Abstract

We present telemetric sensing of surface strains on different industrial materials using split-ring-resonator based metamaterials. For wireless strain sensing, we utilize metamaterial array architectures for high sensitivity and low nonlinearity-errors in strain sensing. In this work, telemetric strain measurements in three test materials of cast polyamide, derlin and polyamide are performed by observing operating frequency shift under mechanical deformation and these data are compared with commercially-available wired strain gauges. We demonstrate that hard material (cast polyamide) showed low slope in frequency shift vs. applied load (corresponding to high Young's modulus), while soft material (polyamide) exhibited high slope (low Young's modulus).

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. A. Ghali, and R. Favre, Concrete Structures: Stresses and Deformations (E & FN Spon, London, 1994).
  2. R. Melik, N. K. Perkgoz, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Bioimplantable passive on-chip RF-MEMS strain sensing resonators for orthopeadic applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(11), 115017 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Melik, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063903 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 107401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. D. Wilson and Z. D. Schwartz, “Multifocal flat lens with left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021113 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. http://www.mathweb.com

2009 (1)

R. Melik, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. Melik, N. K. Perkgoz, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Bioimplantable passive on-chip RF-MEMS strain sensing resonators for orthopeadic applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(11), 115017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. D. Wilson and Z. D. Schwartz, “Multifocal flat lens with left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demir, H. V.

R. Melik, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Melik, N. K. Perkgoz, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Bioimplantable passive on-chip RF-MEMS strain sensing resonators for orthopeadic applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(11), 115017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frauenglass, A.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greegor, R. B.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koltenbah, B. E. C.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, J. A.

H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, K.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melik, R.

R. Melik, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Melik, N. K. Perkgoz, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Bioimplantable passive on-chip RF-MEMS strain sensing resonators for orthopeadic applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(11), 115017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minhas, B. K.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parazzoli, C. G.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perkgoz, N. K.

R. Melik, N. K. Perkgoz, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Bioimplantable passive on-chip RF-MEMS strain sensing resonators for orthopeadic applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(11), 115017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Plet, C.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puttlitz, C.

R. Melik, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Melik, N. K. Perkgoz, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Bioimplantable passive on-chip RF-MEMS strain sensing resonators for orthopeadic applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(11), 115017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rill, M. S.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salandrino, A.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, Z. D.

J. D. Wilson and Z. D. Schwartz, “Multifocal flat lens with left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staude, I.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanielian, M.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unal, E.

R. Melik, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Melik, N. K. Perkgoz, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Bioimplantable passive on-chip RF-MEMS strain sensing resonators for orthopeadic applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(11), 115017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, J. D.

J. D. Wilson and Z. D. Schwartz, “Multifocal flat lens with left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.-I.

H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Melik, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Metamaterial-based wireless strain sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Wilson and Z. D. Schwartz, “Multifocal flat lens with left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

R. Melik, N. K. Perkgoz, E. Unal, C. Puttlitz, and H. V. Demir, “Bioimplantable passive on-chip RF-MEMS strain sensing resonators for orthopeadic applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(11), 115017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. C. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, “Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell’s law,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(6), 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. Ghali, and R. Favre, Concrete Structures: Stresses and Deformations (E & FN Spon, London, 1994).

http://www.mathweb.com

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The fabricated sensors fixated on different materials. The materials are (a) cast polyamide, (b) derlin and (c) polyamide. (d) The sensor shown with its dimensions. (e) Our compression setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wired strain gauge measurements on cast polyamide test specimen. (a) Microstrain vs. ΔR, (b) microstrain nonlinearity-error and (c) percentage nonlinearity-error of the wired strain gauge measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Metamaterial measurements on cast polyamide stick. (a) Transmission spetra with respect to the case of no load, (b) microstrain vs. ΔR, (c) microstrain nonlinearity-error and (d) percentage nonlinearity-error of the wireless measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wired strain gauge measurements on derlin test specimen. (a) Microstrain vs. ΔR, (b) microstrain nonlinearity-error and (c) percentage nonlinearity-error of the wired strain gauge measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Metamaterial measurements on derlin stick. (a) Transmission spectra with respect to the case of no load, (b) microstrain vs. ΔR, (c) microstrain nonlinearity-error and (d) percentage nonlinearity-error of the wireless measurements

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wired strain gauge measurements on polyamide test specimen. (a) Microstrain vs. ΔR, (b) microstrain nonlinearity-error and (c) percentage nonlinearity-error of the wired strain gauge measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Metamaterial measurements on polyamide stick. (a) Transmission spetra parameterized with respect to the case of no load, (b) microstrain vs. ΔR, (c) microstrain nonlinearity-error and (d) the percentage nonlinearity-error of the wireless measurements.

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