Abstract

A high efficiency dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) is demonstrated by optimizing the dye concentration and using an electrically tunable nematic liquid crystal (NLC) phase retarder. The state of polarization of laser emission in CLC lasers, contrary to our expectations, due to the refractive index mismatch at the boundaries is not exactly circular. A double-cell structure including a CLC laser and an adjustable NLC phase retarder with a mirror reflector on one of the inner surfaces not only purifies the polarization state of the laser output but also improves the laser efficiency by 6.7X, over the single-direction dye-doped CLC laser.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. S. S. Choi, F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High contrast chiral nematic liquid crystal device using negative dielectric material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193502 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Hong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S. T. Wu, “Incident angle and polarization effects on the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 91–96 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. S. Choi, F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High contrast chiral nematic liquid crystal device using negative dielectric material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, and S. T. Wu, “Enhancing cholesteric liquid crystal laser performance using a cholesteric reflector,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3906–4485 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Ge, L. P. Chen, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Enhanced photonic band edge laser emission in a cholesteric liquid crystal resonator,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(6), 061705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, “The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers,” J. SID 14, 565–573 (2006).

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Hong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S. T. Wu, “Incident angle and polarization effects on the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 91–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Enhanced emission from liquid-crystal lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(2), 023103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. C. Shin, F. Araoka, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “Advantages of highly ordered polymer-dyes for lasing in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 631–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

F. Araoka, K. C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based on a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1984 (1)

Araoka, F.

K. C. Shin, F. Araoka, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “Advantages of highly ordered polymer-dyes for lasing in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 631–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Araoka, K. C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Hong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S. T. Wu, “Incident angle and polarization effects on the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 91–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Castles, F.

S. S. Choi, F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High contrast chiral nematic liquid crystal device using negative dielectric material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. P.

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Ge, L. P. Chen, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Enhanced photonic band edge laser emission in a cholesteric liquid crystal resonator,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(6), 061705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. S.

S. S. Choi, F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High contrast chiral nematic liquid crystal device using negative dielectric material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H. J.

S. S. Choi, F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High contrast chiral nematic liquid crystal device using negative dielectric material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, “The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers,” J. SID 14, 565–573 (2006).

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Enhanced emission from liquid-crystal lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(2), 023103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Efron, U.

Fan, B.

Finkelmann, H.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ford, A. D.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, “The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers,” J. SID 14, 565–573 (2006).

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Enhanced emission from liquid-crystal lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(2), 023103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Funamoto, K.

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based on a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Ge, L. P. Chen, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Enhanced photonic band edge laser emission in a cholesteric liquid crystal resonator,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(6), 061705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

Gillespie, C.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, “The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers,” J. SID 14, 565–573 (2006).

Ha, N. Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hadeler, O.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, “The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers,” J. SID 14, 565–573 (2006).

Hess, L. D.

Hong, Q.

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Ge, L. P. Chen, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Enhanced photonic band edge laser emission in a cholesteric liquid crystal resonator,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(6), 061705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Hong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S. T. Wu, “Incident angle and polarization effects on the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 91–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Hong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S. T. Wu, “Incident angle and polarization effects on the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 91–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, and S. T. Wu, “Enhancing cholesteric liquid crystal laser performance using a cholesteric reflector,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3906–4485 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Ge, L. P. Chen, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Enhanced photonic band edge laser emission in a cholesteric liquid crystal resonator,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(6), 061705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shin, F. Araoka, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “Advantages of highly ordered polymer-dyes for lasing in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 631–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Araoka, K. C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, V. I.

Lee, S. H.

Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based on a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S. M.

S. S. Choi, F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High contrast chiral nematic liquid crystal device using negative dielectric material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, “The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers,” J. SID 14, 565–573 (2006).

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Enhanced emission from liquid-crystal lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(2), 023103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohtsuka, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based on a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, R.

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based on a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shin, F. Araoka, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “Advantages of highly ordered polymer-dyes for lasing in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 631–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. W.

Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pivnenko, M. N.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, “The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers,” J. SID 14, 565–573 (2006).

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Enhanced emission from liquid-crystal lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(2), 023103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rapaport, A.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Hong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S. T. Wu, “Incident angle and polarization effects on the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 91–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shin, K. C.

K. C. Shin, F. Araoka, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “Advantages of highly ordered polymer-dyes for lasing in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 631–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Araoka, K. C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, M. H.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stille, W.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, G.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swager, T. M.

K. C. Shin, F. Araoka, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “Advantages of highly ordered polymer-dyes for lasing in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 631–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Araoka, K. C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takanishi, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shin, F. Araoka, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “Advantages of highly ordered polymer-dyes for lasing in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 631–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Araoka, K. C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shin, F. Araoka, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “Advantages of highly ordered polymer-dyes for lasing in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 631–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Araoka, K. C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vithana, H. K. M.

Wu, J. W.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, and S. T. Wu, “Enhancing cholesteric liquid crystal laser performance using a cholesteric reflector,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3906–4485 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Ge, L. P. Chen, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Enhanced photonic band edge laser emission in a cholesteric liquid crystal resonator,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(6), 061705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Hong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S. T. Wu, “Incident angle and polarization effects on the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 91–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T. X.

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Ge, L. P. Chen, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Enhanced photonic band edge laser emission in a cholesteric liquid crystal resonator,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(6), 061705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based on a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Ge, L. P. Chen, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Enhanced photonic band edge laser emission in a cholesteric liquid crystal resonator,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(6), 061705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, and S. T. Wu, “Enhancing cholesteric liquid crystal laser performance using a cholesteric reflector,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3906–4485 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Hong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S. T. Wu, “Incident angle and polarization effects on the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 91–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

K. C. Shin, F. Araoka, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “Advantages of highly ordered polymer-dyes for lasing in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 631–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Araoka, K. C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, and S. T. Kim, “Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14(10), 746–749 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Flexible mirrorless laser based on a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(20), 3741–3743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Choi, F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High contrast chiral nematic liquid crystal device using negative dielectric material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 193502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Enhanced emission from liquid-crystal lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(2), 023103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Araoka, K. C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “How doping a cholesteric liquid crystal with polymeric dye improves an order parameter and makes possible low threshold lasing,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 279–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. SID (1)

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, “The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers,” J. SID 14, 565–573 (2006).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. C. Shin, F. Araoka, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, Z. Zhu, T. M. Swager, and H. Takezoe, “Advantages of highly ordered polymer-dyes for lasing in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 631–636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, Q. Hong, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, and S. T. Wu, “Incident angle and polarization effects on the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 91–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

Y. Zhou, Y. Huang, Z. Ge, L. P. Chen, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Enhanced photonic band edge laser emission in a cholesteric liquid crystal resonator,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(6), 061705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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P. G. de Gennes, and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford, 1995).

K. Iizuka, Elements of Photonics (Toronto, Wiley-Interscience, 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The laser threshold energy (red) and the slope efficiency (green) as functions of the dye concentration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The planar textures of dye-doped CLC with (a) 1.5 wt%, and (b) 3.3 wt% concentrations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic illustration of the performance of the NLC retarder (C1) along with the CLC laser (C2), and (b) the coordinates system of the reference frame of lab and the state of fast axis of the retarder for the forward (FW) and backward (BW) beams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup: At: attenuator; BS: beam splitter; P1: polarizer; QWP: quarter-wave plate; L1 and L2: lenses; CF: color filter; P2: rotatable polarizing for measuring the ellipticity; EM1 and EM2: energy meters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser emission energy as a function of pump energy for the single-direction CLC laser (red line), the CLC laser with an external mirror reflector (green line), and the CLC laser with the adjustable retarder (blue line).

Equations (3)

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Q ( Φ ) = [ cos ( δ 2 ) i sin ( δ 2 ) cos ( 2 Φ ) i sin ( δ 2 ) sin ( 2 Φ ) i sin ( δ 2 ) sin ( 2 Φ ) cos ( δ 2 ) + i sin ( δ 2 ) cos ( 2 Φ ) ] ,
δ = 2 π d λ Δ n ( V s )
Q e f f . ( Φ , V s ) = Q ( Φ , V s ) ( 1 0 0 1 ) Q ( π Φ , V s ) ,

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