Abstract

We fabricate a novel silicon-core silica-cladding optical fiber using high pressure chemical fluid deposition and investigate optical transmission characteristics at the telecommunications wavelength of 1550 nm. High thermo-optic and thermal expansion coefficients of silicon give rise to a thermal phase shift of 6.3 rad/K in a 4 mm-long, 6.9 µm diameter fiber acting as a Fabry-Perot resonator. Using both power and wavelength modulation, we observe all-optical bistability at a low threshold power of 15 mW, featuring intensity transitions of 1.4 dB occurring over <0.1 pm change in wavelength. Threshold powers for higher-order multistable states are predicted. Tristability is experimentally confirmed.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
  6. S. L. McCall, H. M. Gibbs, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, “Optical transistor and bistability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1184 (1975).
  7. Hyatt M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic Press, Inc., 1985), Chap. 3.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Jager, F. Forsmann, and B. Wedding, “Low-power optical bistability and multistability in a self-electro-optic silicon interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(9), 1453–1457 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. Russell, “Loss in solid-core photonic crystal fibers due to interface roughness scattering,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7779–7793 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. Q. Xu and M. Lipson, “Carrier-induced optical bistability in silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 341–343 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Vienne, Y. Li, L. Tong, and P. Grelu, “Observation of a nonlinear microfiber resonator,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1500–1502 (2008).
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2008 (1)

2007 (1)

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu and M. Lipson, “Carrier-induced optical bistability in silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 341–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu and M. Lipson, “Carrier-induced optical bistability in silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 341–343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon Photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. Russell, “Loss in solid-core photonic crystal fibers due to interface roughness scattering,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7779–7793 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1985 (1)

D. Jager, F. Forsmann, and B. Wedding, “Low-power optical bistability and multistability in a self-electro-optic silicon interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(9), 1453–1457 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

H. J. Eichler, “Optical multistability in silicon observed with a cw laser at 1.06 μm,” Opt. Commun. 45(1), 62–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

P. W. Smith, E. H. Turner, and P. J. Maloney, “Electrooptic nonlinear Fabry-Perot devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 207–212 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

S. L. McCall, H. M. Gibbs, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, “Optical transistor and bistability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1184 (1975).

Almeida, V. R.

Amezcua-Correa, A.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Badding, J. V.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavari, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Chemical Fluidic Deposition for Void-Free Filling of Extreme Aspect Ratio Templates,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).

Baril, N. F.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavari, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Chemical Fluidic Deposition for Void-Free Filling of Extreme Aspect Ratio Templates,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).

Berger, V.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T.

Borhan, A.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavari, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Chemical Fluidic Deposition for Void-Free Filling of Extreme Aspect Ratio Templates,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).

Calkins, J.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

Crespi, V. H.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ducci, S.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, “Optical multistability in silicon observed with a cw laser at 1.06 μm,” Opt. Commun. 45(1), 62–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Finlayson, C. E.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forsmann, F.

D. Jager, F. Forsmann, and B. Wedding, “Low-power optical bistability and multistability in a self-electro-optic silicon interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(9), 1453–1457 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

S. L. McCall, H. M. Gibbs, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, “Optical transistor and bistability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1184 (1975).

Gopalan, V.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavari, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Chemical Fluidic Deposition for Void-Free Filling of Extreme Aspect Ratio Templates,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).

Grelu, P.

Hayes, J. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Healy, N.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Jackson, B. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jager, D.

D. Jager, F. Forsmann, and B. Wedding, “Low-power optical bistability and multistability in a self-electro-optic silicon interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(9), 1453–1457 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Kang, H.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keshavari, B.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavari, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Chemical Fluidic Deposition for Void-Free Filling of Extreme Aspect Ratio Templates,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).

Knight, J.

Krishnamurthi, M.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavari, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Chemical Fluidic Deposition for Void-Free Filling of Extreme Aspect Ratio Templates,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).

Lagonigro, L.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Lanco, L.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lipson, M.

Maloney, P. J.

P. W. Smith, E. H. Turner, and P. J. Maloney, “Electrooptic nonlinear Fabry-Perot devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 207–212 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B.

Margine, E. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, H. M. Gibbs, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, “Optical transistor and bistability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1184 (1975).

Ortiz, V.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A. C.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Ramirez, M. O.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P.

Russell, P.

Sabert, H.

Sagnes, I.

A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, M. Calligaro, L. Lanco, S. Ducci, V. Berger, and I. Sagnes, “Measuring propagation loss in a multimode semiconductor waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sazio, P. J. A.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavari, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Chemical Fluidic Deposition for Void-Free Filling of Extreme Aspect Ratio Templates,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).

Scheidemantel, T. J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, E. H. Turner, and P. J. Maloney, “Electrooptic nonlinear Fabry-Perot devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 207–212 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sparks, J. R.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavari, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Chemical Fluidic Deposition for Void-Free Filling of Extreme Aspect Ratio Templates,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Temnykh, I.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavari, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Chemical Fluidic Deposition for Void-Free Filling of Extreme Aspect Ratio Templates,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).

Tong, L.

Turner, E. H.

P. W. Smith, E. H. Turner, and P. J. Maloney, “Electrooptic nonlinear Fabry-Perot devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 207–212 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesan, T. N. C.

S. L. McCall, H. M. Gibbs, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, “Optical transistor and bistability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1184 (1975).

Vienne, G.

Wedding, B.

D. Jager, F. Forsmann, and B. Wedding, “Low-power optical bistability and multistability in a self-electro-optic silicon interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(9), 1453–1457 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Won, D.-J.

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Zhang, F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavari, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Chemical Fluidic Deposition for Void-Free Filling of Extreme Aspect Ratio Templates,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D.-J. Won, M. O. Ramirez, H. Kang, V. Gopalan, N. F. Baril, J. Calkins, J. V. Badding, and P. J. A. Sazio, “All-optical modulation of laser light in amorphous silicon-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibers for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. W. Smith, E. H. Turner, and P. J. Maloney, “Electrooptic nonlinear Fabry-Perot devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 207–212 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. Jager, F. Forsmann, and B. Wedding, “Low-power optical bistability and multistability in a self-electro-optic silicon interferometer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(9), 1453–1457 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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