Abstract

A compact waveguide-integrated Germanium-on-insulator (GOI) photodetector with 10 ± 2fF capacitance and operating at 40Gbps is demonstrated. Monolithic integration of thin single-crystalline Ge into front-end CMOS stack was achieved by rapid melt growth during source-drain implant activation anneal.

© 2010 OSA

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  26. C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in Group IV semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1585–1587 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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2009

M. Miyao, K. Toko, T. Tanaka, and T. Sadoh, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by rapid-melting-growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 02215–1 – 02215–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyao, T. Tanaka, K. Toko, and M. Tanaka, “Giant Ge-on-Insulator formation by Si-Ge mixing-triggered liquid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 045503–1 – 045503–3 (2009).

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

2007

2006

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in Group IV semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1585–1587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1971

S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Ang, K.

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

Capellini, G.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

Cassan, E.

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Chetrit, Y.

Chu, J. O.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chua, K. T.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chui, C. O.

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in Group IV semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1585–1587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

Colace, L.

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, D. J.

S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Damlencourt, J. F.

Deal, M. D.

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dehlinger, G.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J. M.

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giziewicz, W.

Goto, K.

T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, C.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

Hong, C. Y.

Itabashi, S

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kinoshita, A.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).

Kobayashi, M.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).

Koester, S. J.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Lecunff, Y.

Lee, S. J.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. Y.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loya, A.

S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Masini, G.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, T.

T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Michel, J.

Miyao, M.

M. Miyao, T. Tanaka, K. Toko, and M. Tanaka, “Giant Ge-on-Insulator formation by Si-Ge mixing-triggered liquid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 045503–1 – 045503–3 (2009).

M. Miyao, K. Toko, T. Tanaka, and T. Sadoh, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by rapid-melting-growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 02215–1 – 02215–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M. M.

Murota, J.

T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, Y.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).

Okyay, A. K.

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in Group IV semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1585–1587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

Paniccia, M. J.

Philip Wong, H. S.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).

Plummer, J. D.

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

Sadoh, T.

M. Miyao, K. Toko, T. Tanaka, and T. Sadoh, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by rapid-melting-growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 02215–1 – 02215–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sahni, S.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

Sakuraba, M.

T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).

C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in Group IV semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1585–1587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

Schaub, J. D.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

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[CrossRef]

Tan, S. M. F.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

M. Miyao, T. Tanaka, K. Toko, and M. Tanaka, “Giant Ge-on-Insulator formation by Si-Ge mixing-triggered liquid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 045503–1 – 045503–3 (2009).

Tanaka, T.

M. Miyao, T. Tanaka, K. Toko, and M. Tanaka, “Giant Ge-on-Insulator formation by Si-Ge mixing-triggered liquid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 045503–1 – 045503–3 (2009).

M. Miyao, K. Toko, T. Tanaka, and T. Sadoh, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by rapid-melting-growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 02215–1 – 02215–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toko, K.

M. Miyao, K. Toko, T. Tanaka, and T. Sadoh, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by rapid-melting-growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 02215–1 – 02215–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyao, T. Tanaka, K. Toko, and M. Tanaka, “Giant Ge-on-Insulator formation by Si-Ge mixing-triggered liquid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 045503–1 – 045503–3 (2009).

Tsuchiya, T.

T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
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G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

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F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Yu, M.

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
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J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
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J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
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Zhu, S.

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Technol.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Express

M. Miyao, T. Tanaka, K. Toko, and M. Tanaka, “Giant Ge-on-Insulator formation by Si-Ge mixing-triggered liquid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 045503–1 – 045503–3 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett

M. Miyao, K. Toko, T. Tanaka, and T. Sadoh, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by rapid-melting-growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 02215–1 – 02215–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in Group IV semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1585–1587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).

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[CrossRef]

Other

S. M. Sze, and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, (Wiley, New Jersey, 2007), Chap. 3.

S. Assefa, C. Jahnes, and Y. Vlasov, “CMOS compatible integrated dielectric optical waveguide coupler and fabrication,” pending US patent 12/164580, filed July2008.

J. F. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, A. T. Pomerene, C. Hill, M. Jaso, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, S. Patel, M. Rasras, A. White, and D. M. Gill, “Waveguide-Integrated Ge p-i-n Photodetectors on SOI Platform,” in Proc. 3rd IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., 173–175 (2006)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-Integrated 40GHz germanium waveguide photodetector for on-chip optical interconnects,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), OMR4 (2009).

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-Integrated high-speed germanium waveguide photodetector for on-chip optical interconnects,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), CTuV1 (2009).

G. Dehlinger, S. McNab, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Waveguide photodetector,” US patent US7515793, filed February 2006.

S. Assefa, S. Bedell, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optoelectronic Device with Germanium Photodetector,” pending US patent 11/925170, filed October 2007.

S. Assefa, J. V. Campenhout, J. O. Chu, W. M. J. Green, Y. H. Kim, M. M. Frank, G. G. Totir, Y. A. Vlasov, and Y. Zhang, “Suspended germanium photodetector for silicon waveguide,” pending US patent 12/191687, filed August 2008.

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