Abstract

A compact waveguide-integrated Germanium-on-insulator (GOI) photodetector with 10 ± 2fF capacitance and operating at 40Gbps is demonstrated. Monolithic integration of thin single-crystalline Ge into front-end CMOS stack was achieved by rapid melt growth during source-drain implant activation anneal.

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References

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  20. T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
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  22. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
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  25. M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).
  26. C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in Group IV semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1585–1587 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. M. Sze, and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, (Wiley, New Jersey, 2007), Chap. 3.

2009 (4)

M. Miyao, K. Toko, T. Tanaka, and T. Sadoh, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by rapid-melting-growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 02215–1 – 02215–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyao, T. Tanaka, K. Toko, and M. Tanaka, “Giant Ge-on-Insulator formation by Si-Ge mixing-triggered liquid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 045503–1 – 045503–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in Group IV semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1585–1587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Ang, K.

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

Capellini, G.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

Cassan, E.

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Chetrit, Y.

Chu, J. O.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chua, K. T.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chui, C. O.

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in Group IV semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1585–1587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

Colace, L.

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, D. J.

S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Damlencourt, J. F.

Deal, M. D.

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dehlinger, G.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J. M.

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giziewicz, W.

Goto, K.

T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, C.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

Hong, C. Y.

Itabashi, S

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kinoshita, A.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).

Kobayashi, M.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).

Koester, S. J.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Lecunff, Y.

Lee, S. J.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. Y.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loya, A.

S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Masini, G.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, T.

T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Michel, J.

Miyao, M.

M. Miyao, T. Tanaka, K. Toko, and M. Tanaka, “Giant Ge-on-Insulator formation by Si-Ge mixing-triggered liquid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 045503–1 – 045503–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyao, K. Toko, T. Tanaka, and T. Sadoh, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by rapid-melting-growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 02215–1 – 02215–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M. M.

Murota, J.

T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, Y.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).

Okyay, A. K.

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in Group IV semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1585–1587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

Paniccia, M. J.

Philip Wong, H. S.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).

Plummer, J. D.

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

Sadoh, T.

M. Miyao, K. Toko, T. Tanaka, and T. Sadoh, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by rapid-melting-growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 02215–1 – 02215–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sahni, S.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

Sakuraba, M.

T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in Group IV semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1585–1587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

Schaub, J. D.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. M. F.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

M. Miyao, T. Tanaka, K. Toko, and M. Tanaka, “Giant Ge-on-Insulator formation by Si-Ge mixing-triggered liquid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 045503–1 – 045503–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

M. Miyao, T. Tanaka, K. Toko, and M. Tanaka, “Giant Ge-on-Insulator formation by Si-Ge mixing-triggered liquid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 045503–1 – 045503–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyao, K. Toko, T. Tanaka, and T. Sadoh, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by rapid-melting-growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 02215–1 – 02215–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toko, K.

M. Miyao, K. Toko, T. Tanaka, and T. Sadoh, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by rapid-melting-growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 02215–1 – 02215–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyao, T. Tanaka, K. Toko, and M. Tanaka, “Giant Ge-on-Insulator formation by Si-Ge mixing-triggered liquid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 045503–1 – 045503–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, T.

T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Witzens, J.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y. Z.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yin, T.

Yu, M.

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

M. Miyao, T. Tanaka, K. Toko, and M. Tanaka, “Giant Ge-on-Insulator formation by Si-Ge mixing-triggered liquid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 045503–1 – 045503–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

M. Miyao, K. Toko, T. Tanaka, and T. Sadoh, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by rapid-melting-growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 02215–1 – 02215–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in Group IV semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1585–1587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys (1)

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Solid-State Electron. (1)

S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

S. M. Sze, and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, (Wiley, New Jersey, 2007), Chap. 3.

S. Assefa, C. Jahnes, and Y. Vlasov, “CMOS compatible integrated dielectric optical waveguide coupler and fabrication,” pending US patent 12/164580, filed July2008.

J. F. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, A. T. Pomerene, C. Hill, M. Jaso, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, S. Patel, M. Rasras, A. White, and D. M. Gill, “Waveguide-Integrated Ge p-i-n Photodetectors on SOI Platform,” in Proc. 3rd IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., 173–175 (2006)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-Integrated 40GHz germanium waveguide photodetector for on-chip optical interconnects,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), OMR4 (2009).

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-Integrated high-speed germanium waveguide photodetector for on-chip optical interconnects,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), CTuV1 (2009).

G. Dehlinger, S. McNab, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Waveguide photodetector,” US patent US7515793, filed February 2006.

S. Assefa, S. Bedell, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optoelectronic Device with Germanium Photodetector,” pending US patent 11/925170, filed October 2007.

S. Assefa, J. V. Campenhout, J. O. Chu, W. M. J. Green, Y. H. Kim, M. M. Frank, G. G. Totir, Y. A. Vlasov, and Y. Zhang, “Suspended germanium photodetector for silicon waveguide,” pending US patent 12/191687, filed August 2008.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the Ge photodetector consisting of Ge layer on top of SiON film, W plugs, and Cu interdigitated fingers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the effect of losses in metallic contacts on quantum efficiency calculated for 1.5μm wavelength. In regime 1, effective absorption by the Ge waveguide is much smaller than the absorption by the electrode. In regime 2, effective absorption by Ge waveguide is higher than the absorption by the electrode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Top-down SEM image showing a tapered Ge waveguide. At the crystallization window, the Ge and Si waveguides are in direct contact. (b) Cross-sectional Z-contrast image (left), SAD (middle), and HRTEM (right) obtained from both Si and Ge waveguides 1μm away from the crystallization window. (c) Cross-sectional TEM image (left), SAD (middle), and HRTEM (right) obtained 30μm away from the crystallization window. The SAD patterns at 1μm and 30μm show identical crystal lattice orientation for the Si and Ge, thus demonstrating that single-crystalline Ge-on-insulator was achieved 30μm away from the crystallization window.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Top-down SEM image of the photodetector after W plugs have been fabricated. The plugs, aligned in the middle of the Ge waveguide, have a contact separation of 300nm (pitch of 450nm) and diameter of 150nm. (b) Optical micrograph of the photodetector after the fabrication of copper interconnects. (c) Lateral cross-sectional TEM image of the photodetector. The roughness on top of the Ge film is attributed to CVD growth on dielectric.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Results of capacitance characterization by an impedance analyzer. Black and red traces represent capacitance measured respectively for open-circuit probe pads, and probe pads with interdigitated Cu fingers. The blue trace represents the capacitance measured for a photodetector. (b) Real and imaginary impedance extracted from S11 measurement. The red traces show the impedance for an open-circuit probe pad with Cu fingers. The blue traces show the impedance for a photodetector. The dashed black lines represent the results of fitting performed using the equivalent circuit model shown in the inset.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Temperature dependant dark current measured from 120K to 340K with a 20K step. (b) Barrier height data and fitting as a function of bias voltage. For each bias voltage, the barrier height was obtained by fitting the temperature dependent data with thermionic emission model as shown by the inset for 0.2V

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Photocurrent measured for −1V bias voltage while varying the input optical power at 1.31μm wavelength. Responsivity of 0.42A/W is obtained from the slope of the linear fit. (b) Responsivity as a function of voltage. Responsivity at each bias voltage was obtained using similar method as in Fig. 7a.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

PRBS31 eye-diagram measured at 1.5V bias for 1.5μm light at a) at 20Gbps, b) 40Gbps NRZ bit stream.

Equations (1)

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η = α G e L G e α G e L G e + α W D w N ( 1 exp ( ( α G e L G e + α w D w N ) ) )

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