Abstract

We present a technique for the stable transfer of an optical frequency reference over a kilometer-scale optical fiber link. This technique implements phase measurements and laser feedback to cancel out the phase fluctuations that are introduced to an optical frequency standard as it passes through the fiber. We also present results for a bench top experiment, developed for the Advanced LIGO lock acquisition system, where this technique is implemented to phase-lock two Nd:YAG lasers, through a 4.6 km optical fiber. The resulting differential optical frequency noise reaches a level as low as 0.5 mHz/√Hz for Fourier frequencies between 5 Hz and 20 Hz, which is equal to a fractional frequency stability of 1.7 × 10-18/√Hz.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

2008 (2)

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, "High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284-1293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, K. Danzmann, P. Gath, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, A. Rudiger, M. Sallusti, and H. Schulte, "LISA inteferferometry: recent developments," Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S119-S124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

1998 (1)

M. B. Gray, D. A. Shaddock, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, "Photodetector designs for low-noise, broadband, and high-power applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3755-3762 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Achkar, J.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amy-Klein, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, H. A.

M. B. Gray, D. A. Shaddock, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, "Photodetector designs for low-noise, broadband, and high-power applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3755-3762 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bauch, A.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bize, S.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Braxmaier, C.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, K. Danzmann, P. Gath, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, A. Rudiger, M. Sallusti, and H. Schulte, "LISA inteferferometry: recent developments," Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S119-S124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brusch, A.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calonico, D.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chardonnet, C.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. W.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clairon, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dach, R.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, K. Danzmann, P. Gath, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, A. Rudiger, M. Sallusti, and H. Schulte, "LISA inteferferometry: recent developments," Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S119-S124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daussy, C.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, L. S. Ma, and L. Robertsson, "Femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork with instability ≤ 6.3×10−16 in 1s," Opt. Lett. 27, 58-60 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortier, T. M.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gath, P.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, K. Danzmann, P. Gath, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, A. Rudiger, M. Sallusti, and H. Schulte, "LISA inteferferometry: recent developments," Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S119-S124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. B.

M. B. Gray, D. A. Shaddock, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, "Photodetector designs for low-noise, broadband, and high-power applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3755-3762 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grosche, G.

Hall, J. L.

Hansch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harb, C. C.

M. B. Gray, D. A. Shaddock, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, "Photodetector designs for low-noise, broadband, and high-power applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3755-3762 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heinzel, G.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, K. Danzmann, P. Gath, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, A. Rudiger, M. Sallusti, and H. Schulte, "LISA inteferferometry: recent developments," Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S119-S124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hlavic, R.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Holman, K. W.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

Hough, J.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, K. Danzmann, P. Gath, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, A. Rudiger, M. Sallusti, and H. Schulte, "LISA inteferferometry: recent developments," Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S119-S124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hume, D. B.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itano, W. M.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jennrich, O.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, K. Danzmann, P. Gath, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, A. Rudiger, M. Sallusti, and H. Schulte, "LISA inteferferometry: recent developments," Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S119-S124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johann, U.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, K. Danzmann, P. Gath, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, A. Rudiger, M. Sallusti, and H. Schulte, "LISA inteferferometry: recent developments," Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S119-S124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jungner, P.

Lipphardt, B.

Lopez, O.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lorini, L.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L. S.

Narbonneau, F.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, "High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284-1293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oskay, W. H.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, T.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petit, G.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piester, D.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Predahl, K.

Robertsson, L.

Rosenband, T.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudiger, A.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, K. Danzmann, P. Gath, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, A. Rudiger, M. Sallusti, and H. Schulte, "LISA inteferferometry: recent developments," Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S119-S124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sallusti, M.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, K. Danzmann, P. Gath, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, A. Rudiger, M. Sallusti, and H. Schulte, "LISA inteferferometry: recent developments," Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S119-S124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, P. O.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnatz, H.

Schulte, H.

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, K. Danzmann, P. Gath, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, A. Rudiger, M. Sallusti, and H. Schulte, "LISA inteferferometry: recent developments," Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S119-S124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shaddock, D. A.

M. B. Gray, D. A. Shaddock, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, "Photodetector designs for low-noise, broadband, and high-power applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3755-3762 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stalnaker, J. E.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterr, U.

Swann, W. C.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, "High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284-1293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Szymaniec, K.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Terra, O.

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uhrich, P.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, F.

Williams, P. A.

Wineland, D. J.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, "Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path," Opt. Lett. 19, 1777-1779 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Class. Quantum Grav. (1)

G. Heinzel, C. Braxmaier, K. Danzmann, P. Gath, J. Hough, O. Jennrich, U. Johann, A. Rudiger, M. Sallusti, and H. Schulte, "LISA inteferferometry: recent developments," Class. Quantum Grav. 23, S119-S124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Metrologia (1)

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavic, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, "Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level," Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

M. B. Gray, D. A. Shaddock, C. C. Harb, and H. A. Bachor, "Photodetector designs for low-noise, broadband, and high-power applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3755-3762 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, "Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ and single-ion optical clocks; Metrology at the 17th decimal place," Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

D. A. Shaddock, B. Ware, P. G. Halverson, R. E. Spero, and B. Klipstein, "Overview of the LISA Phasemeter," AIP Conf. Proc. Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: 6th International LISA Symposium 873, 654-660 (2006).

The Advanced LIGO Team, "Advanced LIGO Reference Design," LIGO M060056-v1 (2009), https://dcc.ligo.org/cgi-bin/DocDB/ShowDocument?docid=1507

B. Slagmolen, G. de Vine, D. Rabeling, K. McKenzie, A. Mullavey, D. Shaddock, D. McClelland, M. Evans, and Y. Aso, "Advanced LIGO arm cavity pre-lock acquisition system," (2008), http://www.ligo.caltech.edu/docs/T/T080139-00.pdf

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Basic layout of the technique where the sum of the phasemeter readouts are fed back to the auxiliary laser to cancel out fiber induced phase noise. BS = Beam Splitter, SM = Steering Mirror, PD = Photodetector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transfer functions from the science laser (a), auxiliary laser (b) and fiber (c) phase to the sum of the local and remote signals.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The time series of the relative phase fluctuations between the two lasers when (a) the remote signal was fed back to the tracking laser and (b) the sum of the local and remote signals was fed back to the tracking laser eliminating the fiber phase fluctuations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The relative frequency noise between the two lasers and the fractional frequency when (a) the remote signal was fed back to the tracking laser, (b) the sum of the local and remote signals was fed back to the tracking laser, (c) the fiber was bypassed and (d) the AdvLIGO requirement

Equations (4)

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ϕ loc ( ω ) = ϕ sci ( ω ) { ϕ aux ( ω ) e iωτ + ϕ fib ( ω ) }
ϕ rem ( ω ) = { ϕ sci ( ω ) e iωτ + ϕ fib ( ω ) } ϕ aux ( ω )
ϕ + ( ω ) = ϕ loc ( ω ) e iωε + ϕ rem ( ω )
= ϕ sci ( ω ) { e iωε + e iωτ } ϕ aux ( ω ) { 1 + e ( τ + ε ) } + ϕ fib ( ω ) { 1 e iωε }

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