Abstract

Phosphor-converted white light–emitting diodes (LEDs) with separate red and yellow phosphor layers are investigated under current regulation conditions. This novel packaging scheme of bi-layered phosphors leads to more than 18% increase in luminous flux compared to conventional random mixed phosphor case at the same correlated color temperature. Lower junction temperatures of bi-layered phosphor white LEDs are also observed. This advantage in the thermal characteristics is due to the reduced back reflection of light inside the packages. It is also found that the phosphor conversion efficiency of bi-layered phosphor scheme is higher than that of mixed phosphor case. This is attributed to the enhanced light extraction from the LED packages. In addition, the chromaticity coordinates shifts compared bi-layered phosphor with mixed phosphor white LEDs are almost the same under current regulation conditions. The technology of bi-layered phosphor white LEDs with high efficiency and high color rendering index provides an appropriate solution for general white LED lighting.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, Y. C. Lin, Y. He, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs under different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(6), 761–766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitted diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 143309–143311 (2008).

N. T. Tran and F. G. Shi, “Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3556–3559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. P. Liao, “DC current-induced rollover of illumination efficiency of GaN-Based power LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2000–2002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR - Solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, and S. P. Denbaars, “Effects of phosphor application geometry on white light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L910–L912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907–031909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505–243507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. Arik, C. Becker, S. Weaver, and J. Petroski, “Thermal management of LEDs: Package to system,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3-4), 449–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Tamura, T. Setomoto, and T. Taguchi, “Illumination characteristics of lighting array using 10 candela-class white LEDs under AC 100 V operation,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 1180–1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. C.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitted diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 143309–143311 (2008).

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR - Solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Allerman, A. A.

Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907–031909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arik, M.

M. Arik, C. Becker, S. Weaver, and J. Petroski, “Thermal management of LEDs: Package to system,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Becker, C.

M. Arik, C. Becker, S. Weaver, and J. Petroski, “Thermal management of LEDs: Package to system,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogart, K. H. A.

Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907–031909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505–243507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907–031909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Denbaars, S. P.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, and S. P. Denbaars, “Effects of phosphor application geometry on white light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L910–L912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deng, L.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3-4), 449–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907–031909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3-4), 449–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, Th.

Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907–031909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3-4), 449–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, Y. C. Lin, Y. He, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs under different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(6), 761–766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907–031909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505–243507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liao, M. P.

M. P. Liao, “DC current-induced rollover of illumination efficiency of GaN-Based power LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2000–2002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, Y. C. Lin, Y. He, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs under different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(6), 761–766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505–243507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, and S. P. Denbaars, “Effects of phosphor application geometry on white light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L910–L912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, and S. P. Denbaars, “Effects of phosphor application geometry on white light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L910–L912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3-4), 449–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505–243507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petroski, J.

M. Arik, C. Becker, S. Weaver, and J. Petroski, “Thermal management of LEDs: Package to system,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907–031909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505–243507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Setomoto, T.

T. Tamura, T. Setomoto, and T. Taguchi, “Illumination characteristics of lighting array using 10 candela-class white LEDs under AC 100 V operation,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 1180–1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J. M.

Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907–031909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F. G.

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, Y. C. Lin, Y. He, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs under different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(6), 761–766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Tran and F. G. Shi, “Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3556–3559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505–243507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 21), L649–L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitted diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 143309–143311 (2008).

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR - Solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

T. Tamura, T. Setomoto, and T. Taguchi, “Illumination characteristics of lighting array using 10 candela-class white LEDs under AC 100 V operation,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 1180–1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, T.

T. Tamura, T. Setomoto, and T. Taguchi, “Illumination characteristics of lighting array using 10 candela-class white LEDs under AC 100 V operation,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 1180–1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N. T.

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, Y. C. Lin, Y. He, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs under different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(6), 761–766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Tran and F. G. Shi, “Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3556–3559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, T.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, S.

M. Arik, C. Becker, S. Weaver, and J. Petroski, “Thermal management of LEDs: Package to system,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 64 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J. Q.

Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907–031909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xi, Y.

Y. Xi, J. Q. Xi, Th. Gessmann, J. M. Shah, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, K. H. A. Bogart, and A. A. Allerman, “Junction and carrier temperature measurements in deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using three different methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031907–031909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

You, J. P.

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, Y. C. Lin, Y. He, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs under different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(6), 761–766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3-4), 449–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505–243507 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
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M. P. Liao, “DC current-induced rollover of illumination efficiency of GaN-Based power LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2000–2002 (2007).
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N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3-4), 449–456 (2004).
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S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “ELiXIR - Solid-state luminaire with enhanced light extraction by internal reflection,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 155–159 (2007).
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J. P. You, N. T. Tran, Y. C. Lin, Y. He, and F. G. Shi, “Phosphor-concentration-dependent characteristics of white LEDs under different current regulation modes,” J. Electron. Mater. 38(6), 761–766 (2009).
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H. Masui, S. Nakamura, and S. P. Denbaars, “Effects of phosphor application geometry on white light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L910–L912 (2006).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic cross-sectional view of the white LED package: (a). Mixed red and yellow phosphor structure; (b). Bi-layered red/yellow phosphor structure

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectra of BL-R/Y LEDs and mixed-RY LEDs with red and yellow phosphor concentration of 0.7 wt. %, and 15 wt. %, respectively. LEDs are driven at the current of 350 mA

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radiation power and luminous flux of BL-R/Y LEDs and mixed-RY LEDs driven at the current from 50 to 600 mA

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Junction temperatures of BL-R/Y LEDs and mixed-RY LEDs driven at the current from 50 to 600 mA in the same ambiance

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phosphor conversion efficiency (PCE) of BL-R/Y LEDs and mixed-RY LEDs driven at the current from 50 to 600 mA under pulse and constant current modes

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Chromaticity coordinate shift of BL-R/Y LEDs and mixed-RY LEDs at the drive current from 50 to 600 mA under pulse and constant current modes

Equations (1)

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η P C E = η q × η p = P Y + P R P B o P B

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