Abstract

Atmospheric turbulence produces fluctuations in the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam, which is known as atmospheric scintillation, severely degrading the link performance. In this paper, a scheme combining transmit laser selection (TLS) and space-time trellis code (STTC) for multiple-input-single-output (MISO) free-space optical (FSO) communication systems with intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) over strong atmospheric turbulence channels is analyzed. Assuming channel state information at the transmitter and receiver, we propose the transmit diversity technique based on the selection of two out of the available L lasers corresponding to the optical paths with greater values of scintillation to transmit the baseline STTCs designed for two transmit antennas. Based on a pairwise error probability (PEP) analysis, results in terms of bit error rate are presented when the scintillation follows negative exponential and K distributions, which cover a wide range of strong atmospheric turbulence conditions. Obtained results show a diversity order of 2L-1 when L transmit lasers are available and a simple two-state STTC with rate 1 bit/(s∙Hz) is used. Simulation results are further demonstrated to confirm the analytical results.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, "Wireless Infrared Communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Lim, C. Yun, and K. Kim, "BER performance analysis of radio over free-space optical systems considering laser phase noise under Gamma-Gamma turbulence channels," Opt. Express 17(6), 4479-4484 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Tsukamoto, A. Hashimoto, Y. Aburakawa, and M. Matsumoto, "The case for free space," IEEE Microwave Mag. 10(5), 84-92 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and C. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE Press, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Free-Space Optical Communication through Atmospheric Turbulence Channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(8), 1293-1300 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Performance bounds for coded free-space optical communications through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51(8), 1233-1239 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Anguita, I. Djordjevic, M. Neifeld, and B. Vasic, "Shannon capacities and error-correction codes for optical atmospheric turbulent channels," J. Opt. Netw. 4(9), 586-601 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Uysal, J. Li, and M. Yu, "Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5(6), 1229-1233 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. J. Shin and V. W. S. Chan, "Optical communication over the turbulent atmospheric channel using spatial diversity," in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 2055-2060 (2002).
  11. I. B. Djordjevic, "LDPC-coded MIMO optical communication over the atmospheric turbulence channel using Q-ary pulse-position modulation," Opt. Express 15(16), 10,026-10,032 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. B. Djordjevic, S. Denic, J. Anguita, B. Vasic, and M. Neifeld, "LDPC-Coded MIMO Optical Communication Over the Atmospheric Turbulence Channel," J. Lightwave Technol. 26(5), 478-487 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Xu, A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, and S. Bourennane, "Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links," Opt. Express 17(2), 872-887 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, and I. Leveque, J. H., "Free-Space Optical MIMO Transmission With Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(8), 1402-1412 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, "BER Performance of Free-Space Optical Transmission with Spatial Diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813-2819 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951-957 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Simon and V. Vilnrotter, "Alamouti-Type space-time coding for free-space optical communication with direct detection," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4(1), 35-39 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. García-Zambrana, "Error rate performance for STBC in free-space optical communications through strong atmospheric turbulence," IEEE Commun. Lett. 11(5), 390-392 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Abou-Rjeily, "Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes for Binary Pulse Position Modulation," IEEE Trans. Commun. 57(3), 602-605 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Safari and M. Uysal, "Do We Really Need OSTBCs for Free-Space Optical Communication with Direct Detection?" IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7(11), 4445-4448 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. Tarokh, N. Seshadri, and A. R. Calderbank, "Space-time codes for high data rate wireless communication: performance criterion and code construction," IEEE Trans. Information Theory 44(2), 744-765 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Bayaki and R. Schober, "On Space-Time Coding for Free-Space Optical Systems," (2009). Accepted for future publication in IEEE Trans. Commun.
  23. Z. Chen, B. Vucetic, and J. Yuan, "Space-time trellis codes with transmit antenna selection," Electron. Lett. 39(11), 854-855 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. A. Gore and A. J. Paulraj, "MIMO antenna subset selection with space-time coding," IEEE Trans. Sig. Process. 50(10), 2580-2588 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. F. Molisch and M. Z. Win, "MIMO systems with antenna selection," IEEE Microwave Magazine 5(1), 46-56 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Garcia-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vazquez, B. Castillo-Vazquez, and A. Hiniesta-Gomez, "Selection Transmit Diversity for FSO Links Over Strong Atmospheric Turbulence Channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1017-1019 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. Castillo-Vazquez, A. Garcia-Zambrana, and C. Castillo-Vazquez, "Closed-form BER expression for FSO links with transmit laser selection over exponential atmospheric turbulence channels," Electron. Lett. 45(23), 1185-1187 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. N. Letzepis and A. G. Fabregas, "Outage probability of the MIMO Gaussian free-space optical channel with PPM," in Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory ISIT 2008, pp. 2649-2653 (2008).
  29. S. Z. Denic, I. Djordjevic, J. Anguita, B. Vasic, and M. A. Neifeld, "Information Theoretic Limits for Free-Space Optical Channels With and Without Memory," J. Lightwave Technol. 26(19), 3376-3384 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. K. Simon and M.-S. Alouini, Digital Communications over Fading Channels, 2nd ed. (Wiley-IEEE Press, New Jersey, 2005).
  31. S. Hranilovic and F. R. Kschischang, "Optical intensity-modulated direct detection channels: signal space and lattice codes," IEEE Trans. Information Theory 49(6), 1385-1399 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series and Products, 7th ed. (Academic Press Inc., 2007).
  33. H. Jafarkhani, Space-Time Coding: Theory and Practice (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H. A. David and H. N. Nagaraja, Order Statistics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Chiani, D. Dardari, and M. K. Simon, "New exponential bounds and approximations for the computation of error probability in fading channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2(4), 840-845 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Wolfram Research, Inc., "The Wolfram functions site," URL http://functions.wolfram.com.
  37. Wolfram Research, Inc., Mathematica, version 7.0 ed. (Wolfram Research, Inc., Champaign, Illinois, 2008).
  38. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, ninth ed. (Dover, New York, 1970).

2009 (8)

L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Lim, C. Yun, and K. Kim, "BER performance analysis of radio over free-space optical systems considering laser phase noise under Gamma-Gamma turbulence channels," Opt. Express 17(6), 4479-4484 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tsukamoto, A. Hashimoto, Y. Aburakawa, and M. Matsumoto, "The case for free space," IEEE Microwave Mag. 10(5), 84-92 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, A. Khalighi, P. Caussé, and S. Bourennane, "Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links," Opt. Express 17(2), 872-887 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951-957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Abou-Rjeily, "Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes for Binary Pulse Position Modulation," IEEE Trans. Commun. 57(3), 602-605 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Garcia-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vazquez, B. Castillo-Vazquez, and A. Hiniesta-Gomez, "Selection Transmit Diversity for FSO Links Over Strong Atmospheric Turbulence Channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1017-1019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Castillo-Vazquez, A. Garcia-Zambrana, and C. Castillo-Vazquez, "Closed-form BER expression for FSO links with transmit laser selection over exponential atmospheric turbulence channels," Electron. Lett. 45(23), 1185-1187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

I. B. Djordjevic, "LDPC-coded MIMO optical communication over the atmospheric turbulence channel using Q-ary pulse-position modulation," Opt. Express 15(16), 10,026-10,032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, "BER Performance of Free-Space Optical Transmission with Spatial Diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813-2819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Zambrana, "Error rate performance for STBC in free-space optical communications through strong atmospheric turbulence," IEEE Commun. Lett. 11(5), 390-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Uysal, J. Li, and M. Yu, "Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5(6), 1229-1233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. Anguita, I. Djordjevic, M. Neifeld, and B. Vasic, "Shannon capacities and error-correction codes for optical atmospheric turbulent channels," J. Opt. Netw. 4(9), 586-601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Simon and V. Vilnrotter, "Alamouti-Type space-time coding for free-space optical communication with direct detection," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4(1), 35-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, and I. Leveque, J. H., "Free-Space Optical MIMO Transmission With Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(8), 1402-1412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. F. Molisch and M. Z. Win, "MIMO systems with antenna selection," IEEE Microwave Magazine 5(1), 46-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

Z. Chen, B. Vucetic, and J. Yuan, "Space-time trellis codes with transmit antenna selection," Electron. Lett. 39(11), 854-855 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Hranilovic and F. R. Kschischang, "Optical intensity-modulated direct detection channels: signal space and lattice codes," IEEE Trans. Information Theory 49(6), 1385-1399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Chiani, D. Dardari, and M. K. Simon, "New exponential bounds and approximations for the computation of error probability in fading channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2(4), 840-845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Performance bounds for coded free-space optical communications through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51(8), 1233-1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Free-Space Optical Communication through Atmospheric Turbulence Channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(8), 1293-1300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Gore and A. J. Paulraj, "MIMO antenna subset selection with space-time coding," IEEE Trans. Sig. Process. 50(10), 2580-2588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. Tarokh, N. Seshadri, and A. R. Calderbank, "Space-time codes for high data rate wireless communication: performance criterion and code construction," IEEE Trans. Information Theory 44(2), 744-765 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, "Wireless Infrared Communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abou-Rjeily, C.

C. Abou-Rjeily, "Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes for Binary Pulse Position Modulation," IEEE Trans. Commun. 57(3), 602-605 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aburakawa, Y.

K. Tsukamoto, A. Hashimoto, Y. Aburakawa, and M. Matsumoto, "The case for free space," IEEE Microwave Mag. 10(5), 84-92 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. C.

L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anguita, J.

Barry, J. R.

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, "Wireless Infrared Communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bourennane, S.

Brandt-Pearce, M.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, and I. Leveque, J. H., "Free-Space Optical MIMO Transmission With Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(8), 1402-1412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calderbank, A. R.

V. Tarokh, N. Seshadri, and A. R. Calderbank, "Space-time codes for high data rate wireless communication: performance criterion and code construction," IEEE Trans. Information Theory 44(2), 744-765 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, and I. Leveque, J. H., "Free-Space Optical MIMO Transmission With Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(8), 1402-1412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Castillo-Vazquez, B.

A. Garcia-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vazquez, B. Castillo-Vazquez, and A. Hiniesta-Gomez, "Selection Transmit Diversity for FSO Links Over Strong Atmospheric Turbulence Channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1017-1019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Castillo-Vazquez, A. Garcia-Zambrana, and C. Castillo-Vazquez, "Closed-form BER expression for FSO links with transmit laser selection over exponential atmospheric turbulence channels," Electron. Lett. 45(23), 1185-1187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Castillo-Vazquez, C.

B. Castillo-Vazquez, A. Garcia-Zambrana, and C. Castillo-Vazquez, "Closed-form BER expression for FSO links with transmit laser selection over exponential atmospheric turbulence channels," Electron. Lett. 45(23), 1185-1187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Garcia-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vazquez, B. Castillo-Vazquez, and A. Hiniesta-Gomez, "Selection Transmit Diversity for FSO Links Over Strong Atmospheric Turbulence Channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1017-1019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caussé, P.

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, B. Vucetic, and J. Yuan, "Space-time trellis codes with transmit antenna selection," Electron. Lett. 39(11), 854-855 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cherry, P. C.

L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiani, M.

M. Chiani, D. Dardari, and M. K. Simon, "New exponential bounds and approximations for the computation of error probability in fading channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2(4), 840-845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dardari, D.

M. Chiani, D. Dardari, and M. K. Simon, "New exponential bounds and approximations for the computation of error probability in fading channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2(4), 840-845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Denic, S.

Denic, S. Z.

Djordjevic, I.

Djordjevic, I. B.

I. B. Djordjevic, S. Denic, J. Anguita, B. Vasic, and M. Neifeld, "LDPC-Coded MIMO Optical Communication Over the Atmospheric Turbulence Channel," J. Lightwave Technol. 26(5), 478-487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Djordjevic, "LDPC-coded MIMO optical communication over the atmospheric turbulence channel using Q-ary pulse-position modulation," Opt. Express 15(16), 10,026-10,032 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foshee, J. J.

L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Zambrana, A.

B. Castillo-Vazquez, A. Garcia-Zambrana, and C. Castillo-Vazquez, "Closed-form BER expression for FSO links with transmit laser selection over exponential atmospheric turbulence channels," Electron. Lett. 45(23), 1185-1187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Garcia-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vazquez, B. Castillo-Vazquez, and A. Hiniesta-Gomez, "Selection Transmit Diversity for FSO Links Over Strong Atmospheric Turbulence Channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1017-1019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

García-Zambrana, A.

A. García-Zambrana, "Error rate performance for STBC in free-space optical communications through strong atmospheric turbulence," IEEE Commun. Lett. 11(5), 390-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gore, D. A.

D. A. Gore and A. J. Paulraj, "MIMO antenna subset selection with space-time coding," IEEE Trans. Sig. Process. 50(10), 2580-2588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, A.

K. Tsukamoto, A. Hashimoto, Y. Aburakawa, and M. Matsumoto, "The case for free space," IEEE Microwave Mag. 10(5), 84-92 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hiniesta-Gomez, A.

A. Garcia-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vazquez, B. Castillo-Vazquez, and A. Hiniesta-Gomez, "Selection Transmit Diversity for FSO Links Over Strong Atmospheric Turbulence Channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1017-1019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hranilovic, S.

S. Hranilovic and F. R. Kschischang, "Optical intensity-modulated direct detection channels: signal space and lattice codes," IEEE Trans. Information Theory 49(6), 1385-1399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J. M.

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Performance bounds for coded free-space optical communications through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51(8), 1233-1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Free-Space Optical Communication through Atmospheric Turbulence Channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(8), 1293-1300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, "Wireless Infrared Communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karagiannidis, G. K.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951-957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kavehrad, M.

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, "BER Performance of Free-Space Optical Transmission with Spatial Diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813-2819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khalighi, A.

Kim, K.

Kolodzy, P. J.

L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kschischang, F. R.

S. Hranilovic and F. R. Kschischang, "Optical intensity-modulated direct detection channels: signal space and lattice codes," IEEE Trans. Information Theory 49(6), 1385-1399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leveque, I.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, and I. Leveque, J. H., "Free-Space Optical MIMO Transmission With Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(8), 1402-1412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

M. Uysal, J. Li, and M. Yu, "Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5(6), 1229-1233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, W.

Matsumoto, M.

K. Tsukamoto, A. Hashimoto, Y. Aburakawa, and M. Matsumoto, "The case for free space," IEEE Microwave Mag. 10(5), 84-92 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McIntire, W. K.

L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Molisch, A. F.

A. F. Molisch and M. Z. Win, "MIMO systems with antenna selection," IEEE Microwave Magazine 5(1), 46-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Navidpour, S. M.

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, "BER Performance of Free-Space Optical Transmission with Spatial Diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813-2819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neifeld, M.

Neifeld, M. A.

Northcott, M.

L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paulraj, A. J.

D. A. Gore and A. J. Paulraj, "MIMO antenna subset selection with space-time coding," IEEE Trans. Sig. Process. 50(10), 2580-2588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pike, H. A.

L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Safari, M.

M. Safari and M. Uysal, "Do We Really Need OSTBCs for Free-Space Optical Communication with Direct Detection?" IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7(11), 4445-4448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sandalidis, H. G.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951-957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seshadri, N.

V. Tarokh, N. Seshadri, and A. R. Calderbank, "Space-time codes for high data rate wireless communication: performance criterion and code construction," IEEE Trans. Information Theory 44(2), 744-765 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simon, M.

M. Simon and V. Vilnrotter, "Alamouti-Type space-time coding for free-space optical communication with direct detection," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4(1), 35-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simon, M. K.

M. Chiani, D. Dardari, and M. K. Simon, "New exponential bounds and approximations for the computation of error probability in fading channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2(4), 840-845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, B.

L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stotts, L. B.

L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tarokh, V.

V. Tarokh, N. Seshadri, and A. R. Calderbank, "Space-time codes for high data rate wireless communication: performance criterion and code construction," IEEE Trans. Information Theory 44(2), 744-765 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsiftsis, T. A.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951-957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, K.

K. Tsukamoto, A. Hashimoto, Y. Aburakawa, and M. Matsumoto, "The case for free space," IEEE Microwave Mag. 10(5), 84-92 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uysal, M.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951-957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Safari and M. Uysal, "Do We Really Need OSTBCs for Free-Space Optical Communication with Direct Detection?" IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7(11), 4445-4448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, "BER Performance of Free-Space Optical Transmission with Spatial Diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813-2819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Uysal, J. Li, and M. Yu, "Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5(6), 1229-1233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vasic, B.

Vilnrotter, V.

M. Simon and V. Vilnrotter, "Alamouti-Type space-time coding for free-space optical communication with direct detection," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4(1), 35-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vucetic, B.

Z. Chen, B. Vucetic, and J. Yuan, "Space-time trellis codes with transmit antenna selection," Electron. Lett. 39(11), 854-855 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, S. G.

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, and I. Leveque, J. H., "Free-Space Optical MIMO Transmission With Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(8), 1402-1412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Win, M. Z.

A. F. Molisch and M. Z. Win, "MIMO systems with antenna selection," IEEE Microwave Magazine 5(1), 46-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Young, D. W.

L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

M. Uysal, J. Li, and M. Yu, "Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5(6), 1229-1233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, J.

Z. Chen, B. Vucetic, and J. Yuan, "Space-time trellis codes with transmit antenna selection," Electron. Lett. 39(11), 854-855 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yun, C.

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Performance bounds for coded free-space optical communications through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51(8), 1233-1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Free-Space Optical Communication through Atmospheric Turbulence Channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(8), 1293-1300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

Z. Chen, B. Vucetic, and J. Yuan, "Space-time trellis codes with transmit antenna selection," Electron. Lett. 39(11), 854-855 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Castillo-Vazquez, A. Garcia-Zambrana, and C. Castillo-Vazquez, "Closed-form BER expression for FSO links with transmit laser selection over exponential atmospheric turbulence channels," Electron. Lett. 45(23), 1185-1187 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

A. García-Zambrana, "Error rate performance for STBC in free-space optical communications through strong atmospheric turbulence," IEEE Commun. Lett. 11(5), 390-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave Mag. (1)

K. Tsukamoto, A. Hashimoto, Y. Aburakawa, and M. Matsumoto, "The case for free space," IEEE Microwave Mag. 10(5), 84-92 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave Magazine (1)

A. F. Molisch and M. Z. Win, "MIMO systems with antenna selection," IEEE Microwave Magazine 5(1), 46-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Garcia-Zambrana, C. Castillo-Vazquez, B. Castillo-Vazquez, and A. Hiniesta-Gomez, "Selection Transmit Diversity for FSO Links Over Strong Atmospheric Turbulence Channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1017-1019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (4)

C. Abou-Rjeily, "Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes for Binary Pulse Position Modulation," IEEE Trans. Commun. 57(3), 602-605 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Free-Space Optical Communication through Atmospheric Turbulence Channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(8), 1293-1300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Performance bounds for coded free-space optical communications through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 51(8), 1233-1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, and I. Leveque, J. H., "Free-Space Optical MIMO Transmission With Q-ary PPM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53(8), 1402-1412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Information Theory (2)

V. Tarokh, N. Seshadri, and A. R. Calderbank, "Space-time codes for high data rate wireless communication: performance criterion and code construction," IEEE Trans. Information Theory 44(2), 744-765 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Hranilovic and F. R. Kschischang, "Optical intensity-modulated direct detection channels: signal space and lattice codes," IEEE Trans. Information Theory 49(6), 1385-1399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Sig. Process. (1)

D. A. Gore and A. J. Paulraj, "MIMO antenna subset selection with space-time coding," IEEE Trans. Sig. Process. 50(10), 2580-2588 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (6)

M. Safari and M. Uysal, "Do We Really Need OSTBCs for Free-Space Optical Communication with Direct Detection?" IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7(11), 4445-4448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, "BER Performance of Free-Space Optical Transmission with Spatial Diversity," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813-2819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951-957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Simon and V. Vilnrotter, "Alamouti-Type space-time coding for free-space optical communication with direct detection," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4(1), 35-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Uysal, J. Li, and M. Yu, "Error rate performance analysis of coded free-space optical links over gamma gamma atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5(6), 1229-1233 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Chiani, D. Dardari, and M. K. Simon, "New exponential bounds and approximations for the computation of error probability in fading channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 2(4), 840-845 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. IEEE (2)

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, "Wireless Infrared Communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, L. C. Andrews, P. C. Cherry, J. J. Foshee, P. J. Kolodzy, W. K. McIntire, M. Northcott, R. L. Phillips, H. A. Pike, B. Stadler, and D. W. Young, "Hybrid Optical RF Airborne Communications," Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1109-1127 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

L. Andrews, R. Phillips, and C. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications (SPIE Press, 2001).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Shin and V. W. S. Chan, "Optical communication over the turbulent atmospheric channel using spatial diversity," in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 2055-2060 (2002).

M. K. Simon and M.-S. Alouini, Digital Communications over Fading Channels, 2nd ed. (Wiley-IEEE Press, New Jersey, 2005).

N. Letzepis and A. G. Fabregas, "Outage probability of the MIMO Gaussian free-space optical channel with PPM," in Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory ISIT 2008, pp. 2649-2653 (2008).

I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series and Products, 7th ed. (Academic Press Inc., 2007).

H. Jafarkhani, Space-Time Coding: Theory and Practice (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2005).
[CrossRef]

H. A. David and H. N. Nagaraja, Order Statistics, 3rd ed. (John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Bayaki and R. Schober, "On Space-Time Coding for Free-Space Optical Systems," (2009). Accepted for future publication in IEEE Trans. Commun.

Wolfram Research, Inc., "The Wolfram functions site," URL http://functions.wolfram.com.

Wolfram Research, Inc., Mathematica, version 7.0 ed. (Wolfram Research, Inc., Champaign, Illinois, 2008).

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, ninth ed. (Dover, New York, 1970).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Trellis diagram of two-state STTC, OOK, 1 bit/(s∙Hz)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Performance comparison of TLS/STTC and TLS in FSO IM/DD link over the K atmospheric turbulence channel when different levels of turbulence strength (a) (α = 1) and (b) (α = 4) are assumed, corresponding to values of scintillation index of SI = 3 and SI = 1.5, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Performance comparison of TLS/STTC and TLS in FSO IM/DD link over the exponential atmospheric turbulence channel, corresponding to a value of scintillation index of SI = 1.

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y ( t ) = η i ( t ) x ( t ) + z ( t )
f I ( i ) = 2 α α + 1 2 Γ ( α ) i α 1 2 K α 1 ( 2 α i ) , i 0
S I = E [ I 2 ] ( E [ I ] ) 2 1 = 1 + 2 α
f I ( i ) = exp ( i ) , i 0
x ( t ) = k = a k 2 T b P G ( f = 0 ) g ( t k T b )
d = 2 P T b ξ
X = [ 0 0 0 0 ] , X ̂ = [ 0 d d 0 ]
P ( X X ̂ { I ( L ) , I ( L 1 ) } ) = Q ( ( d / 2 ) 2 2 N 0 ( i 1 2 + i 2 2 ) )
P ( X X ̂ { I ( L ) , I ( L 1 ) } ) = Q ( γ ξ 2 ( i 1 2 + i 2 2 ) )
P ( X X ̂ ) = 0 0 Q ( γ ξ 2 ( i 1 2 + i 2 2 ) ) f I ( L ) ( i 1 ) f I ( L 1 ) ( i 2 ) d i 1 d i 2
f I ( L ) ( i ) = L f I ( i ) [ F I ( i ) ] L 1
f I ( L 1 ) ( i ) = L ( L 1 ) f I ( i ) ( 1 F I ( i ) ) ( F I ( i ) ) L 2
P b ( E ) 1 n c X P ( X ) X X ̂ n X X ̂ P ( X X ̂ )
P b ( E ) 1 12 0 exp ( γ ξ i 1 2 4 ) f I ( L ) ( i 1 ) d i 1 0 exp ( γ ξ i 2 2 4 ) f I ( L 1 ) ( i 2 ) d i 2
+ 1 4 0 exp ( γ ξ i 1 2 3 ) f I ( L ) ( i 1 ) d i 1 0 exp ( γ ξ i 2 2 3 ) f I ( L 1 ) ( i 2 ) d i 2
P b ( E ) = 0 Q ( 2 γ ξ i 2 ) f I ( L ) ( i ) d i
P b ( E ) P ( X X ̂ ) = 0 0 Q ( γ ξ 2 ( i 1 2 + i 2 2 ) ) f I ( i 1 ) f I ( i 2 ) d i 1 d i 2
F I ( i ) = 1 2 α α / 2 Γ ( α ) i α / 2 K α ( 2 i α )
f I ( L ) ( i ) = L n = 1 L ( L 1 n 1 ) ( 1 ) n 1 exp ( n i )
f I ( L 1 ) ( i ) = L ( L 1 ) m = 2 L ( L 2 m 2 ) ( 1 ) m 1 exp ( m i )
P b ( E ) L 2 ( L 1 ) 48 γ ξ n = 1 L ( L 1 n 1 ) m = 2 L ( 1 ) m + n 3 ( L 2 m 2 )
( 4 πerfc ( m γ ξ ) erfc ( n γ ξ ) exp ( m 2 + n 2 γ ξ ) + 9 πerfc ( 3 m 2 γ ξ ) erfc ( 3 n 2 γ ξ ) exp ( 3 ( m 2 + n 2 ) 4 γ ξ ) )

Metrics