Abstract

In vertebrate eyes, vision begins when the photoreceptor’s outer segment absorbs photons and generates a neural signal destined for the brain. The extreme optical and metabolic demands of this process of phototransduction necessitate continual renewal of the outer segment. Outer segment renewal has been long studied in post-mortem rods using autoradiography, but has been observed neither in living photoreceptors nor directly in cones. Using adaptive optics, which permits the resolution of cones, and temporally coherent illumination, which transforms the outer segment into a “biological interferometer,” we observed cone renewal in three subjects, manifesting as elongation of the cone outer segment, with rates ranging from 93 to 113 nm/hour (2.2 to 2.7 µm/day). In one subject we observed renewal occurring over 24 hours, with small but significant changes in renewal rate over the day. We determined that this novel method is sensitive to changes in outer segment length of 139 nm, more than 20 times better than the axial resolution of ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography, the best existing method for depth imaging of the living retina.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (2)

2008 (4)

2007 (1)

2006 (6)

M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts’o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, “Visual stimulus-induced changes in human near-infrared fundus reflectance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(2), 715–721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Yao and J. S. George, “Near-infrared imaging of fast intrinsic optical responses in visible light-activated amphibian retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4380–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4552–4569 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “In vivo measurement of retinal physiology with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2308–2310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(13), 5066–5071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2004 (3)

K. Tsunoda, Y. Oguchi, G. Hanazono, and M. Tanifuji, “Mapping cone- and rod-induced retinal responsiveness in macaque retina by optical imaging,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(10), 3820–3826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Kindzelskii, V. M. Elner, S. G. Elner, D. Yang, B. A. Hughes, and H. R. Petty, “Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) of retinal pigment epithelial cells participates in transmembrane signaling in response to photoreceptor outer segments,” J. Gen. Physiol. 124(2), 139–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, “The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(10), 4580–4592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Tosini and C. Fukuhara, “The mammalian retina as a clock,” Cell Tissue Res. 309(1), 119–126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P. J. DeLint, T. T. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, and D. van Norren, “Slow optical changes in human photoreceptors induced by light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(1), 282–289 (2000).

D. Vollrath, A. Gal, Y. Li, D. A. Thompson, J. Weir, U. Orth, S. G. Jacobson, and E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, “Mutations in MERTK, the human orthologue of the RCS rat retinal dystrophy gene, cause retinitis pigmentosa,” Nat. Genet. 26(3), 270–271 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. S. Grace, A. Chiba, and M. Menaker, “Circadian control of photoreceptor outer segment membrane turnover in mice genetically incapable of melatonin synthesis,” Vis. Neurosci. 16(5), 909–918 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. T. Organisciak and B. S. Winkler, “Retinal light damage: practical and theoretical considerations,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 13(1), 1–29 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. J. Guérin, G. P. Lewis, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Recovery of photoreceptor outer segment length and analysis of membrane assembly rates in regenerating primate photoreceptor outer segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(1), 175–183 (1993).

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

G. D. Aguirre and L. Andrews, “Nomarski evaluation of rod outer segment renewal in a hereditary retinal degeneration. Comparison with autoradiographic evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28(7), 1049–1058 (1987).

1986 (1)

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. Bok, “Retinal photoreceptor-pigment epithelium interactions. Friedenwald lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26(12), 1659–1694 (1985).

1984 (1)

D. G. Birch, E. L. Berson, and M. A. Sandberg, “Diurnal rhythm in the human rod ERG,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25(2), 236–238 (1984).

1983 (1)

S. K. Fisher, B. A. Pfeffer, and D. H. Anderson, “Both rod and cone disc shedding are related to light onset in the cat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24(7), 844–856 (1983).

1981 (1)

M. M. LaVail, “Photoreceptor characteristics in congenic strains of RCS rats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 20(5), 671–675 (1981).

1980 (3)

D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, P. A. Erickson, and G. A. Tabor, “Rod and cone disc shedding in the rhesus monkey retina: a quantitative study,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 559–574 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. M. LaVail, “Circadian nature of rod outer segment disc shedding in the rat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19(4), 407–411 (1980).

A. I. Goldman, P. S. Teirstein, and P. J. O’Brien, “The role of ambient lighting in circadian disc shedding in the rod outer segment of the rat retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 19(11), 1257–1267 (1980).

1978 (1)

R. W. Young, “The daily rhythm of shedding and degradation of rod and cone outer segment membranes in the chick retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(2), 105–116 (1978).

1976 (2)

N. Buyukmihci and G. D. Aguirre, “Rod disc turnover in the dog,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 15, 579–584 (1976).

M. M. LaVail, “Rod outer segment disk shedding in rat retina: relationship to cyclic lighting,” Science 194(4269), 1071–1074 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. H. Anderson and S. K. Fisher, “Disc shedding in rodlike and conelike photoreceptors of tree squirrels,” Science 187(4180), 953–955 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. H. Steinberg, I. Wood, and R. H. Steinberg, “Phagocytosis by pigment epithelium of human retinal cones,” Nature 252(5481), 305–307 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (3)

F. J. M. Daemen, “Vertebrate rod outer segment membranes,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 300(3), 255–288 (1973).

M. M. LaVail, “Kinetics of rod outer segment renewal in the developing mouse retina,” J. Cell Biol. 58(3), 650–661 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. Snyder and C. Pask, “Stiles-crawford effect-explanation and consequences,” Vision Res. 13(6), 1115–1137 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

R. W. Young, “The renewal of rod and cone outer segments in the rhesus monkey,” J. Cell Biol. 49(2), 303–318 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. W. Young and D. Bok, “Participation of the retinal pigment epithelium in the rod outer segment renewal process,” J. Cell Biol. 42(2), 392–403 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

B. Anderson., “Ocular effects of changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide tension,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 66, 423–474 (1968).

1967 (1)

R. W. Young, “The renewal of photoreceptor cell outer segments,” J. Cell Biol. 33(1), 61–72 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

W. K. Noell, V. S. Walker, B. O. K. S. Kang, and S. Berman, “Retinal damage by light in rats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 5, 450–473 (1966).

1957 (1)

K. F. A. Ross and J. T. Y. Chou, “The physical nature of the lipid globules in the living neurones of Helix aspersa as indicated by measurements of refractive index,” J. Cell Sci. 3, 341 (1957).

Abecasis, G. R.

S. Zareparsi, M. Buraczynska, K. E. H. Branham, S. Shah, D. Eng, M. Li, H. Pawar, B. M. Yashar, S. E. Moroi, P. R. Lichter, H. R. Petty, J. E. Richards, G. R. Abecasis, V. M. Elner, and A. Swaroop, “Toll-like receptor 4 variant D299G is associated with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 14(11), 1449–1455 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Abràmoff, M. D.

M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts’o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, “Visual stimulus-induced changes in human near-infrared fundus reflectance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(2), 715–721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, G. D.

G. D. Aguirre and L. Andrews, “Nomarski evaluation of rod outer segment renewal in a hereditary retinal degeneration. Comparison with autoradiographic evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28(7), 1049–1058 (1987).

N. Buyukmihci and G. D. Aguirre, “Rod disc turnover in the dog,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 15, 579–584 (1976).

Ahnelt, P.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(13), 5066–5071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahnelt, P. K.

Anderson, B.

B. Anderson., “Ocular effects of changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide tension,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 66, 423–474 (1968).

Anderson, D. H.

C. J. Guérin, G. P. Lewis, S. K. Fisher, and D. H. Anderson, “Recovery of photoreceptor outer segment length and analysis of membrane assembly rates in regenerating primate photoreceptor outer segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34(1), 175–183 (1993).

S. K. Fisher, B. A. Pfeffer, and D. H. Anderson, “Both rod and cone disc shedding are related to light onset in the cat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24(7), 844–856 (1983).

D. H. Anderson, S. K. Fisher, P. A. Erickson, and G. A. Tabor, “Rod and cone disc shedding in the rhesus monkey retina: a quantitative study,” Exp. Eye Res. 30(5), 559–574 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Anderson and S. K. Fisher, “Disc shedding in rodlike and conelike photoreceptors of tree squirrels,” Science 187(4180), 953–955 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L.

G. D. Aguirre and L. Andrews, “Nomarski evaluation of rod outer segment renewal in a hereditary retinal degeneration. Comparison with autoradiographic evaluation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28(7), 1049–1058 (1987).

Anger, E.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(13), 5066–5071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Apfelstedt-Sylla, E.

D. Vollrath, A. Gal, Y. Li, D. A. Thompson, J. Weir, U. Orth, S. G. Jacobson, and E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, “Mutations in MERTK, the human orthologue of the RCS rat retinal dystrophy gene, cause retinitis pigmentosa,” Nat. Genet. 26(3), 270–271 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berendschot, T. T.

P. J. DeLint, T. T. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, and D. van Norren, “Slow optical changes in human photoreceptors induced by light,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 41(1), 282–289 (2000).

Berman, S.

W. K. Noell, V. S. Walker, B. O. K. S. Kang, and S. Berman, “Retinal damage by light in rats,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 5, 450–473 (1966).

Berson, E. L.

D. G. Birch, E. L. Berson, and M. A. Sandberg, “Diurnal rhythm in the human rod ERG,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25(2), 236–238 (1984).

Birch, D. G.

D. G. Birch, E. L. Berson, and M. A. Sandberg, “Diurnal rhythm in the human rod ERG,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25(2), 236–238 (1984).

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(13), 5066–5071 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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S. Zareparsi, M. Buraczynska, K. E. H. Branham, S. Shah, D. Eng, M. Li, H. Pawar, B. M. Yashar, S. E. Moroi, P. R. Lichter, H. R. Petty, J. E. Richards, G. R. Abecasis, V. M. Elner, and A. Swaroop, “Toll-like receptor 4 variant D299G is associated with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration,” Hum. Mol. Genet. 14(11), 1449–1455 (2005).
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K. F. A. Ross and J. T. Y. Chou, “The physical nature of the lipid globules in the living neurones of Helix aspersa as indicated by measurements of refractive index,” J. Cell Sci. 3, 341 (1957).

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D. G. Birch, E. L. Berson, and M. A. Sandberg, “Diurnal rhythm in the human rod ERG,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25(2), 236–238 (1984).

Sattmann, H.

E. J. Fernández, B. Hermann, B. Považay, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, B. Hofer, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography and pancorrection for cellular imaging of the living human retina,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11083–11094 (2008).
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D. Vollrath, A. Gal, Y. Li, D. A. Thompson, J. Weir, U. Orth, S. G. Jacobson, and E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, “Mutations in MERTK, the human orthologue of the RCS rat retinal dystrophy gene, cause retinitis pigmentosa,” Nat. Genet. 26(3), 270–271 (2000).
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X. C. Yao and J. S. George, “Near-infrared imaging of fast intrinsic optical responses in visible light-activated amphibian retina,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064030 (2006).
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