Abstract

Security in information exchange plays a central role in the deployment of modern communication systems. Besides algorithms, chaos is exploited as a real-time high-speed data encryption technique which enhances the security at the hardware level of optical networks. In this work, compact, fully controllable and stably operating monolithic photonic integrated circuits (PICs) that generate broadband chaotic optical signals are incorporated in chaos-encoded optical transmission systems. Data sequences with rates up to 2.5 Gb/s with small amplitudes are completely encrypted within these chaotic carriers. Only authorized counterparts, supplied with identical chaos generating PICs that are able to synchronize and reproduce the same carriers, can benefit from data exchange with bit-rates up to 2.5Gb/s with error rates below 10−12. Eavesdroppers with access to the communication link experience a 0.5 probability to detect correctly each bit by direct signal detection, while eavesdroppers supplied with even slightly unmatched hardware receivers are restricted to data extraction error rates well above 10−3.

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    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J.-G. Wu, G.-Q. Xia, and Z.-M. Wu, “Suppression of time delay signatures of chaotic output in a semiconductor laser with double optical feedback,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20124–20133 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Soriano, P. Colet, and C. R. Mirasso, “Security Implications of Open- and Closed-Loop Receivers in All-Optical Chaos-Based Communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 426–428 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Argyris, M. Hamacher, K. E. Chlouverakis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Photonic integrated device for chaos applications in communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 194101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rontani, A. Locquet, M. Sciamanna, and D. S. Citrin, “Loss of time-delay signature in the chaotic output of a semiconductor laser with optical feedback,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2960–2962 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yousefi, Y. Barbarin, S. Beri, E. A. Bente, M. K. Smit, R. Nötzel, and D. Lenstra, “New role for nonlinear dynamics and chaos in integrated semiconductor laser technology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 044101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

R. Vicente, J. Dauden, P. Colet, and R. Toral, ““Analysis and characterization of the hyperchaos generated by a semiconductor laser subject to a delayed feedback loop,” IEEE. J,” Quantum Electron. 41(4), 541–548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 437(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

L. Larger and J. P. Goedgebuer, “Cryptography using optical chaos,” C. R. Phys. 5, 609–681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Bauer, O. Brox, J. Kreissl, B. Sartorius, M. Radziunas, J. Sieber, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers with active optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(1), 016206 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ushakov, S. Bauer, O. Brox, H.-J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Self-organization in semiconductor lasers with ultrashort optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

P. Ashwin, “Nonlinear dynamics: Synchronization from chaos,” Nature 422(6930), 384–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Heil, I. Fischer, W. Elsäßer, B. Krauskopf, K. Green, and A. Gavrielides, “Delay dynamics of semiconductor lasers with short external cavities: bifurcation scenarios and mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(6), 066214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, J. Paul, S. Sivaprakasam, and K. A. Shore, “Comparison of closed-loop and open-loop feedback schemes of message decoding using chaotic laser diodes,” Opt. Lett. 28(22), 2168–2170 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Udaltsov, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Larger, J.-B. Cuenot, P. Levy, and W. T. Rhodes, “Cracking chaos-based encryption systems ruled by nonlinear time delay differential equations,” Phys. Lett. A 308(1), 54–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

R. Vicente, T. Pérez, and C. R. Mirasso, “Open-versus closed-loop performance of synchronized chaotic external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1197–1204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kusumoto and J. Ohtsubo, “1.5-GHz message transmission based on synchronization of chaos in semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(12), 989–991 (2002).
[CrossRef]

“Introduction to the feature section on optical chaos and applications to cryptography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1138–1140 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

G. D. VanWiggeren and R. Roy, “Communication with chaotic lasers,” Science 279(5354), 1198–1200 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

C. R. Mirasso, P. Colet, and P. Garcia-Fernandez, “Synchronization of chaotic semiconductor lasers: application to encoded communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 299–301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Franck, S. D. Brorson, A. Moller-Larsen, J. M. Nielsen, and J. Mork, “Synchronization phase diagrams of monolithic colliding pulse mode-locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(1), 40–42 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Petermann, “External optical feedback phenomena in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 480–489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

H. Kakiuchida and J. Ohtsubo, “Characteristics of a semiconductor laser with external feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(9), 2087–2097 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Colet and R. Roy, “Digital communication with synchronized chaotic lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19(24), 2056–2058 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

K. M. Cuomo, A. V. Oppenheim, and S. H. Strogatz, “Synchronization of Lorenz based chaotic circuits with applications to communications,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II 40(10), 626–633 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Cuomo and A. V. Oppenheim, “Circuit implementation of synchronized chaos with applications to communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(1), 65–68 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

L. M. Pecora and T. L. Carroll, “Driving systems with chaotic signals,” Phys. Rev. A 44(4), 2374–2383 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sacher, W. Elsasser, and E. O. Gobel, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor laser emission under variable feedback conditions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(3), 373–379 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. M. Pecora and T. L. Carroll, “Synchronization in chaotic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(8), 821–824 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

H. Olesen, J. H. Osmundsen, and B. Tromborg, “Nonlinear dynamics and spectral behaviour for an external cavity laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 762–773 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 347–355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Annovazzi-Lodi, V.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 437(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Argyris, A.

A. Argyris, M. Hamacher, K. E. Chlouverakis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Photonic integrated device for chaos applications in communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 194101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 437(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ashwin, P.

P. Ashwin, “Nonlinear dynamics: Synchronization from chaos,” Nature 422(6930), 384–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbarin, Y.

M. Yousefi, Y. Barbarin, S. Beri, E. A. Bente, M. K. Smit, R. Nötzel, and D. Lenstra, “New role for nonlinear dynamics and chaos in integrated semiconductor laser technology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 044101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, S.

O. Ushakov, S. Bauer, O. Brox, H.-J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Self-organization in semiconductor lasers with ultrashort optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bauer, O. Brox, J. Kreissl, B. Sartorius, M. Radziunas, J. Sieber, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers with active optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(1), 016206 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bente, E. A.

M. Yousefi, Y. Barbarin, S. Beri, E. A. Bente, M. K. Smit, R. Nötzel, and D. Lenstra, “New role for nonlinear dynamics and chaos in integrated semiconductor laser technology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 044101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beri, S.

M. Yousefi, Y. Barbarin, S. Beri, E. A. Bente, M. K. Smit, R. Nötzel, and D. Lenstra, “New role for nonlinear dynamics and chaos in integrated semiconductor laser technology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 044101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

A. Argyris, M. Hamacher, K. E. Chlouverakis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Photonic integrated device for chaos applications in communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 194101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brorson, S. D.

T. Franck, S. D. Brorson, A. Moller-Larsen, J. M. Nielsen, and J. Mork, “Synchronization phase diagrams of monolithic colliding pulse mode-locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(1), 40–42 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brox, O.

S. Bauer, O. Brox, J. Kreissl, B. Sartorius, M. Radziunas, J. Sieber, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers with active optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(1), 016206 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ushakov, S. Bauer, O. Brox, H.-J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Self-organization in semiconductor lasers with ultrashort optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, T. L.

L. M. Pecora and T. L. Carroll, “Driving systems with chaotic signals,” Phys. Rev. A 44(4), 2374–2383 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Pecora and T. L. Carroll, “Synchronization in chaotic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(8), 821–824 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chlouverakis, K. E.

A. Argyris, M. Hamacher, K. E. Chlouverakis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Photonic integrated device for chaos applications in communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 194101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Citrin, D. S.

Colet, P.

M. C. Soriano, P. Colet, and C. R. Mirasso, “Security Implications of Open- and Closed-Loop Receivers in All-Optical Chaos-Based Communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 426–428 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Vicente, J. Dauden, P. Colet, and R. Toral, ““Analysis and characterization of the hyperchaos generated by a semiconductor laser subject to a delayed feedback loop,” IEEE. J,” Quantum Electron. 41(4), 541–548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 437(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Mirasso, P. Colet, and P. Garcia-Fernandez, “Synchronization of chaotic semiconductor lasers: application to encoded communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 299–301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Colet and R. Roy, “Digital communication with synchronized chaotic lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19(24), 2056–2058 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuenot, J.-B.

V. S. Udaltsov, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Larger, J.-B. Cuenot, P. Levy, and W. T. Rhodes, “Cracking chaos-based encryption systems ruled by nonlinear time delay differential equations,” Phys. Lett. A 308(1), 54–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cuomo, K. M.

K. M. Cuomo and A. V. Oppenheim, “Circuit implementation of synchronized chaos with applications to communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(1), 65–68 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Cuomo, A. V. Oppenheim, and S. H. Strogatz, “Synchronization of Lorenz based chaotic circuits with applications to communications,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II 40(10), 626–633 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dauden, J.

R. Vicente, J. Dauden, P. Colet, and R. Toral, ““Analysis and characterization of the hyperchaos generated by a semiconductor laser subject to a delayed feedback loop,” IEEE. J,” Quantum Electron. 41(4), 541–548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elsasser, W.

J. Sacher, W. Elsasser, and E. O. Gobel, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor laser emission under variable feedback conditions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(3), 373–379 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Elsäßer, W.

T. Heil, I. Fischer, W. Elsäßer, B. Krauskopf, K. Green, and A. Gavrielides, “Delay dynamics of semiconductor lasers with short external cavities: bifurcation scenarios and mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(6), 066214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, I.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 437(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Heil, I. Fischer, W. Elsäßer, B. Krauskopf, K. Green, and A. Gavrielides, “Delay dynamics of semiconductor lasers with short external cavities: bifurcation scenarios and mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(6), 066214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franck, T.

T. Franck, S. D. Brorson, A. Moller-Larsen, J. M. Nielsen, and J. Mork, “Synchronization phase diagrams of monolithic colliding pulse mode-locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(1), 40–42 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujino, H.

Fürst, M.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Fernandez, P.

C. R. Mirasso, P. Colet, and P. Garcia-Fernandez, “Synchronization of chaotic semiconductor lasers: application to encoded communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 299–301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

García-Ojalvo, J.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 437(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gavrielides, A.

T. Heil, I. Fischer, W. Elsäßer, B. Krauskopf, K. Green, and A. Gavrielides, “Delay dynamics of semiconductor lasers with short external cavities: bifurcation scenarios and mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(6), 066214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gobel, E. O.

J. Sacher, W. Elsasser, and E. O. Gobel, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor laser emission under variable feedback conditions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(3), 373–379 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goedgebuer, J. P.

L. Larger and J. P. Goedgebuer, “Cryptography using optical chaos,” C. R. Phys. 5, 609–681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goedgebuer, J.-P.

V. S. Udaltsov, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Larger, J.-B. Cuenot, P. Levy, and W. T. Rhodes, “Cracking chaos-based encryption systems ruled by nonlinear time delay differential equations,” Phys. Lett. A 308(1), 54–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Green, K.

T. Heil, I. Fischer, W. Elsäßer, B. Krauskopf, K. Green, and A. Gavrielides, “Delay dynamics of semiconductor lasers with short external cavities: bifurcation scenarios and mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(6), 066214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hamacher, M.

A. Argyris, M. Hamacher, K. E. Chlouverakis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Photonic integrated device for chaos applications in communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 194101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heil, T.

T. Heil, I. Fischer, W. Elsäßer, B. Krauskopf, K. Green, and A. Gavrielides, “Delay dynamics of semiconductor lasers with short external cavities: bifurcation scenarios and mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(6), 066214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Henneberger, F.

O. Ushakov, S. Bauer, O. Brox, H.-J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Self-organization in semiconductor lasers with ultrashort optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bauer, O. Brox, J. Kreissl, B. Sartorius, M. Radziunas, J. Sieber, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers with active optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(1), 016206 (2004).
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Kakiuchida, H.

H. Kakiuchida and J. Ohtsubo, “Characteristics of a semiconductor laser with external feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(9), 2087–2097 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kannari, F.

Kobayashi, K.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 347–355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Krauskopf, B.

T. Heil, I. Fischer, W. Elsäßer, B. Krauskopf, K. Green, and A. Gavrielides, “Delay dynamics of semiconductor lasers with short external cavities: bifurcation scenarios and mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(6), 066214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kreissl, J.

S. Bauer, O. Brox, J. Kreissl, B. Sartorius, M. Radziunas, J. Sieber, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers with active optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(1), 016206 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtsiefer, C.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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Kusumoto, K.

Lang, R.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 347–355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Larger, L.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 437(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Larger and J. P. Goedgebuer, “Cryptography using optical chaos,” C. R. Phys. 5, 609–681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Udaltsov, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Larger, J.-B. Cuenot, P. Levy, and W. T. Rhodes, “Cracking chaos-based encryption systems ruled by nonlinear time delay differential equations,” Phys. Lett. A 308(1), 54–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. W.

Lenstra, D.

M. Yousefi, Y. Barbarin, S. Beri, E. A. Bente, M. K. Smit, R. Nötzel, and D. Lenstra, “New role for nonlinear dynamics and chaos in integrated semiconductor laser technology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 044101 (2007).
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Levy, P.

V. S. Udaltsov, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Larger, J.-B. Cuenot, P. Levy, and W. T. Rhodes, “Cracking chaos-based encryption systems ruled by nonlinear time delay differential equations,” Phys. Lett. A 308(1), 54–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. M.

Locquet, A.

Mark, J.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mirasso, C. R.

M. C. Soriano, P. Colet, and C. R. Mirasso, “Security Implications of Open- and Closed-Loop Receivers in All-Optical Chaos-Based Communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 426–428 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 437(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Vicente, T. Pérez, and C. R. Mirasso, “Open-versus closed-loop performance of synchronized chaotic external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1197–1204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Mirasso, P. Colet, and P. Garcia-Fernandez, “Synchronization of chaotic semiconductor lasers: application to encoded communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 299–301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moller-Larsen, A.

T. Franck, S. D. Brorson, A. Moller-Larsen, J. M. Nielsen, and J. Mork, “Synchronization phase diagrams of monolithic colliding pulse mode-locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(1), 40–42 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mork, J.

T. Franck, S. D. Brorson, A. Moller-Larsen, J. M. Nielsen, and J. Mork, “Synchronization phase diagrams of monolithic colliding pulse mode-locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(1), 40–42 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, J. M.

T. Franck, S. D. Brorson, A. Moller-Larsen, J. M. Nielsen, and J. Mork, “Synchronization phase diagrams of monolithic colliding pulse mode-locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(1), 40–42 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nötzel, R.

M. Yousefi, Y. Barbarin, S. Beri, E. A. Bente, M. K. Smit, R. Nötzel, and D. Lenstra, “New role for nonlinear dynamics and chaos in integrated semiconductor laser technology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 044101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogawa, T.

Ohtsubo, J.

Olesen, H.

H. Olesen, J. H. Osmundsen, and B. Tromborg, “Nonlinear dynamics and spectral behaviour for an external cavity laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 762–773 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheim, A. V.

K. M. Cuomo and A. V. Oppenheim, “Circuit implementation of synchronized chaos with applications to communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(1), 65–68 (1993).
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K. M. Cuomo, A. V. Oppenheim, and S. H. Strogatz, “Synchronization of Lorenz based chaotic circuits with applications to communications,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II 40(10), 626–633 (1993).
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Osmundsen, J. H.

H. Olesen, J. H. Osmundsen, and B. Tromborg, “Nonlinear dynamics and spectral behaviour for an external cavity laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 762–773 (1986).
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Paul, J.

Pecora, L. M.

L. M. Pecora and T. L. Carroll, “Driving systems with chaotic signals,” Phys. Rev. A 44(4), 2374–2383 (1991).
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L. M. Pecora and T. L. Carroll, “Synchronization in chaotic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(8), 821–824 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perdigues, J.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pérez, T.

R. Vicente, T. Pérez, and C. R. Mirasso, “Open-versus closed-loop performance of synchronized chaotic external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1197–1204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pesquera, L.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 437(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, “External optical feedback phenomena in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 480–489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Radziunas, M.

S. Bauer, O. Brox, J. Kreissl, B. Sartorius, M. Radziunas, J. Sieber, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers with active optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(1), 016206 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rarity, J. G.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhodes, W. T.

V. S. Udaltsov, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Larger, J.-B. Cuenot, P. Levy, and W. T. Rhodes, “Cracking chaos-based encryption systems ruled by nonlinear time delay differential equations,” Phys. Lett. A 308(1), 54–60 (2003).
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Rontani, D.

Roy, R.

G. D. VanWiggeren and R. Roy, “Communication with chaotic lasers,” Science 279(5354), 1198–1200 (1998).
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P. Colet and R. Roy, “Digital communication with synchronized chaotic lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19(24), 2056–2058 (1994).
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Sacher, J.

J. Sacher, W. Elsasser, and E. O. Gobel, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor laser emission under variable feedback conditions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(3), 373–379 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Salvail, L.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sartorius, B.

S. Bauer, O. Brox, J. Kreissl, B. Sartorius, M. Radziunas, J. Sieber, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers with active optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(1), 016206 (2004).
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Scheidl, T.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sciamanna, M.

Shinozuka, M.

Shore, K. A.

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 437(7066), 343–346 (2005).
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M. W. Lee, J. Paul, S. Sivaprakasam, and K. A. Shore, “Comparison of closed-loop and open-loop feedback schemes of message decoding using chaotic laser diodes,” Opt. Lett. 28(22), 2168–2170 (2003).
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S. Bauer, O. Brox, J. Kreissl, B. Sartorius, M. Radziunas, J. Sieber, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers with active optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(1), 016206 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivaprakasam, S.

Smit, M. K.

M. Yousefi, Y. Barbarin, S. Beri, E. A. Bente, M. K. Smit, R. Nötzel, and D. Lenstra, “New role for nonlinear dynamics and chaos in integrated semiconductor laser technology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 044101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolin, J.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sodnik, Z.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soriano, M. C.

M. C. Soriano, P. Colet, and C. R. Mirasso, “Security Implications of Open- and Closed-Loop Receivers in All-Optical Chaos-Based Communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 426–428 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Strogatz, S. H.

K. M. Cuomo, A. V. Oppenheim, and S. H. Strogatz, “Synchronization of Lorenz based chaotic circuits with applications to communications,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II 40(10), 626–633 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

A. Argyris, M. Hamacher, K. E. Chlouverakis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Photonic integrated device for chaos applications in communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 194101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 437(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S.

Tiefenbacher, F.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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R. Vicente, J. Dauden, P. Colet, and R. Toral, ““Analysis and characterization of the hyperchaos generated by a semiconductor laser subject to a delayed feedback loop,” IEEE. J,” Quantum Electron. 41(4), 541–548 (2005).
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Tromborg, B.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
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H. Olesen, J. H. Osmundsen, and B. Tromborg, “Nonlinear dynamics and spectral behaviour for an external cavity laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 762–773 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, A.

Udaltsov, V. S.

V. S. Udaltsov, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Larger, J.-B. Cuenot, P. Levy, and W. T. Rhodes, “Cracking chaos-based encryption systems ruled by nonlinear time delay differential equations,” Phys. Lett. A 308(1), 54–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ursin, R.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ushakov, O.

O. Ushakov, S. Bauer, O. Brox, H.-J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Self-organization in semiconductor lasers with ultrashort optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

VanWiggeren, G. D.

G. D. VanWiggeren and R. Roy, “Communication with chaotic lasers,” Science 279(5354), 1198–1200 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vicente, R.

R. Vicente, J. Dauden, P. Colet, and R. Toral, ““Analysis and characterization of the hyperchaos generated by a semiconductor laser subject to a delayed feedback loop,” IEEE. J,” Quantum Electron. 41(4), 541–548 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Vicente, T. Pérez, and C. R. Mirasso, “Open-versus closed-loop performance of synchronized chaotic external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1197–1204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weier, H.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinfurter, H.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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Wu, Z.-M.

Wünsche, H. J.

S. Bauer, O. Brox, J. Kreissl, B. Sartorius, M. Radziunas, J. Sieber, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers with active optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(1), 016206 (2004).
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Wünsche, H.-J.

O. Ushakov, S. Bauer, O. Brox, H.-J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Self-organization in semiconductor lasers with ultrashort optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043902 (2004).
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Xia, G.-Q.

Yousefi, M.

M. Yousefi, Y. Barbarin, S. Beri, E. A. Bente, M. K. Smit, R. Nötzel, and D. Lenstra, “New role for nonlinear dynamics and chaos in integrated semiconductor laser technology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(4), 044101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeilinger, A.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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C. R. Phys. (1)

L. Larger and J. P. Goedgebuer, “Cryptography using optical chaos,” C. R. Phys. 5, 609–681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (7)

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 347–355 (1980).
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J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
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H. Olesen, J. H. Osmundsen, and B. Tromborg, “Nonlinear dynamics and spectral behaviour for an external cavity laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 762–773 (1986).
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[CrossRef]

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R. Vicente, T. Pérez, and C. R. Mirasso, “Open-versus closed-loop performance of synchronized chaotic external-cavity semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1197–1204 (2002).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Petermann, “External optical feedback phenomena in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 480–489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. R. Mirasso, P. Colet, and P. Garcia-Fernandez, “Synchronization of chaotic semiconductor lasers: application to encoded communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 299–301 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Franck, S. D. Brorson, A. Moller-Larsen, J. M. Nielsen, and J. Mork, “Synchronization phase diagrams of monolithic colliding pulse mode-locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(1), 40–42 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Soriano, P. Colet, and C. R. Mirasso, “Security Implications of Open- and Closed-Loop Receivers in All-Optical Chaos-Based Communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 426–428 (2009).
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IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II (1)

K. M. Cuomo, A. V. Oppenheim, and S. H. Strogatz, “Synchronization of Lorenz based chaotic circuits with applications to communications,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II 40(10), 626–633 (1993).
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J. Cryptology (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5(1), 3–28 (1992).
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P. Ashwin, “Nonlinear dynamics: Synchronization from chaos,” Nature 422(6930), 384–385 (2003).
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A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links,” Nature 437(7066), 343–346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

V. S. Udaltsov, J.-P. Goedgebuer, L. Larger, J.-B. Cuenot, P. Levy, and W. T. Rhodes, “Cracking chaos-based encryption systems ruled by nonlinear time delay differential equations,” Phys. Lett. A 308(1), 54–60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. M. Pecora and T. L. Carroll, “Driving systems with chaotic signals,” Phys. Rev. A 44(4), 2374–2383 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (2)

S. Bauer, O. Brox, J. Kreissl, B. Sartorius, M. Radziunas, J. Sieber, H. J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers with active optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(1), 016206 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Heil, I. Fischer, W. Elsäßer, B. Krauskopf, K. Green, and A. Gavrielides, “Delay dynamics of semiconductor lasers with short external cavities: bifurcation scenarios and mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(6), 066214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photonic monolithic integrated chaos generator: (a) The device consists of a DFB laser that forms an external optical cavity with the rear facet of the PIC that is highly reflective coated (HR); the cavity also includes various active/passive sections, such as a variable gain/absorption section (SOA/VOA), a phase section (PM) and a 1cm-long waveguide. The output optical signal is emitted from the front anti-reflective (AR) facet of the DFB laser. (b) Internal structure of the packaging module: Micro-strip lines connect the different active sections of the PIC with SMA connectors, while thermo-electric cooling of the device provides extremely stable temperature control. Fiber-chip coupling is performed by a tapered-end fiber with antireflective coating. (c) Packaged module.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Synchronization between chaotic carriers emitted by matched-pair PICs: Spectral distribution of the chaotic signals emitted by the emitter’s PIC (black), the receiver’s PIC (red) and their subtraction at the receiver (blue) for various operating conditions: (a) IL,M = 30mA, IL,S = 26.5mA, VVOA,M,S = 0V, IPH,M = 3mA, IPH,S = 0mA. (b) IL,M = 30mA, IL,S = 26.5mA, VVOA,M,S = 0V, IPH,M = 4.8mA, IPH,S = 0.2mA. (c) IL,M = 25mA, IL,S = 22.7mA, ISOA,M,S = 0.1mA, IPH,M = 3.8mA, IPH,S = 0mA. (d) IL,M = 25mA, IL,S = 22.7mA, ISOA,M = 0.1mA, ISOA,S = 1.1mA, IPH,M = 3.6mA, IPH,S = 0mA. [IL,i: DFB laser current, VVOA,i: absorber reverse voltage, ISOA,i: amplifying section current, IPH,i: phase section current, i: M(master), S(slave)]

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Topology of the chaos-secured data transmission experiment using PIC chaos generators: Data sequences are applied on the chaotic carrier generated by the emitter’s PIC (master) through external modulation. After 100km fiber transmission in dispersion compensated links, 150μW of the transmitted chaotic signal is injected at the receiver’s PIC (slave) forcing it to synchronize to the chaotic dynamics of injected input. The subtraction between the transmitted chaotic carrier with the encrypted message and the locally generated chaotic carrier at the receiver leads to chaotic carrier cancellation and electric data recovery. (thin lines: optical fibers, thick lines: electrical cables, OI: optical isolator, PC: polarization controller, EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, SMF: single mode fiber, DCF: dispersion compensating fiber, 50/50: optical coupler, APD: avalanche photoreceiver).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

System performance in terms of data encryption and recovery: Bit-error-rate (BER) measurements vs. data amplitude for (a) 1.25Gb/s and (b) 2.5Gb/s PRBS. The eye-diagrams for the encrypted (left column) and recovered (right column) data that correspond to the cases I-IV of (a) and (b) are shown successively ((c)-(j)). Cases II and IV are selected within an operating window that ensures complete encryption with BER~0.5 [(e) and (i)], while the recovered data have an inherent BER value below 10−3 [(f) and (j)] that is enhanced by FEC methods to error free operation. For larger message amplitudes (cases I and III) the probability of error for the encrypted data is below 0.5 [(c) and (g)] providing reduced security, however maintaining an error-free data recovery.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electrical cancellation of the chaotic carriers of Fig. 2, when employing different bandwidth and synchronization conditions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Security allocation of different types of users via their decoding performance

Equations (1)

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c Δ f E ( d B ) = | P t E ( f ) | | Δ f ( d B m ) | P t E ( f ) P r E ( f ) | | Δ f ( d B m )

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