LeBoeuf, M. E. Aumer, and S. M. Bedair, “Exploring the effects of tensile and compressive strain on two-dimensional electron gas properties within InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(1), 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Aumer, S. F. LeBoeuf, S. M. Bedair, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Effects of tensile and compressive strain on the luminescence properties of AlInGaN/InGaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bedair, S. M.

M. E. Aumer, S. F. LeBoeuf, S. M. Bedair, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Effects of tensile and compressive strain on the luminescence properties of AlInGaN/InGaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. F. LeBoeuf, M. E. Aumer, and S. M. Bedair, “Exploring the effects of tensile and compressive strain on two-dimensional electron gas properties within InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(1), 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bläsing, J.

A. Dadgar, C. Hums, A. Diez, J. Bläsing, and A. Krost, “Growth of blue GaN LED structures on 50-mm Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 297(2), 279–282 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Krost, A. Dadgar, F. Schulze, J. Bläsing, G. Strassburger, R. Clos, A. Diez, P. Veit, T. Hempel, and J. Christen, “In situ monitoring of the stress evolution in growing group-III-nitride layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 209–216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brinkley, S.

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

X. Shao, H. Lu, D. Chen, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Efficiency droop behavior of direct current aged GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 163504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34, 304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christen, J.

A. Krost, A. Dadgar, F. Schulze, J. Bläsing, G. Strassburger, R. Clos, A. Diez, P. Veit, T. Hempel, and J. Christen, “In situ monitoring of the stress evolution in growing group-III-nitride layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 209–216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chung, H. J.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chung, R. B.

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. N. Fellow, F. Wu, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency blue light emitting diode on freestanding semipolar (10-1-1) bulk GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clos, R.

A. Krost, A. Dadgar, F. Schulze, J. Bläsing, G. Strassburger, R. Clos, A. Diez, P. Veit, T. Hempel, and J. Christen, “In situ monitoring of the stress evolution in growing group-III-nitride layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 209–216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dadgar, A.

A. Dadgar, C. Hums, A. Diez, J. Bläsing, and A. Krost, “Growth of blue GaN LED structures on 50-mm Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 297(2), 279–282 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Krost, A. Dadgar, F. Schulze, J. Bläsing, G. Strassburger, R. Clos, A. Diez, P. Veit, T. Hempel, and J. Christen, “In situ monitoring of the stress evolution in growing group-III-nitride layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 209–216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. N. Fellow, F. Wu, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency blue light emitting diode on freestanding semipolar (10-1-1) bulk GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diez, A.

A. Dadgar, C. Hums, A. Diez, J. Bläsing, and A. Krost, “Growth of blue GaN LED structures on 50-mm Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 297(2), 279–282 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Krost, A. Dadgar, F. Schulze, J. Bläsing, G. Strassburger, R. Clos, A. Diez, P. Veit, T. Hempel, and J. Christen, “In situ monitoring of the stress evolution in growing group-III-nitride layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 209–216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Q.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fellow, N. N.

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. N. Fellow, F. Wu, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency blue light emitting diode on freestanding semipolar (10-1-1) bulk GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. N. Fellow, F. Wu, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency blue light emitting diode on freestanding semipolar (10-1-1) bulk GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Götz, W.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hempel, T.

A. Krost, A. Dadgar, F. Schulze, J. Bläsing, G. Strassburger, R. Clos, A. Diez, P. Veit, T. Hempel, and J. Christen, “In situ monitoring of the stress evolution in growing group-III-nitride layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 209–216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hums, C.

A. Dadgar, C. Hums, A. Diez, J. Bläsing, and A. Krost, “Growth of blue GaN LED structures on 50-mm Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 297(2), 279–282 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

M. E. Aumer, S. F. LeBoeuf, S. M. Bedair, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Effects of tensile and compressive strain on the luminescence properties of AlInGaN/InGaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21835 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krost, A.

A. Dadgar, C. Hums, A. Diez, J. Bläsing, and A. Krost, “Growth of blue GaN LED structures on 50-mm Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 297(2), 279–282 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Krost, A. Dadgar, F. Schulze, J. Bläsing, G. Strassburger, R. Clos, A. Diez, P. Veit, T. Hempel, and J. Christen, “In situ monitoring of the stress evolution in growing group-III-nitride layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 209–216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

LeBoeuf, S. F.

S. F. LeBoeuf, M. E. Aumer, and S. M. Bedair, “Exploring the effects of tensile and compressive strain on two-dimensional electron gas properties within InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(1), 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Aumer, S. F. LeBoeuf, S. M. Bedair, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Effects of tensile and compressive strain on the luminescence properties of AlInGaN/InGaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

M. E. Aumer, S. F. LeBoeuf, S. M. Bedair, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Effects of tensile and compressive strain on the luminescence properties of AlInGaN/InGaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-D.

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

X. Shao, H. Lu, D. Chen, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Efficiency droop behavior of direct current aged GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 163504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Melo, T.

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Müller, G. O.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, “Current status of GaN-based solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 34, 101–107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. N. Fellow, F. Wu, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency blue light emitting diode on freestanding semipolar (10-1-1) bulk GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noemaun, A. N.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ozgur, U.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. N. Fellow, F. Wu, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency blue light emitting diode on freestanding semipolar (10-1-1) bulk GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakong, T.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21835 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, F.

A. Krost, A. Dadgar, F. Schulze, J. Bläsing, G. Strassburger, R. Clos, A. Diez, P. Veit, T. Hempel, and J. Christen, “In situ monitoring of the stress evolution in growing group-III-nitride layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 209–216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sernelius, B. E.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shao, X.

X. Shao, H. Lu, D. Chen, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Efficiency droop behavior of direct current aged GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 163504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, R.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

M. E. Aumer, S. F. LeBoeuf, S. M. Bedair, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Effects of tensile and compressive strain on the luminescence properties of AlInGaN/InGaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34, 304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. N. Fellow, F. Wu, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency blue light emitting diode on freestanding semipolar (10-1-1) bulk GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strassburger, G.

A. Krost, A. Dadgar, F. Schulze, J. Bläsing, G. Strassburger, R. Clos, A. Diez, P. Veit, T. Hempel, and J. Christen, “In situ monitoring of the stress evolution in growing group-III-nitride layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 209–216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tyagi, A.

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. N. Fellow, F. Wu, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency blue light emitting diode on freestanding semipolar (10-1-1) bulk GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Veit, P.

A. Krost, A. Dadgar, F. Schulze, J. Bläsing, G. Strassburger, R. Clos, A. Diez, P. Veit, T. Hempel, and J. Christen, “In situ monitoring of the stress evolution in growing group-III-nitride layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 209–216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. N. Fellow, F. Wu, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency blue light emitting diode on freestanding semipolar (10-1-1) bulk GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, M. H.

D. G. Zhao, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Yong, and H. Yang, “Stress and its effect on optical properties of GaN epilayers grown on Si(111), 6H-SiC(0001), and c-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(4), 677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

X. Shao, H. Lu, D. Chen, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Efficiency droop behavior of direct current aged GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 163504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. J.

D. G. Zhao, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Yong, and H. Yang, “Stress and its effect on optical properties of GaN epilayers grown on Si(111), 6H-SiC(0001), and c-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(4), 677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

D. G. Zhao, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Yong, and H. Yang, “Stress and its effect on optical properties of GaN epilayers grown on Si(111), 6H-SiC(0001), and c-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(4), 677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yong, S. Y.

D. G. Zhao, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Yong, and H. Yang, “Stress and its effect on optical properties of GaN epilayers grown on Si(111), 6H-SiC(0001), and c-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(4), 677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

X. Shao, H. Lu, D. Chen, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Efficiency droop behavior of direct current aged GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 163504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D. G.

D. G. Zhao, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Yong, and H. Yang, “Stress and its effect on optical properties of GaN epilayers grown on Si(111), 6H-SiC(0001), and c-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(4), 677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

X. Shao, H. Lu, D. Chen, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Efficiency droop behavior of direct current aged GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 163504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. N. Fellow, F. Wu, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency blue light emitting diode on freestanding semipolar (10-1-1) bulk GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, S. Brinkley, H. C. Kuo, T. Melo, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Characterization of blue-green m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. N. Fellow, F. Wu, R. B. Chung, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High power and high efficiency blue light emitting diode on freestanding semipolar (10-1-1) bulk GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 233504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Zhao, S. J. Xu, M. H. Xie, S. Y. Yong, and H. Yang, “Stress and its effect on optical properties of GaN epilayers grown on Si(111), 6H-SiC(0001), and c-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(4), 677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. F. LeBoeuf, M. E. Aumer, and S. M. Bedair, “Exploring the effects of tensile and compressive strain on two-dimensional electron gas properties within InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(1), 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Aumer, S. F. LeBoeuf, S. M. Bedair, M. Smith, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Effects of tensile and compressive strain on the luminescence properties of AlInGaN/InGaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop in polarization matched GaInN/GaInN LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Shao, H. Lu, D. Chen, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Efficiency droop behavior of direct current aged GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 163504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

A. Dadgar, C. Hums, A. Diez, J. Bläsing, and A. Krost, “Growth of blue GaN LED structures on 50-mm Si(111),” J. Cryst. Growth 297(2), 279–282 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Krost, A. Dadgar, F. Schulze, J. Bläsing, G. Strassburger, R. Clos, A. Diez, P. Veit, T. Hempel, and J. Christen, “In situ monitoring of the stress evolution in growing group-III-nitride layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275(1-2), 209–216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (2)

S. Nakamura, “Current status of GaN-based solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 34, 101–107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34, 304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (1)

SiLENse Physics Summary, http://www.semitech.us/products/SiLENse/

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

InGaN/GaN MQW V-LEDs. (a) SEM images and schematic 3D illustration of V-LEDs. (b) 3D surface profile of V-LEDs showing convex curvature in view of n-side up configuration. (c) 2D surface profile of V-LEDs along the solid red line in Fig. 1a.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Light output power and electrical characteristics. (a) EL emission spectra measured at 35 A/cm2 for V-LEDs with different curvature (values in legend). (b) Measured light output power and peak wavelength of 30 V-LEDs at a current density of 35 A/cm2 as a function of curvature. (c) Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of V-LEDs with different curvature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Efficiency droop behavior of V-LEDs with different curvature. (a) Light output power of V-LEDs with different curvature as a function of current density. (b) Normalized wall-plug efficiency of V-LEDs with different curvature as a function of current density.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation of InGaN/GaN SQW. (a) Single quantum well (SQW) structure for numerical analysis. (b) Calculated internal quantum efficiency and peak wavelength for InGaN/GaN SQW structure as a function of ‘degree of relaxation’.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Calculated band diagram of InGaN/GaN SQW structure at a current density of 35 A/cm2 with various ‘degree of relaxation’. (b) Calculated electron and hole wave functions of InGaN/GaN SQW structure with various ‘degree of relaxation’. (c) Electron and hole concentration in InGaN/GaN SQW structure with various ‘degree of relaxation’.

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